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Premium member Presentation Transcript 16: Methods of Persuasion 16Methods of Persuasion: Methods of Persuasion Building credibility Using evidence Reasoning Appealing to emotionsCredibility: Credibility The audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic.Ethos: Ethos The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility.Factors of Credibility : Factors of Credibility Competence CharacterCompetence: Competence How an audience regards a speaker’s intelligence, expertise, and knowledge of the subject.Character: Character How an audience regards a speaker’s sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the well-being of the audience.Types of Credibility: Types of Credibility Initial Derived TerminalInitial Credibility: Initial Credibility The credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak.Derived Credibility: Derived Credibility The credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech.Terminal Credibility: Terminal Credibility The credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech.Tips for Enhancing Credibility: Tips for Enhancing Credibility Explain your competence Establish common ground with your audience Deliver your speeches fluently, expressively, and with convictionLogos: Logos The name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker. The two major elements of logos are evidence and reasoning.Evidence: Evidence Supporting materials used to prove or disprove something.Tips for Using Evidence: Tips for Using Evidence Use specific evidence Use novel evidence Use evidence from credible sources Make clear the point of your evidenceReasoning: Reasoning The process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence.Four Types of Reasoning: Four Types of Reasoning Reasoning from specific instances Reasoning from principle Causal reasoning Analogical reasoningReasoning from Specific Instances: Reasoning from Specific Instances Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion.Guidelines for Reasoning from Specific Instances: Guidelines for Reasoning from Specific Instances Avoid hasty generalizations If your evidence does not justify a sweeping conclusion, qualify your argument Reinforce your argument with statistics or testimonyReasoning from Principle: Reasoning from Principle Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion.Guidelines for Reasoning from Principle: Guidelines for Reasoning from Principle Make sure listeners will accept your general principle Provide evidence to support your minor premiseCausal Reasoning: Causal Reasoning Reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects.Guidelines for Causal Reasoning: Guidelines for Causal Reasoning Avoid the fallacy of false cause Do not assume that events have only a single causeAnalogical Reasoning: Analogical Reasoning Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second.Guidelines for Analogical Reasoning: Guidelines for Analogical Reasoning Above all, make sure the two cases being compared are essentially alikeFallacy: Fallacy An error in reasoning.Fallacies: Fallacies Hasty generalization False cause Invalid analogy Red herringFallacies: Fallacies Ad hominem Either-or Bandwagon Slippery slopeHasty Generalization: Hasty Generalization A fallacy in which a speaker jumps to a general conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence.Hasty Generalization: Hasty Generalization “Last year alone three members of our state legislature were convicted of corruption. We can conclude, then, that all of our state's politicians are corrupt.”False Cause: False Cause A fallacy in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second.False Cause: False Cause “I'm sure the stock market will rise this year. It usually goes up when the American League wins the World Series.”Invalid Analogy: Invalid Analogy An analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike.Invalid Analogy: Invalid Analogy “Of course Lisheng can prepare great Italian food; his Chinese cooking is fabulous.”Red Herring: Red Herring A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.Red Herring : Red Herring “Why should we worry about endangered animal species when thousands of people are killed in automobile accidents each year?”Ad Hominem: Ad Hominem A fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute. Ad Hominem : Ad Hominem “The governor has a number of interesting economic proposals, but let’s not forget that she comes from a very wealthy family.”Either-Or: Either-Or A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist. Either-Or: Either-Or “The government must either raise taxes or reduce services for the poor.”Bandwagon: Bandwagon A fallacy that assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable. Bandwagon : Bandwagon “The President must be correct in his approach to domestic policy; after all, polls show that 60 percent of the people support him.”Slippery Slope: Slippery Slope A fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented. Slippery Slope : Slippery Slope “Passing federal laws to control the amount of violence on television is the first step in a process that will result in absolute government control of the media and total censorship over all forms of artistic expression.”Emotional Appeals: Emotional Appeals Appeals that are intended to make listeners feel sad, angry, guilty, afraid, happy, proud, sympathetic, reverent, or the like.Pathos: Pathos The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal.Tips for Generating Emotional Appeal: Tips for Generating Emotional Appeal Use emotional language Develop vivid examples Speak with sincerity and convictionUsing Emotional Appeal Ethically: Using Emotional Appeal Ethically Make sure emotional appeal is appropriate to the speech topic Do not substitute emotional appeal for evidence and reasoning You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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