Rise of Indian Nationalism

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The Rise Of Indian Nationalism: 

The Rise Of Indian Nationalism

CAUSES OF THE NATIONALISM: 

CAUSES OF THE NATIONALISM Indians lacked equal job opportunities Were not allowed to advance to high positions in government service or officers in the army

SEPOY MUTINY: 

SEPOY MUTINY Sepoy - indian natives Rebellion of the Indians against the policies of the British The start of the rising of the nationalism

INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS: 

INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS Also known as the congress party Formed in 1885 Founded by Indian lawyers and professionals

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A major political party in India Aim is to debate about political and economic reforms and ways for Indians to achieve equal status for the British

ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE: 

ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE Sought to give the Muslims a voice in political affairs basically established to protect and advance the Muslim interests and to combat the growing influence of the Indian National Congress. Established by

MORLEY-MINTO REFORMS : 

MORLEY-MINTO REFORMS Established by Lord Morley and Lord Minto Aimed to stop the violence by enlarging the viceroy’s executive council to include an Indian Allowed Indians to elect representatives to the provincial legislative councils

ROWLATT ACTS: 

ROWLATT ACTS Passed by the British to control the protests in India Attempted to restrict the political liberties and rights of Indians

ARMITSAR MASSACRE: 

ARMITSAR MASSACRE M assacre of unarmed supporters of Indian self-government by British troops in the city of Amritsar, Punjab Killed 400 people and wounded about 1,200 Turning point for the Indians

MONTAGUE-CHELMSFORD REFORMS: 

MONTAGUE-CHELMSFORD REFORMS Passed in late 1919 but went into full effect in 1921 Increased the powers of the provincial legislative councils The central legislative council was replaced by a legislature with most of its members elected

MOHANDAS GANDHI: 

MOHANDAS GANDHI Father of Indian independence Leader of India’s struggle for freedom Called “Mahatma” – great soul for his saintly virtues Strategy of non- violent non-cooperation aimed at bringing the government to a stand still, by withdrawing every support to administration

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surrender of titles, resignation from nominated seats in local government bodies, boycott of government educational institutions, law courts and foreign goods. Was jailed during World War II by the British to stop protests Was assassinated by an Indian nationalist because he thought that he was betraying the Hindus

INDIAN INDEPENDENCE: 

INDIAN INDEPENDENCE Aug. 14, 1947- declaration of Pakistan as a separate nation Aug. 15, 1947- India became an independent nation. Granted by Clement Atlee of the British government after World War II

Indian Independence act 1947 : 

Indian Independence act 1947 Two independent dominions, India and Pakistan shall be set up in India . The date of setting up of dominions was fixed as fifteenth of August 1947. The responsibility as well as suzerainty of the government of United Kingdom shall cease on fifteenth of August 1947.

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That all Indian princely states shall be released from their official commitments and treaty relationships with the British Empire, and will be free to join either dominion. Both Dominions will be completely self-governing in their internal affairs, foreign affairs and national security, but the British monarch will continue to be their head of state, represented by the Governor-General of India and a new Governor-General of Pakistan. Both Dominions shall convene their Constituent Assemblies and write their respective constitutions.

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Both Dominions will be members of the British Commonwealth, but free to leave whenever they please. The British monarch shall be permitted to remove the title of Emperor of India from the Royal Style and Titles. King George VI subsequently removed the title by Order in council on June 22, 1948.

INDO-PAKISTAN WARS: 

INDO-PAKISTAN WARS First Indo-Pakistan war Cause by the territorial dispute over Kashmir Stopped when the united nations peace negotiations brought a ceasefire and called for a plebiscite to give the local people the right to decide whether to join India or Pakistan India occupied two thirds and Pakistan occupied one third

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Second Indo-Pakistan war Started when Pakistan renewed its claim to Kashmir Both India and Pakistan sent troops to that started the fighting Stopped when the United Nations ordered ceasefire and led to the signing of the Tashkent declaration Tashkent declaration- declares that both India and Pakistan should evacuate their forces in Kashmir

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Third Indo-Pakistan war Lasted from Dec. 3-16, 1971 Caused by India's support of the revolution of the Bengali people of East Pakistan against west Pakistan Resulted in the creation of Bangladesh in east Pakistan

INDIAN REPUBLIC: 

INDIAN REPUBLIC India became a parliamentary democracy Has a president as the ceremonial head of state a prime minister as the real head of the government

RULERS: 

RULERS Jawaharlal Nehru First and longest prime minister of India Chose a neutral or non aligned foreign policy Helped to establish the Afro-Asian Conference of Non-Aligned Nations One of the champions of decolonization Recovered French enclaves from France such as Pondicherry and Goa from Portugal Died on May 27, 1964

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Mrs. Indira Gandhi Talented daughter of Nehru First woman prime minister of India Ruled India for 14 years interrupted by three year rule of Morarji Desai Her style of leadership was dictatorial

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Began the mass sterilization of males to solve the population problem in India Failed to bring peace among the Sikhs and Hindus Assassinated by two of her bodyguards who were Sikhs fanatics

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Rajiv Gandhi Succeeded his mother as a prime minister Dictatorial style of leadership Achievements: Brought india into a new information age through the development of technologies

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Offered Pakistan ‘s President Zia an agreement not to attack each other’s territory which was accepted by Pakistan Made an agreement with Sri Lankan president Junius Jayewardene to end the Tamil separatist movement Downfall: Assassinated during an election campaign

PAKISTAN: 

PAKISTAN

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Geography Capital: Islamabad Largest city: Karachi Cultural center: Lahore Area: 803, 943 sq. km. Lies halfway between India and the middle east Mountain ranges: Himalayas, Karakorams , and Hindu Kash Exports: cotton, rice, wheat and corn, textiles, oil, and chromite Has one of the world’s largest irrigation system People Islamic government President must be a Muslim 85% Muslim and the rest Hindus, Parsees, etc.

HISTORY: 

HISTORY Independence Aug. 14, 1947 Became an Islamic republic and follows Muslim( Sharah ) laws The idea of its separation from India was originally from the post-philosopher Sir Mohammed Iqbal that was adopted by the Muslim league led by Mohammed Ali Jinnah (father of Paklistan Independence)

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Reasons for a separate Muslim state: The Muslims were outnumbered by India, hence they needed a state of their own The Muslims must have their own country where they can develop, live in peace, and worship Allah

RULERS: 

RULERS Ayub Khan Declared a martial law and declared himself as the preisdent Achievements: Restored peace and order Dismissed corrupt officials Introduced land reforms and “basic democracies” Downfall: Bloody anti government riots led to his resignation

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Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Leader of west Pakistan Chairman of Pakistan People’s Party Achievements: Negotiated peace with India and got back the lost territories during the Indo-Pakistan war of 1971

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Successfully negotiated the repatriation of 90,000 prisoners from India Rehabilitated the economy Downfall: Widespread of riots Arrested during the coup d’etat and was jailed and charged for killing the father of his opponent that led to his sentence to death

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Zia- ul - Haq Declared himself as president on Sept. 16, 1978 Achievements: Restored partial democracy Lifted martial law Downfall: Return of Bhutto’s daughter Death in a plane crash

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Benazir Bhutto Only woman head of state of a Muslim Country Made the agreement with Gandhi of India to not attack each others country Became a prime minister during the 90’s Downfall: Was exiled due to the violent strikes and racial clashes Replaced by general Pervez Musharraf

BANGLADESH: 

BANGLADESH

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Geography Formerly east pakistan Capital: Dacca Area: 143,998 sq. km. One of the poorest countries People Population: 125 million 90%muslims the rest are Hindus, Buddhists an pagan tribes

History: 

History Independence Differences from west Pakistan that led to the separation: Geographical Disunity Cultural Differences Economic grievances Totally separated from Pakistan through the third Indo Pakistan war

Sheik Mujibar Rahman : 

Sheik Mujibar Rahman First prime minister of The Republic of Bangladesh Father of Bangladesh Independence Assassinated in a military coup d‘etat by young army officers