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Chapter 6:

Chapter 6 Market Communications and Branding McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Market Communications and Branding:

Market Communications and Branding The four categories of market communications? What constitutes a good brand? The 10-step branding process? How does online branding compare between American Airlines and Continental Airlines? What are the arguments for and against leveraging an offline brand into the online environment?

Integrating Communications and Branding:

Integrating Communications and Branding Branding is about consumer’s perception of the offering—how it performs, how it looks, how it makes one feel, and what messages it sends Market communications represent customers’ interaction with the brand and, more generally, mass-marketing approaches In the offline world they tend to be one-way, from the firm to the customer In the online worldthey become much more interactive (two-way)

The Customer Decision Process and Market Communications:

The Customer Decision Process and Market Communications Decision stages of the buying process: Brand awareness and product consideration communicated through television ads, general interest magazines, web banners Product preference fostered through niche magazines and company websites Purchase decisions triggered by point-of-sale promotions, direct marketing, daily specials, sweepstakes, and first-time order incentives Brand loyalty developed through product experience, buyer’s clubs, e-mail alerts, newsletters

Evolution of Customer Buying Process:

Evolution of Customer Buying Process Source: Forrester Research, Monitor Analysis Web Market Communication Television ads General interest magazines Banners Niche magazines Collateral Microsites Brochureware Website Point-of sale promotions Direct marketing Daily specials Sweepstakes First-time order incentives Product experience Buyers’ clubs E-mail alerts Newsletters Television ads General interest magazines Buttons Banners Sponsorships Traditional Market Communication Consideration Preference Purchase Loyalty Awareness Buying Process But – aren’t many of those “traditional” methods also available online?

Four Categories of Market Communications:

Four Categories of Market Communications Market communications refers to all the points of contact that the firm has with its customers: General online communications Personalized online communications Traditional mass media communications Direct communications

Four Categories of Communications:

Four Categories of Communications General Online Approaches Personalized Personalized permission e-mail Personalized recommendations Personalized advertisements Personalized webpages Personalized e-commerce Banner ads E-mail Viral marketing Portal sponsorship/exclusive agreements Associate programs Online and offline partnerships Customer information Online transactions Direct Traditional Mass Marketing Television Radio Print Billboards Salesforce Direct mail Telemarketing Customer service reps Online Offline Broad Individual

General Online Communications:

General Online Communications Banner ads box-like, graphical ads displaying a simple message designed to entice viewers to click the ad Unsolicited e-mail advertising extensively used by Cyber Promotions Viral marketing when awareness about company-specific products, services, or information is passed from user to user Sponsorship and exclusive partner agreements Affiliate programs arrangements where a particular site directs a user to an e-commerce site receiving a commission on sales generated with that user

Personalized Online Communications.:

Personalized Online Communications. Transactions on the Web provide companies with detailed information on their customers Personalized Permission e-Mail customers volunteering information regarding their on-line interests and preferences in exchange for some offered benefit Personalized recommendations specific merchandise recommendations for each user based on past purchases, site pages viewed, and survey information that the user has provided Personalized advertisements provide a customer with dynamically updated personalized ads Personalized web pages many portals and e-commerce sites allow users to create their own, encouraging users to return more often and increasing the user’s familiarity with the site

Traditional Mass Media Communications:

Traditional Mass Media Communications Television many online companies find that television, while expensive, can provide a critical exposure to large audiences and generate explosive growth in customer base (Monster.com) Radio In 1999, Priceline.com management allocated two-thirds of its $60 million marketing budget to radio and claimed that it was the most effective medium for reaching potential customers

Direct Communications:

Direct Communications Sales representatives when properly managed, the Web can lead to the increased effectiveness of sales representatives, rather than making them obsolete Direct marketing with the new information gained online, e-commerce companies are able to better target and customize conventional direct marketing mailings

What is a “Good” Brand:

What is a “Good” Brand According to the American Marketing Association, a brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, design, or a combination of them intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competition A good brand provides positive consumer responses and benefits target customers as well as the firm

What Is a Good Brand?:

What Is a Good Brand? Brand Prestige “Wrap-Arounds” Marketing Communications Core Product / Service Mix of offline and online advertising Emphasizes advantages to AAdvantage memberships, including mileage points and online services Superior service AAdvantage frequent-flyer club Award-winning Admirals Club lounges Comfortable chairs Portable defibrillators on every flight Safe, on-time transportation from A to B

A Conceptual Model of Brand Equity:

A Conceptual Model of Brand Equity A good brand... CUSTOMER BENEFITS Confidence Loyalty Satisfaction FIRM BENEFITS Reduce marketing costs Increased margins Opportunity for brand extensions BRAND AWARENESS Depth Breadth BRAND ASSOCIATIONS Strength Relevant Consistent Valence Uniqueness Memorable Distinctive “Wrap-Arounds” Core Product / Service Market Communication … provides positive consumer responses ... … and benefits both target customers and the firm Source: Kevin Lane Keller, Strategic Brand Management (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1998), David Aaker, Building Strong Brands (New York: The Free Press, 1996), market2customer Analysis, Marketspace Analysis

Types of Brands:

Types of Brands Pure offline and online brands Classic offline brands include the Gap, UPS, and Disney New online brands include Amazon, Yahoo, and Priceline Blurring of the distinction Brands like Yahoo were established online but use offline promotional activities to grow brand awareness Brands like Ragu were established offline but use online promotion to grow brand awareness Brands like E * Trade are traditional brands, but they are extensions of the online brands—thus a mixture of the two Brands like Egghead.com have completely shifted from an offline brand to a purely online brand Brands like WingspanBank were established in the virtual world but by a traditional brand Brands like Schwab have successfully bridged the gap between online and offline activities

Brand Presence:

Brand Presence Traditional Brands Online Offline Online Brands Source: Monitor Analysis Mix of Promotional Activities Product Establishment E*Trade Ragu E*Trade Financial ATM Wingspan bank Schwab Egghead Bank One

Similarities and Differences Offline Vs. Online Branding:

Similarities and Differences Offline Vs. Online Branding

Similarities and Differences Offline Vs. Online Branding:

Similarities and Differences Offline Vs. Online Branding

Successful Online Branding: B2B and B2C:

Successful Online Branding: B2B and B2C

Online Branding Choices:

Online Branding Choices Source: Forrester Research, Monitor Analysis Brand Reinforce-ment Broad Vs. Focused (Specific Products / Services) Brand Association Brand Awareness Firm Benefits Customer Benefits Product Sales Sales Leads Brand Creation Product Trial Store Traffic What value do you want to derive from your online presence? What part of brand equity do you want to build? What product / service are you offering them? Value Objective Component of Brand Equity Product Scope Target Audience Broad Vs. Focused (Specific Segments) Who do we want to target?

Case Study: MarketWatch.com:

Case Study: MarketWatch.com General online approaches Advertises on sites with broad reach, such as Yahoo, Lycos, and Excite Is a recommended link on the CBS site and the sites of CBS partners Premier provider of business and financial news for AOL’s Personal Finance channel Has a content-licensing agreement with online brokers like E*Trade and Fidelity.com In addition to agreements with other parties, MarketWatch.com offers the majority of its content and tools for free, encouraging users to explore the site and to return to it regularly

Case Study: MarketWatch.com:

Case Study: MarketWatch.com Traditional mass marketing media Features its own weekly show CBS MarketWatch Weekend Provides content for popular CBS News programs such as the Early Show , CBS Evening News and CBS NewsPath Contributes content that is aired through the Westwood One radio syndication company (154 stations, including the top 10 markets in the nation , with a reach of 11.5 million unduplicated listeners each week) Provides financial content to newspapers, such as the Daily News Express

MarketWatch.com Marketing Communications:

MarketWatch.com Marketing Communications Traditional Mass Marketing Television Advertising on CBS Mentions and scrolls during CBS shows CBS MarketWatch Weekend Contributions to CBS NewsPath Outdoor Advertising Outdoor placards Bus advertisements in target cities Radio Contributions to Westwood One Network Spots during NFL radio broadcasts Mentions on CBS-owned and operated radio stations Print Limited ads in trade journals Conferences Participation in online finance, online journalism, and Internet-related conferences General Approaches Advertising on heavily-trafficked websites (e.g., Yahoo, AOL) Licensing content to industry-leading financial organizations (e.g., Wall Street Journal Interactive) Strategic distribution relationships (e.g. Yahoo, AOL, Quicken.com) Advertising on CBS site and other CBS Internet partners (e.g., CBS SportsLine, CBS HealthWatch) Advertisements on targeted sites (e.g. other online financial sites) Free information onsite Personalized Permission marketing e-mails sent to groups from opt-in lists Direct Offline Online Individualized Broad Communication Needs Audience Focus

MarketWatch.com: Assessment of Key Branding Elements:

MarketWatch.com: Assessment of Key Branding Elements = Very Low = Low = Moderate = High = Very High Key Elements Rating Rationale Clearly Define the Brand Audience Three target groups cover a wide range of the population: savvy investors, financial information seekers, and “dabblers” (users with little financial knowledge) Understand the Customer Understands the different needs of savvy investors versus less sophisticated investors and provides offerings accordingly Identify Key Leverage Points in Customer Experience Focuses primarily on providing breaking news and analysis, rather than enabling investors to make transactions Has developed a community that shares knowledge and encourages frequent returns to the site Continually Monitor Competitors Continuously tracks studies on demographics, behavior, and brand awareness of its users versus competition Design Compelling and Complete Brand Intent Message of “Get the Story Behind the Numbers” captures most of the value offered to users—relevant and in-depth financial information and analysis; it does not fully capture the tools and education that the site offers Execute with Integrity The message of the CBS MarketWatch.com brand is trustworthiness; its credibility is enhanced by the association with the CBS News brand name and its staff of over 70 experienced journalists and editors Be Consistent Over Time Initial branding message was “Your eye on the market” but was switched to “Get the story behind the numbers” in 1999; the new message was designed to appeal to a broader user group Establish Feedback Systems Rigorously tested site and message effectiveness with focus groups halfway through the new marketing message campaign, at a time when the market was in turmoil; results were highly positive Be Opportunistic Establishing CBS MarketWatch brand over a number of different media, including Web, TV, radio, print, and wireless Invest and Be Patient Investing a large percentage of the company budget to sales and marketing activities—patiently waiting to become profitable, even with a market that currently demands profitability MarketWatch.com

MarketWatch.com: Assessment of Key Brand Attributes:

MarketWatch.com: Assessment of Key Brand Attributes MarketWatch.com = Very Low = Low = Moderate = High = Very High Key Attributes Rating Rationale Relevant Directly addresses the needs of different user groups. For savvy investors: provides real-time quotes, in-depth analysis and tools. For financial information seekers and users new to financial concepts: provides headline news and analysis as well as education tools. Distinct Brand message “Get the story behind the numbers” is distinct from competitor messages. It focuses on the unique MarketWatch.com capability of providing new-to-the-world, relevant, in-depth content. Consistent The initial brand message was “Your eye on the market.” This changed to “Get the story behind the numbers.” The intent was to appeal to a wider group of users, shifting the focus toward less sophisticated investors and people new to financial information. The main offering message of providing quality market analysis has remained relatively consistent. Memorable The MarketWatch.com brand message is highly memorable . Early on this was aided by memorable TV advertisements, which started with a market result and traced it back to the unlikely events that led to it. As a result of that campaign, the CBS MarketWatch brand rose 10 points in aided awareness in one year.

Case Study: American Airlines:

Case Study: American Airlines First to have a service-oriented website (May 1995) First to launch an e-mail service of discounted fares, Net SAAver Fares (March 1996) First to offer real-time flight information (Spring 1996) First to offer flight information on competitors (Spring 1996) First to offer airline reservations online (June 1996) First to offer paperless upgrade coupons and stickers (Spring 1997) First to send e-mail confirmation of itinerary and ticket purchase (Fall 1997) First to offer high personalization for consumers (June 1998) First airline to partner with AOL to create AOL AAdvantage Rewards Program (Fall 2000)

American Airlines vs. Continental Airlines: Assessment of Key Branding Elements:

American Airlines vs. Continental Airlines: Assessment of Key Branding Elements American Airlines Continental CVc = very low = low = moderate = high = very high CV CV

American Airlines vs. Continental Airlines: Assessment of Key Brand Attributes:

American Airlines vs. Continental Airlines: Assessment of Key Brand Attributes American Airlines Continental = very low = low = moderate = high = very high

Case Study: Monster.com:

Case Study: Monster.com Overview of Monster.com’s branding efforts and achievements Launched in 1994 as the 454 th website in the world Monster.com has over 50% of the online-recruitment ad market Revenue increased from $6.9 million in 1996 to $133.5 million in 1999 The site’s traffic—averaging 3.6 million unique visitors in January 2000—translates into more than 5% of all U.S. Internet users At the end of 2000, Monster.com had 7.2 million resumes on file and more than 273,000 registered recruiters In February 1999, Monster.com’s Super Bowl TV ads generated 2.2million searches, a 450% traffic increase in one week To further its branding efforts, Monster.com signed alliances with Yahoo and a $100 million four-year agreement with AOL to be its exclusive career-information provider

Monster.com vs. HotJobs.com: Assessment of Key Branding Elements:

Monster.com vs. HotJobs.com: Assessment of Key Branding Elements Monster.com HotJobs.com

Monster.com vs. HotJObs.com: Assessment of Key Brand Attributes:

Monster.com vs. HotJObs.com: Assessment of Key Brand Attributes Monster.com HotJobs.com

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