FLY ASH (2)

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AGRICULTURAL AND ZEOLITIC APPLICATION OF FLYASH : 

AGRICULTURAL AND ZEOLITIC APPLICATION OF FLYASH Guided By Dr. K Balakrishna AssociateProfessor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Presented By, Sanjeeb Mohapatra 110950006 M Tech Environmental Engg Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal

Contents: : 

Contents: Introduction Flyash Physical Characteristics Chemical Characteristics Classification of flyash Importance of proposed research investigation Problems due to flyash Flyash mission Flyash Management Use of Flyash In Agriculture(crop cultivation) As zeolite (Types, Synthesis and application ) Conclusion Reference

INTRODUCTION : 

INTRODUCTION In an industrial context, flyash usually refers to ash produced during combustion of coal [1.1]. The Ministry of Power, Govt. of India estimates 1800 million tons of coal is being used every year. 600 million tones of flyash will be generated by 2031-2032. Generally one acre land is needed per M.W. of power production. [1.3]. About 40000 hectares of land is required for the construction of ash ponds [1,1.3].

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Characteristics Physical characteristics [3.1,1] Chemical characteristics [3.1,1] Table 1: Normal range of flyash produced from different coals [3]

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Figure 1: SEM images of the flyash morphology. (a) Typical view of the flyash particles with a predominantly spherical morphology. (b) Smaller particles attached to the surface of a larger particle serving as a substrate. (c) Hollow and empty spheres (cenospheres). (d) Hollow sphere containing smaller spheres (plerosphere)

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Classification Flyashes are classified as [1.1,3] class C (high CaO content >20%,subbituminous coal or lignite) class F (low CaO < 20% content, bituminous coal) Based on pH flyash can Slightly alkaline (6.5-7.5), Moderately alkaline (7.5-8.5), Highly alkaline (>8.5). According to ASTM standards, bituminous and subbituminous coal in India produces class F ash, and lignite produces class C ash with a high degree of self-hardening capacity [1.1]. In India, fly ash is generally highly alkaline due to low sulfur content of coal and presence of hydroxides and carbonates of calcium and magnesium.

IMPORTANCE OF PROPOSED RESEARCH INVESTIGATION : : 

IMPORTANCE OF PROPOSED RESEARCH INVESTIGATION : Flyash problems [6,7,8] Environmental pollution, Corrosion, Leaching-Ground water contamination, Diseases like silicosis, fibrosis, bronchitis and pneumonitis. Flyash Mission (Fly Ash Utilization Programme) Department of Science and Technology, Government of India during 1994 has started Fly Ash Mission (FAM). The coal requirement and generation of fly ash during the year 2031-32 would be around 1800 million tonne and 600 million tonne respectively [4]. Flyash Management

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UTILIZATION OF FLYASH Figure 2: Relationships between different flyash utilization strategies [24]

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Agricultural Application Soil texture : Application of high rates of flyash can change the surface texture of soils, usually by increasing the silt content [9]. Bulk density : Soil flyash (50%) mixture has lower bulk density. Improves porosity, workability, root penetration and moisture-retention capacity of the clay soil [3]. Water Holding Capacity : Under rainfed agriculture, Sandy soil. The coarser size fractions of flyashes have higher water-holding capacity than the finer ones [9].

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Soil pH: Most of the flyash produced in India is alkaline in nature. Neutralization of acidic soils [3]. Flyash at the rate 30 g/2.5 kg soil increased soil pH from 5.02 in the control to 6.62 and up to 7.49 at a rate 90 g/2.5 kg soil [14]. Detoxification of Cd, Al, Mn [14]. Soil Biology: Unweathered flyash particularly to sandy soil greatly inhibited the microbial respiration, enzymatic activity and soil N cycling processes like nitrification and N mineralization [3]. These adverse effects were partly due to the presence of excessive levels of soluble salts and trace elements in unweathered flyash.

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Plant Nutrient: Lime in flyash readily reacts with acidic components in soil leading to release of nutrients such as S, B and Mo in the form and amount favourable to crop plants. The high concentration of elements like K, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg and Fe in flyash increases yield of agricultural crops [13]. Composting option: Flyash + Cow dung [10] Sewage sludge composting [3]. Vermicomposting (Lampito mauritii).

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Table 2 Elemental composition of flyash, coal and soil

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Crop growth and yield: Arivazhgan et al. [11] revealed that the application of fly ash at the rate of 50Mt/ha increases the yield of Rice (4920-5625 kg/ha) Maize (17.50-31.50/ha) Ragi (2400-3400kg/ha), Red gram (12.70-20.10q/ha), Mustard (20-27.50q/ha), Banana (20-30%), Sugar cane (25500-41400kg/h) Vegetable crops brinjal (10-20%), Tomato (15-20%), Potato (92.50-122.50q/ha). Flyash and brick kiln dust were beneficial to the plant at lower levels i.e. 20% and 30% respectively [24].

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Table 3: Field crops and vegetables grown with flyash at various project sites [11]

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Figure 3: The pot plant trial results of K and Na zeolite. For each sets of photo the pots were arranged (from left to right) as) % (control pot), 1%, 2% and 5%. [12]

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Saving of chemical fertilizers [9]: Flyash based herbal pesticide (40kg/hectare) [17] SLASH (25:10:60): Class F flyash can, if suitably augmented with quicklime, be used to pasteurise a toxic waste like sewage sludge. Pathogen Reduction Suitable for soil ameliorant. Early growth of corn [19].

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Uptake of Heavy metals and toxic elements by plant: Food Chain The magnitude of heavy metal adsorption by plants depends upon heavy metal content in flyash, rate of addition of flyash to soil, the soil type and its pH, the plant species etc. RRL, Bhopal observed that the uptake of heavy and trace metals by some vegetable is quite low and remains within the normal range [17]. Central Fuel Research Institute, Dhanbad Toxic elements in Indian flyash are with relatively less concentration.

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Radio nuclides: Bhaba Atomic Research Centre, Bombay [20]. Central Fuel Research Institute, Dhanbad [17]. Ground water contamination threat: Leaching [21]. Relative mass leached is generally low. At Central Fuel Research Institute (CFRI), Dhanbad it was also observed that flyash has no significant polluting effect on ground water [17].

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Zeolite: Zeolites are crystalline aluminium–silicates, with group I or II elements as counter ions. Their structure is made up of a framework of [SiO4]-4 and [AlO4]-5 tetrahedra linked to each other at the corners by sharing their oxygen (Figure. 4) [3, 24]. The tetrahedra make up a three-dimensional network, with lots of voids and open spaces. The substitution of Si (IV) by Al (III) in the tetrahedral accounts for a negative charge of the structure (Figure 3) which may give rise to high cation exchange capacity when the open spaces allow the access of cations. Figure 4: Idealized structure framework of tetrahedral with Si/Al substitution [25]

Zeolite Synthesis : 

Zeolite Synthesis The synthesis of zeolites from flyash is classified into [25] Direct (< 1200C) Non-direct synthesis (> 1200C). Figure 5: Reaction mechanism for the batch hydrothermal conversion of flyash to zeolite [52] Table 6: Chemical sources and their function in zeolite synthesis.

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Figure 6: Process flow diagram for a zeolite synthesis plant employing flyash [52]

Factors influencing zeolitization: : 

Factors influencing zeolitization: Flyash characteristics Class F Presence of Impurity Grounded Flyash Figure 5: Scanning electron micrographs of a)Flyash B)Synthesized zeolite C)18X zeolite [39]

Factors influencing zeolitization [cont] : 

Factors influencing zeolitization [cont] Fusion Temperature (823K) Acids and bases (Si/Al) Hydro thermal time Aging Time (crystal growth) Seeding Charge molecules and templates (Na or K) Solvents (18ml/gm) Table 5 :Different types of zeolites [25]

Application : 

Application Water Vapor Adsorption [28] Sulphur dioxide removal [32]- 38mg/gm :: SO2/zeolite , Fludized Bed Heavy metal removal [33,34]- FAZ-A 500mg/l, Pb, Cd Cu Water/Wastewater treatment [30,31,42]- Phousphorus, Chlorophenol Immobilization of microorganism [36] Ammonium Removal [26, 30, 31] Cost

Ammonium Removal : 

Ammonium Removal Class F (Zhang et al.) Ammonium uptake capacities was 23.8 mg/g. Contact time, pH, initial ammonium concentration, adsorbent dosage, presence of other cations and anions. The effect of cations followed the order K+>Ca2+>Na+>Mg2+, while the effect of anions followed the order CO32->Cl−>SO42−. Table-6:Comparative behavior of flyash and zeolite [31]

Conclusion: : 

Conclusion: This review aimed to act as a stepping-stone to reveal the potential of flyash for agricultural and zeolitic applications. More analysis of long-term economic and environmental impacts, possibly through employing life cycle assessments (LCAs) is needed. The limitations of flyash application in agriculture and forestry include Heterogeneity of flyash; Contamination during flyash transport Awareness of advantages of flyash uses among The development of suitable mathematical models is needed for judicious combination of flyash dose, soil conditions, selectivity of plant species.

Conclusion (cont): : 

Conclusion (cont): More research is required in the zeolitic application of flyash. Synthesis of zeolite Application There is a scarcity of information on the environmental impact of fly ash as an ingredient in the preparation of materials. More analysis of long-term economic and environmental impacts, possibly through employing life cycle assessments (LCAs) is needed. However, The outdoors stability The affordable price, The local availability Environmental non-toxicity

Reference : 

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