Food product Development

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?????? ?????:?? foodpd2008@163.com 2008123

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Penn University, USA Food Product Innovation Management : 

Penn University, USA Food Product Innovation Management A problem-based interdisciplinary capstone learning experience designed to enhance career skills (critical thinking, decision making, team work, communication, etc.) in the context of industry's approach to developing new and improved food products. The first quarter of the course is devoted to facilitating team work and analyzing an industrial foodproduct development case study. Students are organized into 4-5 person teams. Each team examines a new product opportunity and prepares a comprehensive plan for developing the product. Written and oral reports are made to the class (simulating management) and/or food industry professionals. In addition, each team studies a decision case based on an industry food product development problem. Role playing is encouraged. Each case is designed with interactive activities and learning scenarios. They are intended to provide opportunities for students to simulate "real-life" experiences. http://cas.psu.edu/docs/casover/aefs497/main.html

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2. ???? ????:?????????????????????? Food Product Development,http://222.173.194.17/foodziliao/file1/07071540.rar Technology of Developing New Food Product and Ensuring Food Safety & Security http://222.173.194.17/foodziliao/file/200506251212.rar ???????????? ???????? http://www.cifst.org.cn/ ?????http://down.foodmate.net ????:FST, Ohio State University. USA http://class.fst.ohio-state.edu/FST650/Index.htm ??????http://www.madehow.com/ ???? http://www.youtube.com/ ????:www.acclaimimages.com PPT????? www.authorstream.com ??????:USPTO?????????????? ??: FOODFILE, SixPap, GIPALS 1.2, MEDICAL, FEASI-EASY,Good idea generator

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4 ????????? ??????:?? ????????????? ????:????????????????????????????? 2008?10?27?——2008?12?30? ??????????

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?????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ??????:???????????????(????,Food Processing);??????????????????????,(????,Food Manufacture)? ??????:???????????????; ????:??????????????????; ????:????????????????; ????,????????????

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????????? ????http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/postsecondary/features/F_Food_for_Space_Flight.html

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——??????????? ?????????????????????????“??”??(????)?“??”??(????),?????????????? ——??? ?????????????????????

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——??? ????????????????????????? http://www.21food.cn/offerdetail/752725.html

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??? ??????? Flash: From concept to consumers http://members.ift.org/IFT/Education/EduResources/fc2c.htm

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http://cas.psu.edu/docs/casover/aefs497/funnel.html

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http://cas.psu.edu/docs/casover/aefs497/cases/fruit/Main.html

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?????????? ????????,?????????,?????????????????????????? ?????????? ????:25000?/? ????: 1000?/? ???: 30000?/? ??:4000?/? ????:300? ???:120?? ?????????? ????:32000?/? ????: 3000?/? ???: 45000?/? ??:10000?/? ????:600? ???:600?? http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/tust3721-153328-pizza-cheese-technology-science-ppt-powerpoint/ http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/tust3721-153328-pizza-cheese-technology-science-ppt-powerpoint/ ??1 ???? ??2 ????

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?? ??????? 1. ????? ??????????????,?????????,????????????: ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? 2. ??/????? ???????????,??/?????????????????????????? http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/2001/05/e/index.htm Food Product Development and the 40 Inventive Principles

Slide 70: 

3. ????? ?????,??????????,????? ?????:???????;????????????? ????;????????????;??????; ??:????????;????;????,????, ????? ??:10~12?;????,????;?????? ??:????;????;????;??? ??(1)??????????????(2)????????????????? Food ideas: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g9C2LbsYAfc&feature=related

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?? ??(miso)??http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PQZzEPxnzTE ????http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I0210b6Os4I ?????http://videos.howstuffworks.com/multivu/2041-how-palmieri-spaghetti-sauce-is-made-video.htm ?????? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8RKlEisN3qs ?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3HKaJL5Alx0&feature=related ???http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4msNyqlhVho&feature=related ???http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aTaGnvTjvGM&feature=related

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?? ?????http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z69N3zwJUIE&feature=related ?????http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Njyj9qUOH3c&feature=related ????http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uep6FKZWRsY&feature=related ?????http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_GhjlNsoCKo&feature=related ?????http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1dwbgruOt6g&feature=related ?????http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sailC4_Z4Ys&feature=related ????http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K_MDm1qKSYs&feature=related ????http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pRCWvgwchmY ????http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pnHKFvflgFQ&feature=related ????http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dqDEduKhQhM&feature=related Chocolate Production http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tez9RZZIwC8&feature=related

Slide 81: 

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Scale up : 

Scale up ? ? http://class.fst.ohio-state.edu/FST650/lec/Power%20Point%20Views/scale-up.ppt

SCALE-UP : 

SCALE-UP Definition Act of using results obtained from laboratory studies for designing a prototype and a pilot plant process; construction a pilot plant and using pilot plant data for designing and constructing a full scale plant or modifying an existing plant ??——????????????,????????????;??????????????????????,????????????

Problems in Scale up an Food Production Processes : 

Problems in Scale up an Food Production Processes Fundamental knowledge of chemical and physical interactions among complex ingredients is either scarce or non-existent There is usually a lack of data of physical properties for complex food formulations (specific heat capacities, thermal conductivities, phase relationship, rheology, etc) ??????????????????????????? ????????????????(????????????????

Steps in Scale-Up(1) : 

Steps in Scale-Up(1) Define product economics based on projected market size and competitive selling and provide guidance for allowable manufacturing costs Conduct laboratory studies and scale-up planning at the same time Define key rate-controlling steps in the proposed process Conduct preliminary larger-than-laboratory studies with equipment to be used in rate-controlling step to aid in plant design ?????????,?????,????????????,?????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????,??????????????,????????????????

Steps in Scale-Up(2) : 

Steps in Scale-Up(2) Design and construct a pilot plant including provisions for process and environmental controls, cleaning and sanitizing systems, packaging and waste handling systems, and meeting regulatory agency requirements Evaluate pilot plant results (product and process) including process economics to make any corrections and a decision on whether or not to proceed with a full scale plant development ??????????,?????????????????????????????,????????? ??????????(?????),?????????????????????????????????????

Why conduct Pilot Plant Studies? : 

Why conduct Pilot Plant Studies? A pilot plant allows investigation of a product and process on an intermediate scale before large amounts of money are committed to full-scale production It is usually not possible to predict the effects of a many-fold increase in scale It is not possible to design a large complex food processing plant from laboratory data alone with any degree of success ?????????????????,?????????????????????? ??????????????? ??????????????????????,????????

A pilot plant can be used for : 

A pilot plant can be used for Evaluating the results of laboratory studies and making product and process corrections and improvements Producing small quantities of product for sensory, chemical, microbiological evaluations, limited market testing or furnishing samples to potential customers, shelf-live and storage stability studies ??????????,?????????????????? ??????,????????????????,??????????????????????????????????

A pilot plant can be used for : 

A pilot plant can be used for Determining possible salable by-products or waste stream requiring treatment before discharge Providing data that can be used in making a decision on whether or not to proceed to a full-scale production process; and in the case of a positive decision, designing and constructing a full-size plant or modifying an existing plant ?????????????????????? ???????“???????????”?????????????????????????????????????????????

Considerations in pilot plant development : 

Considerations in pilot plant development Kind and size – depends on goals; evaluating product and process; producing samples of product for evaluation; market testing or furnishing to potential customers Location: near R&D facility? At an existing plant? Close liaison between R&D and pilot plant staff is essential ?????——?????;???????;???????????????? ??:??????;?????;???????????????????

Considerations in pilot plant development : 

Considerations in pilot plant development Labor requirements and costs: engineering staff, skilled operations and maintenance staff- pilot plant costs may exceed those of usual plant production costs. The pilot plant may be used for training personnel for a full- scale plant ???????:?????????????????????????????? ????????????????

Similitudes in scale-up : 

Similitudes in scale-up 4 dimensions – force, mass, distance and length Lack of differential equations during pilot plant trials limits usefullness Dynamic – equality between dimensionless numbers Not always possible to achied dynamic similarity between scales. Differences such as vortexing and surface tension can effect results. 4???:????????????????????,??????? ???:????????????????????????????????????????????

Similitudes in scale-up : 

Similitudes in scale-up Chemical- often impossible to determinine rate limiting reactions in food system Diffusion and temperature can be important and not always comparable at different scales ??—??????????????,?????????? ???????????,????????????????

EXAMPLE – YEAST FERMENTATON : 

EXAMPLE – YEAST FERMENTATON DEFINE DESIRED RESULTS ?????? PRODUCTION SIZE ???? FERMENTER SIZE ????? RAW MATERIALS ?? SOLIDES AFTER CENTRIFUGING ????? LAB SCALE DATA AVAILABLE ????????? EVALUATION INFORMATION AT HAND ?????? SCALE UP REQUIRED FOR ??????? HOLDING TANKS ??? FERMENTER FOR SEED INOCULUM ???????? 4 SCALES TO FULL PRODUCTION OF FERMENTERS, CENTRIGUGES, FILTRATION AND DRYING ???????????????

Yeast Scale-up Example Production goal: 7200 kg (dw)/14 hr. run Fermenter-150 m3 (120 m3 working volume), 14 h run., fed batch operation Solids after centrifugation, filter – pressing and drying, 96% ???? ????:7200 kg (dw)/14 hr. ? ???: 150 m3 (120 m3 ????) 14hr/?? ??:??????????????96%?

Yeast Scale-up Example : 

Yeast Scale-up Example Laboratory Scale Data: Fermenter, 15 L (12 L working volume). H/D 2:1, t = 30C., pH 4.5, heat output 3-4.4 kcal/ g yeast solids, dissolved O2 7 ppm. Specific growth rate, 0.2/h, yield 0.55kg/kg fermentable sugars, cell conc. 0.65 g (dw)/L Pilot plant fermenter, 150 L ????? ??? 15L 12L???? H/D 2:1, t = 30?, pH 4.5, ??? 3-4.4 kcal/ g ????? ???7ppm ?????? 0.2/h, yield 0.55kg/kg ????????0.65 g (dw)/L ????? 150L

Slide 106: 

SCALE UP

Slide 107: 

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PRODUCT PERFORMANCE TEST?????? : 

PRODUCT PERFORMANCE TEST?????? http://class.fst.ohio-state.edu/FST650/lec/Power%20Point%20Views/Performance%20testing.ppt

PRODUCT PERFORMANCEOBJECTIVES : 

PRODUCT PERFORMANCEOBJECTIVES To understand the factors that control the performance of a food product To know when, where, how and what to evaluate to determine performance ???????????? ???????????????????

PRODUCT PERFORMANCE : 

PRODUCT PERFORMANCE What to control? What to measure? How to do it? Where to do it? When to do it? Use of results? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????

PRODUCT PERFORMANCE TESTING : 

PRODUCT PERFORMANCE TESTING Based on identification of major attributes Based on identification of safety factors –cpp Based on identification of quality factors Based on identification of shelf-life factors ????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????

TESTING METHODS : 

TESTING METHODS Performance tests are generally not research tests Research methods may be used to solve problems encountered with product Need to be simple, low cost and provide essential information Need to establish frequency of testing Need to establish tolerances for results ??????????? ??????????????????? ??????,??????? ????????? ????????????

WHEN WOULD YOU USE - : 

WHEN WOULD YOU USE - pH Water activity Temperature Time Fill weight Microbial evaluation Sensory Texture pH ???? ?? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??

WHO? : 

WHO? Develops tests? Runs tests? Trains testers? Evaluates tests? ???? ???? ????? ????

HOW OFTEN : 

HOW OFTEN Should tests be run? Should reports be prepared? Should equipment be calibrated? ??????? ??????? ?????????

HOW WILL TESTS DIFFER : 

HOW WILL TESTS DIFFER In the laboratory? In the processing plant? In the field? ???? ????? ????

WHERE TO TEST PERFORMANCE : 

WHERE TO TEST PERFORMANCE On receipt of ingredients During processing In package Retention samples In distribution ??????? ??? ?? ???? ???

SALAD DRESSING EXAMPLE : 

SALAD DRESSING EXAMPLE Most critical raw material? Most critical product safety factor? Most critical processing step? Most critical quality factor? Most critical shelf life factor? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????

MOST CRITICAL RAW MATERIAL? : 

MOST CRITICAL RAW MATERIAL? Safety Eggs Physical contamination in spices Emulsion characterisitics Eggs Flavor Oil ?? -?? -??????? ???? -?? ?? -?

MOST CRITICAL PROCESS : 

MOST CRITICAL PROCESS Final flavor Mixing Physical properties Colloid mill Shelf life Colloid mill Cleaning and sanitation Safety pH control ???? -?? ???? -??? ???? -??? -????? ?? -pH ??

FACTORS AFFECTING SHELF LIFE : 

FACTORS AFFECTING SHELF LIFE Raw ingredient quality Microbial contamination Emulsion stability Oil stability to oxidation Handling and distribution ???? ????? ????? ????????? ?????

WHAT CAN GO WRONG : 

WHAT CAN GO WRONG Oxidized oil high pH Improper colloid mill setting Excessive agitation during distribution Excessive exposure to light Microbial contamination How would you know? ??? pH? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????

??? ?? : 

??? ??

??????? : 

??????? ???????; ???????; ??(??)???; ???????; ?????; ????????? ????,????

Components in Food specifications : 

Components in Food specifications Composition Safety performance ?? ?? ??

Composition : 

Composition Raw materials- plant or animal Ingredients Processing equipment – including materials used with equipment – lubricants, etc. Packaging equipment and materials Storage and transportation systems Finished products ??? ?? ????(?????????) ??????? ??????? ????

Safety : 

Safety Microbiological (total and pathogens) Chemical (heavy metals, pesticide residues, reactions products from processing, etc.) Toxicology (toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, allergenic, teratogenic materials) Occupational ?????(????????) ??(????????????????) ???(????????????????????) ????

Performance : 

Performance Taste Smell Color Texture Body Mouth feeling ???? ? ? ? ?? ?? ??

Slide 130: 

????????????????  GB2718-1996

Slide 131: 

????

Slide 132: 

?????

??????????? : 

???????????

????????? : 

????????? (?)????? ???????????????????,??????????????????????????????,????????,??????????????????????????????

(?)??????? : 

(?)??????? ??:??????????????????; ??:?????????????????????????????; ??:???????????????,?????????????????????; ??:????????????????,?????????????,????????????

(?) ????? : 

(?) ????? 1. ???? ????:???????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????????????????? ????????????????

2. ???? : 

2. ???? ??????????,???????????????????????????????; ??????, ???????????????????????????

3. ?????? : 

3. ?????? ?????????????,????????????????????? “????,????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??:(1)??????????????????;(2)??????????????;(3)??????;(4)????????????

(?)??????? : 

(?)??????? ???: ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????,????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???: ?????????????,????????????????????????? ???: ???????????,?????????

(?)?????? : 

(?)?????? ???:?????“???”, ??????????????????????????????????? ???: ?????????, ??????????????????,?????????????,??????????,??????????????? ???: ??????????????????????????????????????????20??10??10?? ???: ???????, ??????????

?????????? : 

?????????? (?) ??????? ?????,??[??????]??;,??[??????]??? ??????? http://www.sipo.gov.cn ????????http://www.USPTO.gov

(?)??????? : 

(?)??????? ??????????,??????; ????????????,????; ??,??????????; ????????; ????????????

??????? : 

??????? (?)????????? ???????????????????????????????????????; ????????????? ???????: ?????????????,?????????,????????????????

(?)?????? : 

(?)?????? ??????????????????? ?????????:???????????????????? ??????:???????????????????? ????:??????????????????????????? ????:???????????????????????????,????????????????

(?)?????? : 

(?)?????? 1. ???????? ??????????????????; ????????????????; ????????????????????????; ???????????????????; ??????????; ??????????; ??????,???????????; ????????????,??????????

Slide 146: 

2. ?????????? ????:????????????????????,???????????????????????,????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????,?????????????????? ????:???????????????????????,??????????,????????????????

3. ???? : 

3. ???? ???????????????? ??????, ??????????????????,??,????????? ????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????“??????”???,??????????????????? ??????,??????,???????????

4. ???????? : 

4. ???????? ?????????, ????“???” ? ????,???????????????????????? ??????????,????????????????????? ??????? ???????????????????? ??????????????,????????????

????? : 

????? ?????????????????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ??:???????????http://www.sipo.gov.cn/sipo2008/zljs/ ??????????? http://www.uspto.gov/patft/index.html

????Food Label : 

????Food Label

??????????? : 

??????????? ???????????????????????????,????????? ?????????,??????????????????????? ???“????”?“????”?“????”?“????”?,????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????,???????????????????????????

??? : 

??? ?????????,????????????? ???????“??”?“???”? ???????????????????? ?????????GB2760?????????????

????????? : 

????????? ?????????????????????: ????,???; ????,???; ?????,???????

????????????? : 

????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????

???????? : 

???????? ????????????????/???? ?????????????? ???????????????????: a.“???……????”,?“???……????”(?????); “……??????”,?“……??????”(?????); “……????”,?“……????”(?????); b.“????……”; “????……”; c.“???……??”; “???……??”; ???????????????????,????????????

Slide 156: 

??(??)?? ????(?????????)????????(??)?????,???????????? ????? ?????????????????????????????

?? : 

?? ???????,??????,????? ?????????,???????? ????????????????? ?????????????

??? ?????????? : 

??? ??????????

?????????????? : 

?????????????? ????????????????????,????????????????? ???????????,???????????????????????????????????????,????????

????????? : 

????????? ????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????,????????????????? ?

Slide 162: 

???????

?????????? : 

?????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????,?????????????????????????????????,?????,????????10?? ????????????????????????? ??300????????360??????????????????

Slide 166: 

????????????? (?) ???? 33000 ?/?,27160x1.25=33950?/?

Slide 167: 

???????????? (?) ???? 48000 ?/?, 36944 x 1.25=46180?/?

Slide 168: 

???????

???????????? : 

???????????? ????,???????5???; ?????????,?????,????????10?? ??????,?????10%—15%????? ??????,??????????

Slide 170: 

A?????????????

?????? : 

?????? ??????:???????,????????,???????????,??????17%??????

????? : 

????? ??????????????????????(??????????????),?????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????,??????????????????????33%,?????????????????24%?15%?????,??????????????27%?18%?????? ????????2006?12?24????????????????,????????????????25%,???????????????????????“??”???

Slide 173: 

??????

??1:?????????? : 

??1:?????????? ?????????????,?1????5???????????? ??????1???????11889000?? ?2???3????????????28%,?4???47%,?5???????15%? ??????????:????????????????????5?????????

Slide 175: 

?2??A??????????,???????33%? A???????????????????????????????????????????? ?4??A???????????,???350????3????: ?????????????????? ????????????????? ???????????????????????

Slide 176: 

?5??A???????5?????????1?????????????67%,??5?,?????????42%? A?????????????:?????????????????????????????????

Slide 177: 

?6??A???????????,????????????????7??A?????????,???????????4?5?6???? A?????0???1?????,?2????????,??5?????????15%?

Slide 178: 

?10??????,?????????????15%??????????,????5???????471.6??,??????????????15%???,?5??472?????????209??? ?11??A?????????????,???10????????????????????????????????????

???????????? : 

???????????? ??????,????????????????A?????????????????459??,????????????,?459????????; ?????,?????????15%??????????????A???????????3.5????????????????459??????????????3.5?????????????

Slide 180: 

??????????????????????(??????????????),?????????????????????????????? ????????????1993?12?23???????«????????????????»?1994?2?4???????«????????????????????»? ??????????33%,?????????3??(?3??)?????,???18%????????;????????10??(?10??)???3?????,???27%????????? ???????????????25%,???????????????20%???????

????? : 

????? ?TEDA????,??????????????? ???????????,????????????????

CONSUMER TESTING????? : 

CONSUMER TESTING????? http://class.fst.ohio-state.edu/FST650/lec/Power%20Point%20Views/FST%20650%20Consumer%20Testing.ppt

Slide 183: 

Who is the best judge of attributes such as flavor, texture or color? The Product Developer? Marketing? Senior Management? The consumer? ?????????????: ????? ???? ?????? ???

?????? ????????????? : 

?????? ????????????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??

????????? : 

????????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ???????? ??????

PURPOSE OF CONSUMER TESTS : 

PURPOSE OF CONSUMER TESTS Consumer Guidance Tests Aids further product development Identifies areas of needed improvement Market Research Tests Measures consumer acceptance Estimates potential market size Identifies product claims ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????

???????? : 

???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ????

???????? : 

???????? ????: 1-5? ????:??????? 25-35? ????:??? 8-12? ??????:50-100?,??????:100? ????:??????1000-5000 ? ????5000 – 3 M?

??????? : 

??????? Generating Ideas Understanding the Consumer – learning their language Evaluating Concepts, Strategies and Tactics Pre-testing of Quantitative Research ???? ?????——??????? ?????????? ?????????

?????? : 

?????? 1. Select a Moderator 2. Develop a Screener 3. Determine Makeup of Group 4. Recruit Participants 5. Write Discussion Guide 6. Schedule facility ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????

Quantitative Consumer Research is Often Needed, but Not Always FeasibleSome Small-Sample Quantitative Research Works : 

Quantitative Consumer Research is Often Needed, but Not Always FeasibleSome Small-Sample Quantitative Research Works Conjoint Analysis Multidimensional Analysis (Perceptual Mapping) ???????????,?????? ??????????????????

Conjoint Analysis Determines Relative Importance of Product AttributesFor a new cookie, e.g. : 

Conjoint Analysis Determines Relative Importance of Product AttributesFor a new cookie, e.g. Attribute Relative Importance Price 31% Flavor 21% Crispness 18% Color 12% Size 9% Brand Name 6% Aroma 3% 100%

Questionnaire Construction???? : 

Questionnaire Construction???? Keep it Simple Avoid Ambiguity Avoid Double-barreled Questions Avoid Leading Questions Avoid Over generalization or Over simplification Response categories must be mutually exclusive ???? ???? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????????

Basic Types of Tests : 

Basic Types of Tests Paired Comparison Used when benchmark products are available Which do you prefer and why? Monadic Used for unique products How much do you like it? Proto-monadic – Combines the above ???? -?????? -????? ?? -???????? -?????

BASES TESTS – A. C. NEILSEN : 

BASES TESTS – A. C. NEILSEN First, obtain Consumer’s reaction to the concept only Then have them try the product ??????????????? ??,?????

Questions to Ask Respondents : 

Questions to Ask Respondents ????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????

?? ?? : 

?? ?? ??2 – 9 ? ?????? ?? – ?????5 ??? 1. ???? 2. ???? 3. ????,???? 4. ???? 5. ????

??????? : 

??????? ???????????(?100??????60???) 70% ??????? 65% ?? ???????????

Key Takeaways - Consumer Testing Module : 

Key Takeaways - Consumer Testing Module The consumer or customer is ALWAYS right. Product Development should use consumer guidance testing to determine how to further improve new products before Market Research tests. Do not let Marketing use guidance testing to make marketing decisions ??????? ?????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????

Product Development Review : 

Product Development Review ??????

PROJECT LIFE-CYCLE PHASES : 

PROJECT LIFE-CYCLE PHASES The Total Project Terminate Concept Develop Test Consumer Trials Launch

ATTRIBUTES ?? ?? : 

ATTRIBUTES ?? ?? An attribute is a property of a food that the customer desires Most customers are looking for multiple attributes in a food product Attributes are expected to remain constant throughout the shelf-life of the product ??????????;???????;????????

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT (????) : 

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT (????) Objectives ?? Product attributes ???? Formulation ?? Processing ?? Product assessment ???? Design tools and optimization ??????? Consideration of regulation compliance ??????

FORMULATION : 

FORMULATION “The heart of any new product is in its ingredient composition Initial screening and feasibility testing required Select a starting “recipe” Transfer to a product formula Test compatibility with process ???????????;??????????;??????;??????;????????????

INGREDIENTS : 

INGREDIENTS In almost all formulated foods, every ingredient will have an influence on both the processing requirements and on the final characteristics of the finished product Need to understand ingredient interactions ????????????????????????????????????????

INGREDIENTS : 

INGREDIENTS Selected to perform a specific function - what is needed? Quality appropriate to product Meet performance specifications Meet safety specifications Least cost functionality Process ability Availability - consider “just in time” ??????;?????????;??????;??????;????;????;???????

PROCESS : 

PROCESS Use “hurdle” concepts in developing the process Consider the effects of shear, temperature and time on prodcut attributes In many foods every step in the process may affect product characteristics Roll of processing aids ????????“??”??;???????????????????????;????????????????

PROCESS FLOW SHEET : 

PROCESS FLOW SHEET Develop a process flow sheet that indicates each step in the process Indicate conditions for each step in the process What are the tolerances for the conditions? Consider materials balance - yield Process control? Records? ????????????(??)??;?????????????;???????;????;????????

PROCESS - EQUIPMENT SELECTION : 

PROCESS - EQUIPMENT SELECTION Design - cleaning and sanitizing Sizing Identify critical control points Determination of process/process interactions Determination of process/package interactions Acceptable variance in process condition ??——?????;??;?????;?????????;????????????;?????????

PROCESS - PRESERVATION STRATEGY???? : 

PROCESS - PRESERVATION STRATEGY???? Fresh ?? Frozen ?? Dried ?? Intermediate moisture ?????? Pasteurized/refrigerated ????/?? Sterilized/canned ??/?? Control of oxidation ????

PRODUCT ASSESSMENT : 

PRODUCT ASSESSMENT Evaluation of quality attributes Safety assessment Shelf-life assessment Regulation compliance Determination of acceptable variance - control limits ????????;???;????;?????;????????—?????

HOW WILL ASSESSMENT BE DONE? : 

HOW WILL ASSESSMENT BE DONE? What methods will be used to evaluate the product? Attributes? Safety? Shelf life?

QFD -QUALITY FUNCTION DEVELOPMENT??????? : 

QFD -QUALITY FUNCTION DEVELOPMENT??????? What do customers want How to measure wants Target values required Competitive standing Short term/long term strategies Recall strategy ???????? ???????????????;?????;??/????;??,?????

SCALE-UP ?? : 

SCALE-UP ?? Is complex and not intuitive Is generally a step-wise approach from lab to pilot plant to intermediate to full production scale Requires careful attention to enginerring details ???????;???—??—??—??;???????????

SCALE-UP : 

SCALE-UP Reqires tecnology assessment Learn on a small scale before you try to produce on a large scale The lab and pilot plant provide design data, engineering methods first indication of formuation processing interactions ????;???????,??????;????????????,???????????????????

SCALE-UP : 

SCALE-UP Requires complete understanding of factors that influence product characteristics Can not be done on paper Involves technology translation and transfer from r&d to production ?????????????;????????????;?????????????????

ENGINEERING CONSIDERSTIONS : 

ENGINEERING CONSIDERSTIONS Essential unit operations Sequence of operations Use of dimensionless numbers - reynolds, nusselt, prandtl, etc Equipment available New equipment or processes required ???????;?????;????????;??????;??????????

PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA : 

PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA Needed 6-12 months before commercial production starts Includes all development data and interpretations Includes temperatures, residence times, types of heating, air flow, materials, pumps, flow rates, velocities, etc. ???6-12?;?????????;????????????????????????????,??

COMMERCIALIZATION : 

COMMERCIALIZATION Start-up Shake-down -- explore process and equipment limits -- look for suprises! Process optimzation--necessary to confirm that process has scaled-up properly ??;??????????;????,???????????

BEYOND FORMULATION AND PROCESSING : 

BEYOND FORMULATION AND PROCESSING Labeling ?? Packaging ?? Product performance ???? Naming ?? Pricing ?? Market positioning ????

CONSUMER TESTING : 

CONSUMER TESTING Key to the success of any food product is consumer reaction based on: -Sensory acceptance -Package acceptance -Price acceptance -Willingness to purchase and Re-purchase ???????: ?????;?????;??????;??,????????

PRODUCT PERFORMANCE TESTING : 

PRODUCT PERFORMANCE TESTING Based on identification of major attributes Based on identification of safety factors Based on identifiction of shelf-life factors ????????:?????;???;?????

SEQUENCE OF PRODUCT TESTING : 

SEQUENCE OF PRODUCT TESTING Expert Evaluation Employee Testing Guidance Testing Market Research Test Market National Roll-out Product Development Marketing

PROJECT LIFE-CYCLE PHASES : 

PROJECT LIFE-CYCLE PHASES The Total Project Terminate Concept Develop Test Consumer Trials Launch

FINAL STEP : 

FINAL STEP Upon satisfactory review of all aspects of project and approval of the executive branch -- Launch! ????????????????????? ??