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Chapter 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing:

Chapter 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing

Definition of Intelligence :

Definition of Intelligence Intelligence: the capacity to learn

Principle Types of Psychological Tests:

Principle Types of Psychological Tests Intelligence tests: measure general mental ability Aptitude tests: assess talent for specific types of mental ability Achievement tests: mastery and knowledge of various subjects Personality scales Measure motives, interests, values, and attitudes

Key Concepts in Psychological Testing:

Key Concepts in Psychological Testing Standardization: the uniform proceudures used to administer and score a test Test norms: provide info. About where a score on a test ranks in relation to other scores on that test Standardization group

Key Concepts in Psychological Testing:

Key Concepts in Psychological Testing Percentile: gives the percentage of people who scored at, or below your score Reliability: consistency of a test Correlation coefficient Test-retest reliability Validity: the test measures what it was designed to measure Content validity Criterion-related validity Construct validity

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Figure 9.2 Test-retest reliability

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Figure 9.3 Correlation and reliability

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Figure 9.4 Criterion-related validity

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Figure 9.5 Construct validity

The Evolution of Intelligence Testing:

The Evolution of Intelligence Testing Sir Francis Galton (1869) Hereditary Genius Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon (1905) were asked by the French government to design an intelligence test Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale Mental age: indicates a test score typical of children at a certain chronological age

The Evolution of Intelligence Testing:

The Evolution of Intelligence Testing Lewis Terman (1916) Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) = MA/CA x 100 David Wechsler (1955) Developed Verbal and Performance IQ scores and normal distribution Most widely used intelligence scales

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Figure 9.7 The normal distribution

Reliability and Validity of IQ tests:

Reliability and Validity of IQ tests Exceptionally reliable – correlations into the .90s Qualified validity – valid indicators of academic/verbal intelligence, not intelligence in a truly general sense Correlations: .40s–.50s with school success .60s–.80s with number of years in school Predictive of occupational attainment, debate about predictiveness of performance

Extremes of Intelligence: Mental Retardation:

Extremes of Intelligence: Mental Retardation Diagnosis based on IQ and adaptive testing IQ below 70 Adaptive skill deficits Origination before age 18 4 levels: mild, moderate, severe, profound Mild most common by far Causes: Environmental vs. biological

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Figure 9.10 The prevalence and severity of mental retardation

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Figure 9.11 Social class and mental retardation

Extremes of Intelligence: Giftedness:

Extremes of Intelligence: Giftedness Identification issues – ideals vs. practice IQ 2 SD above mean standard Creativity, leadership, special talent? Stereotypes – weak, socially inept, emotionally troubled Lewis Terman (1925) – largely contradicted stereotypes Ellen Winner (1997) – moderately vs. profoundly gifted

Extremes of Intelligence: Giftedness:

Extremes of Intelligence: Giftedness Giftedness and high achievement – beyond IQ Renzulli (2002) – intersection of three factors Simonton (2001) – drudge theory and inborn talent

Intelligence: Heredity or Environment?:

Intelligence: Heredity or Environment? Heredity Family and twin studies Heritability estimates Environment Adoption studies Cumulative deprivation hypothesis The Flynn effect Interaction Reaction Range: Children reared in high quality environments score near the top of their potential IQ range (20-25 points difference)

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Figure 9.13 Studies of IQ similarity

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Figure 9.14 The concept of heritability

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Figure 9.16 Reaction range

Cultural Differences in IQ:

Cultural Differences in IQ Heritability as an Explanation Aurthur Jensen (1969) Herrnstein and Murray (1994) – The Bell Curve Environment as an Explanation Kamin ’s cornfield analogy – socioeconomic disadvantage Steele (1997) - stereotype vulnerability

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Figure 9.17 Genetics and between-group differences on a trait

New Directions in the Study of Intelligence:

New Directions in the Study of Intelligence Biological Indexes and Correlates of Intelligence Reaction time and inspection time Brain size Cognitive Conceptualizations of Intelligence Sternberg’s triarchic theory and successful intelligence Expanding the Concept of Intelligence Gardner’s multiple intelligences Goleman’s emotional intelligence

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Figure 9.20 Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence

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Figure 9.24 Estimated prevalence of psychological disorders among people who achieved creative eminence

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