Mineral Nutrition

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Macro- and Micro-minerals of Nutritional Importance Compiled by Dr. H. C. Bohra Ex-Principal Scientist (Animal Nutrition) Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur (INDIA) June, 2012 : 

Macro- and Micro-minerals of Nutritional Importance Compiled by Dr. H. C. Bohra Ex-Principal Scientist (Animal Nutrition) Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur (INDIA) June, 2012

ESSENTIAL MINERAL ELEMENTS: 

ESSENTIAL MINERAL ELEMENTS The term essential mineral element is restricted to a mineral element which has been proved to have a metabolic role in the body. Before an element can be classified as essential, it is necessary to prove that purified diets lacking the element cause deficiency symtoms in animals, and those symptoms can be eradicated or prevented by adding the element to the experimental diet. In such studies, it is necessary to ensure that animals are not getting the mineral through food/feed, water, cages, troughs, attendants or atmospheric dust.

Essential Mineral Elements and Their Approximate Concentration in the Animal: 

Essential Mineral Elements and Their Approximate Concentration in the Animal S. No. Major Elements % S. No. Trace Elements ppm , mg/kg 1. Calcium 1.5 1. Iron 20-80 2. Phosphorus 1.0 2. Zinc 10-50 3. Potassium 0.2 3. Copper 1-5 4. Sodium 0.16 4. Manganase 0.2-0.5 5. Chloride 0.11 5. Iodine 0.3-0.6 6. Sulphur 0.15 6. Cobalt 0.02-0.1 7. Magnesium 0.04 7. Molybdenum 1-4 8. Selenium 1.7 9. Chromium 0.08

Critical Values of Macro- and Micro-minerals: 

Critical Values of Macro- and Micro-minerals Macro-minerals Calcium (0.21-0.52)* Magnesium (0.04-0.08) Phosphorus (0.16-0.37) Potassium (0.50) Sodium (0.04-0.10) Sulphur (0.14-0.26) * Values in gm/100gm dry feed. Micro-minerals Cobalt (0.10)** Copper (5.0) Iodine (0.10-0.30) Iron (0.10-0.30) Manganese (20-40) Molybdenum (0.5) Selenium (0.10) Zinc (35-50) FLUORIDE (>40, toxic level) ** Values in mg/kg or ppm .

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Nearly all essential mineral have one or more catalytic function Some elements are bound to the protens or enzymes Others are present in prosthetic groups in chelated form (A chelate is a cyclic compound which is formed between an organic molecule and a metallic ion, the latter being held within the organic molecule as if by a claw. Exe., chlorophylls, cytochromes , haemoglobin and vitamin B12 Elements have electrochemical function and are concerned with the maintenance of acid base balance and the osmotic control of water distribution within the body are: Sodium, Potassium, Chloride Structural role, Calcium, phosphorus in bones and teeth; Sulphur required for synthesis of proteins Multifunctional element: Magnesium, Catalytically, electrochemically and structurally

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Iron is constituent of haem , which is an essential part of a number of haemochromagens , important in respiration Cobalt is a component of vitamin B 12 Iodine forms a part of the thyroxine hormone. Calcium and molybdenum interfere with absorption and activity of other elements. Thus imbalance of mineral elements is distinct from a simple deficiency-is important in the aetiology of certain nutritional disorders in the animals. Some may prove toxic, causing illness or death if given to the animal in excessive quantities like, copper (a cumulative poison, the animal body unable to excrete it efficiently), selenium, molybdenum, chromium and fluorine Supplementation of any diet with minerals should be carried out with great care and indiscriminate use of trace elements in particular must be avoided.

CALCIUM: 

CALCIUM Most abundant mineral in the animal body. 99% of total body calcium found in skeleton and teeth, also essential constituent of living cells and tissue fluids Required for several enzyme systems , necessary for the transmission of nerve impulses and for contractile properties of muscles. It is also required in coagulation of blood. In mammalian plasma, its concentration varies between 8-12 mg/100 ml, but birds it is more. The DM of bone consisting 46% minerals, 36% protein, 18% fat. Bone ash contains, 36% calcium, 17% phosphorus and 1% magnesium, if more fluoride in taken then, OH and CO 3 radicals of bones are replaced by the fluoride {Ca 2 (PO 2 ) 2 .CaF 2 } , makes bone brittle.

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The exchange of calcium and phosphorus between bones and soft tissue is always a continuous process. Parathyroid gland controls bone re-sorption, on low calcium diet, gland stimulated, calcium liberated to meet calcium requirements, phosphorus is also liberated and excreted. Deficiency Symptoms: In young growing animals: Adequate bone formation cannot occur, causes rickets (misshapen bones, enlargement of joints, lameness and stiffness) In adult animals: Osteomalacia , calcium in the bone is withdrawn and not replaced, bone become weak and easily broken Rickets and osteomalacia symptoms may also be produced by a deficiency of phosphorus, abnormal Ca:P of deficiency of vitamin D In hens: soft beak and bones, retarted growth and bowed legs, eggs have thin shells and egg production may be reduced

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Milk fever (parturient paresis), occurs in dairy cows after calving, characterized by a lowering of serum calcium level, muscular spasms, paralysis and unconsciousness Prolonged deficiency of calcium reduces milk yield Sources: Milk and green leafy vegetables Legumes (cereals and roots are poor sources) Animal by products: bone, fishmeal, meat and bone meal Ground lime stone, steamed bone flour and dicalcium phosphate (rock phosphate contains fluorine, may be toxic) Calcium : Phosphorus ratio: proper Ca:P ratio in the animal diet is important, since an abnormal ratio may be as harmful as a deficiency of either element in the diet. Most suitable ratio in diet is 1:1 to 2:1, in birds, especially, egg laying hens, calcium ratio should be more, these may be given ground lime stone mixed with the diet or calcareous grit given ad lib .

PHOSPHORUS : 

The Ca: P ration in barley, corn, sunflower seeds and wheat is 1: 9, 1 :15, 1: 7 and 1: 7, respectively, therefore, these feeds can be used for correcting Ca: P ratio in high calcium-low phosphorus diet. It is closely associated with calcium in the animal body, present in bones and teeth, occurs in phosphoproteins , nuclic acids and phospholipids. Plays important role in carbohydrate metabolism in formation of hexosephosphates and adenosine di - and tri-phosphates. 80% of phosphorus found in the bones, Serum level vary between, 4-12 mg/100 ml PHOSPHORUS

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Deficiency Symptoms: Rickets, osteomalacia , pica or depraved appetite (abnormal appetites and chew wood, bones, rags, and other foreign materials. Chronic phosphorus deficiency causes: stiff joints and muscular weakness Low dietary intake causes low fertility and low milk yield, subnormal growth in young animals and low liveweight gain in mature animals. Extensive phosphorus-deficient areas occur throughout the world and its deficiency is most widespread. Sources: Milk, cereal grains, fish meal and meat products containing bones (hays and straws are poor sources)

POTASSIUM: 

Most of the phosphorus present in the cereal grains and other plant products is in the form of insoluble calcium and magnesium phytates (salt of phytic acid, a phosphoric acid derivatives). In birds, only 10% of phosphorus of calcium phytate is utilized. Potassium like sodium, chloride and bicarbonate ions, plays an important role in the osmotic regulation of body fluids. Sodium mainly found in the extracellular tissues, whereas potassium principally present in the cell. It plays an important role in nerve and muscle excitability, and in carbohydrate metabolism. POTASSIUM

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Deficiency Symptoms: Potassium deficiency in animals is rare. Plants which are normally ingested by the animals contain 2.5% of potassium. Chicks under experimentation, showed retarded growth, weakness and tetany , followed by death. Deficiency symptoms, including severe paralysis have also been recorded for calves fed on synthetic milk diets low in potassium. Dietary excess, rapidly excreted in urine. Some believe that high intakes of the element may interfere with absorption and metabolism of magnesium in the animal, which may be an important factor in the aetiology of hypo- magnesaemic tetany .

SODIUM: 

SODIUM Most of the sodium of the animal body is present in the soft tissues and body fluids; like potassium it is concerned with the acid base balance and osmotic regulation. It is a chief cation of blood-plasma and other extracellular fluids of the body. Much of it is ingested as common salt and excreted in urine. Deficiency Symptoms: Retards growth and reduces utilization of digested protein and energy, in hens egg production is adversely affected, as well growth. Rats fed on low sodium diets develops eye lesions, reproductive disturbances and finally death. Sources: Foods of vegetable origin contain low sodium, all animal products especially meat meals and foods of marine origin are rich sources. Common salt is a good source of this element.

CHLORIDE: 

CHLORIDE Chloride is principle anion of body fluids. It is associated with sodium and potassium in acid-base balance and osmosis, plays an important role in gastric secretion (hydrochloric acid) and digestion. It is excreted in urine and in perspiration with sodium and potassium. Sources: With exception of fish and meat meals, the chloride contents of most of the foods is very low. Pasture grass contains, 0.003-0.342% chloride. Common salt is the best source. Deficiency Symptoms: Reduced growth and feed intake, haemo -concentration, dehydration, nervous disorder and reduced blood chloride levels. D airy cows on salt deficient diets did not showed immediate ill effect, but eventually appetite declined with subsequent loss in weight and lowered milk production, addition of salt to the diet produced an immediate cure. Chloride deficiency causes growth retardation in rats. Salt deficiency in hens is known to counteract feather picking and cannibalism.

SULPHUR: 

SULPHUR Most of the sulphur in the animal body occurs in protein containing amino acids cystine , cysteine and methionine ; biotin and thiamine, and insulin hormone also contain sulphur . Sulphates are known to occur in the blood in small quantities. Wool is rich in cystine and contains 4% sulphur . Sulphur intake is mainly through protein, therefore, no sulphur deficiency is noticed, however, ruminant diets in which urea is used as a partial nitrogen replacement for protein nitrogen, sulpher may be limiting for the synthesis of cysteine , cystine and methione . Rumen micro-organisms can utilize inorganic sulphur . There is some evidence that sodium sulphate can be used by the micro-organisms more efficiently than elemental sulphur .

MAGNESIUM: 

MAGNESIUM About 70% of the total magnesium is found in the skeleton, the remaining is distributed in the soft tissues and fluids. It activates, phosohate transferases , decarboxylases and acyl transferases . Deficiency Symptoms Rats: increased nervous irritability and convulsions. Calves: low serum magnesium levels, depleted bone magnesium, tetany and death. The condition is not uncommon in milk-fed calves about 50-70 days old. Adult ruminant: hypomagnesaemic tetany , associated with low blood levels of magnesium was known. It is wide spread and date rate is high. (in UK, in 1960, incidences were about 0.5%) . The problem is more pronounced when animals are turned out on young, succulent pasture. Clinical signs of the disease are often brought on by stress factors such as cold, wet and windy weather.

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Normal level of magnesium in blood serum in cattle ranges between 1.7-4.0 mg per 100 ml blood serum, tetany usually preceded by a fall in blood serum magnesium to 0.5 mg/100 ml.Typical symptoms of tetany are nervousness, tremors, twitching of the facial muscles, staggering gait and convulsions. Magnesium oxide is given in the diet. Sources: Wheat bran, dried yeast and most vegetable protein concentrates, cottonseed and linseedcake , clovers are usually richerin magnesium than grasses. Magnesium oxide is used as a supplement. When hypomagnesaemic tetany is likely to occur, it is generally considered that about 50 gm of magnesium oxide to a cow, 7-15 g to calves, and about 7.0 gm to ewes can be given daily.

Physiological Functions and Deficiency Symptoms of Trace Minerals*: 

Physiological Functions and Deficiency Symptoms of Trace Minerals* Mineral Major Functions Deficiency Symptoms Chro-mium Synergism with insulin to promote glucose uptake and metabolism Reduced rate of growth and longevity, hyperglycemia Cobalt Vitamin B 12 Anemia, wasting away, listlessness, loss of appetite, weakness, fatty degeneration of the liver, reduced hair growth Copper Necessary for haemoglobin and melanin formation, components of several blood proteins and enzyme systems Anemia, diarrhea, loss of appetite, nervous disorders, loss of hair colour , reduced hair growth, defective keratinization of hair and hooves, bone deformities, impaired reproduction

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Mineral Major Functions Deficiency Symptoms Fluoride Specific biochemical role s are still uncertain Reduced rate of growth, infertility, increased susceptibility to dental problems Iodine Hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine thyroid gland Reduced growth, goiter, bilateral, posterior alopecia in large carnivores, reduced production and energy metabolism Iron Metal chelate of haemoglobin , myoglobin , and oxidizing enzymes Anemia, listlessness, weight loss Manga-nese Bone formation, energy metabolism, (co-factor in oxidative phosphorylation ) Slipped tendon, ( perosis ), weightloss or reduced growth, impaired reproduction, weakness, nervous disorders, loss of equilibrium, bone malformation

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Mineral Major Functions Deficiency Symptoms Molyb-denum Components of the enzymes, xanthine oxidase , aldehyde oxidase and sulphite oxidase Renal calculi, reduced growth Selenium Interacts with vitamin E to maintain tissue integrity Nutritional muscular dystrophy, pale areas in muscles and degeration of muscle fibres , labored breathing, difficulty in feeding , stiffness and disinclination to move far or fast, diarrhea, liver necrosis, reduced fertility, lung edema Zinc Essential for synthesis of DNA , RNA, and proteins, component of cofactor of many enzyme systems Enlarged hocks of birds, poor feathering, retarded growth, rough hair coat and hair loss, weight loss, parakeratosis , reproductive difficulties, loss of appetite, impaired wound healing * Robbins, C. T. (1983). Wildlife Feeding and Nutrition. Academic press, Inc., New York, 343p.

TRACE ELEMENTS : 

TRACE ELEMENTS Trace elements research has been confined to studies of major deficiencies resulting from either improper feeding of captive animals or the inability of free-ranging animal to acquire adequate dietary sources. COBALT Cobalt deficiency in cattle and sheep, associated with an emaciation and lislessness , described as pinning, saltsick , bushsick or wasting disease. Cobalt is required by the micro-organisms in the rumen for the synthesis of vitamin B12., which is stored in the liver and kidneys. When these are depleted there is a gradual decrease in appetite with consequent loss of weight followed by muscular wasting, pica, severe anemia and eventually, death, this occurs where levels of cobalt in the dry matter of pastures are below 0.1 ppm . Most foods contain traces of cobalt, pasture contains 0.1-0.25 ppm cobalt. Deficiency can be prevented by dosing of cobalt sulphate . Cobalt bullet (90% cobalt oxide) successfully used.

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COPPER It is found to be essential for haemoglobin formation, it is an essential component of the mature red blood corpuscles, certain amount is required for production of the red blood corpuscles and for maintaining in the circulation. , also occur in blood plasma, and required for enzyme system activities: cytochrome oxidase , and turacin , a pigment of feathers. The element is necessary for the normal pigmentation of hair, fur and wool, concentrated in liver, which is a main storage organ of the body for copper. Deficiency Symptoms: Copper deficiency symptoms include anaemia , poor growth, bone disorders, scouring, de-pigmentation of hair and wool, gastro-intestinal disturbances and lesions in the brain stem and spinal cord.

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The lesions are associated with muscular incoordination , and occur especially in young lambs. Copper deficiency anemia is very common in piglets; in sheep the wool will lack, crimps. Copper deficiency can occur in carnivores fed un-supplemented red meat diets, and herbivores receiving fodder grown on soils either deficient in copper or high in molybdenum . Anaemia and faded coat colour are characteristics of copper deficiency in captive felines fed red meat diets supplemented with excess calcium. Sources: Seeds and its by-products are rich source of copper. But milk is very low in copper content , pasture contains, 4-8 ppm copper. Copper absorption tends to be quite low and is affected by the levels of calcium, cadmium, zinc, iron, lead, silver molybdenum and sulphur, which may interfere with its absorption .

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Milk is very low in copper but fetal liver copper content is often many times higher than that occurring in the adult. Liver is a primary storage site of absorbed copper, which is very high in those animals receiving adequate dietary copper. Copper deficiency in monkeys was characteristics by achromotrichia (loss of hair colour), alopecia (loss of hair), decreased vigour and activity, anaemia with little or no evidence of erythrocyte production, and eventually either cessation of nursing and death or spontaneous recovery. Copper deficiency occurred in monkeys kept in galvanized cages but not in those kept in stainless steel cages, as the infants were continuously licking and mouthing portions of their caging, they were ingesting enough zinc from the galvanized coating, which may have been solubilised by urine. Spontaneous recoveries probably occurred in those who simply stopped mouthing their cages.

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Induced copper deficiency in moose, reduced hair and hoof keratinisation, since 1-3% of population had over growth of hoof (doubled in length0 and curved upward, mobility of animals affected. As estrogen (in females) can increase copper binding capacity of plasma proteins, In Kenai moose population (adult females) had only 53.3% pregnancy rate as compared to 91.6% for moose in another area of Alaska in which copper intake was adequate. Liver copper content of free ranging Bontebok , grazing on low copper area was 20% of supplemented animals. Their hair coats were less intense in colour and looked dirty, faded and rough, and osteoporosis and healed fractures were common. When chased, spontaneous fractures of limb bones occurred in several animals. Copper deficit animals were generally more susceptible to capture myopathy (over straining disease) that terminated in paralysis, heart failure and death.

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Excess Copper Intake (toxicity) produced necrosis and sloughing of the proventriculus and gizzard, small haemorrhages in the liver, greenish discoloration of the lungs and the ingesta of the digestive tract and death in Canada geese. IRON 90% combined with proteins, haemoglobin (0.34% iron) , blood serum as transferrin (also called, siderophilin ), transport the blood from one to another part of the body. Ferritin (20% iron ) present in spleen, liver, kidney and bone marrow and provides a form of storage for iron. Haemosiderin is a similar storage compound, which may contain up to 35% of the elements. It is also present in enzymes, cytochromes and flavoproteins .

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Deficiency Symptoms: The iron liberated from the break down of red blood cells is used in resynthesis of haemoglobin , therefore, daily requirements of iron is very low. Deficiency causes, anaemia , common in suckling, since iron content of milk is usually very low (0.5 ug /ml in human, cow and goat milk), therefore, iron deficiency in bottle-raised wild animals when fed cow’s milk is very common in zoological gardens, but milk cannot be fortified with iron, as phosphorus deficiency can be produced by its precipitation into a non-absorbable iron complex. Iron deficiency symptoms include anaemia, reduced growth and a whitish discoloration of the under fur.

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Geophagia (soil consumption) is an important means of meeting trace element requirements, including iron. But clay particles can also effectively chelate metal ions and prevent their absorption. Therefore, geophagia can be either a useful source of iron or a contributing factor for anaemia in wild animals, depending on soil iron content of chelating capacity of soil clay. Sources: Though milk is a poor source of iron, but green leafy materials, most leguminous plants and seed coats contain appreciable quantities of iron. Blood meal contain large quantity of iron, but it is poorly utilized, cereal gains are poor sources of available iron.

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Excess iron suppress P utilization . Animal tissue is generally very high in iron relative to carnivore requirement but most forages, with exception of cereal grains and grasses grown on sandy soil, contain adequate iron. Therefore, iron deficiency is very rare except in the animals fed purified/simplified diets or those with injuries, diseases or parasites that alter iron excretion. IODINE Iodine in animal body is related to many metabolic controlling mechanisms of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine . If iodine intake is inadequate for necessary thyroid production, enlargement of thyroid ( goiter ) occurs. The iodine deficiency, which causes simple and congenial goiters occur in captive wildlife, as many natural foods, particularly red meats are iodine deficient, commonly occur in felines fed un-supplemented, fresh beef.

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The average thyroid weights of the free ranging white tailed deer were three times normal, whereas, their serum thyroxine levels were ½ to 1/3 of control leaves. Iodine supplementation of goiterous deer increased both thyroxine levels and testicular weight. Fruits, nuts and grains are low in iodine (0.008 ppm ) but aquatic plants contain proximately 3.10 ppm iodine. Liver may contain about 100 ug /kg. Marine plants and animals and iodized salts can be very useful supplements in the formulation of diets for captive wildlife. 0.26 ppm iodine containing diet was adequate for maintenance and reproduction of captive deer; 0.10-0.25 ppm iodine diet is suggested for domestic livestock.

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MANGANESE Stored in bones (3.5 ppm in rabbits to 9.2 ppm in red deer antlers) and essential for the proper formation of cartilaginous bone matrix . Many deficiency signs represent improper bone formation and growth. Calcium and phosphorus can reduce its absorption . Manganese deficient diet lower bone manganese content. Pathological manganese deficiencies in free ranging wildlife will seldom occur, because it is widely distributed in roots, seeds, forages and animal tissues.

MOLYBDENUM : 

MOLYBDENUM Molybdenum though essential trace element, it has been studied largely because of its toxicity and complexing potential to induce copper deficiencies. Toxicity signs include reduced feed intake, weight loss and diarrhoea. The ability of wildlife to select low-molybdenum feeds reduces the chances of its toxicity. SELENIUM Selenium is a component of glutathione peroxidase enzyme, which prevents oxidation of cell membranes. Selenium deficiency causes membrane oxidation produces characteristic pathological lesions of white striations and degeneration of muscle fibres or white muscle disease.

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Selenium complexes like selenites , selenates and selenoamino acids are readily available, whereas, metallic selenium and selenids are not available. Selenium toxicity called alkali disease or blind staggers in domestic animals. Its symptoms ranges from reduced rates of gain to sloughing of the hoofs, atrophy of the heart, cirrhosis of liver, blindness, partial paralysis and death due to respiratory failure or starvation. Toxicity mainly due to the extensive substitution of selenium for sulphur in methionine and cysteine to produce malfunctioning seleno -enzymes. Critical level of selenium is 0.05 ppm in the diet. High dietary sulphur and chlorinated hydrocarbons interfere in selenium metabolism, and thus raises its requirements. Sulphur reduces its availability by forming sulphur-selenium complexes.

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ZINC Zinc has role in protein synthesis and enzyme systems, therefore, its deficiency causes reduced growth and feed intake, parakeratosis (thickening and keratinisation of the tongue epithelium), a rough, unkempt pelage, alopecia and reduced play and exploratory activity have been observed in squirrel and rhesus monkeys, as well as, in numerous domestic species. The estimated zinc requirements for wild and domestic animals range from 10 ppm to 70 ppm in the diet. Animal tissues contain appreciable quantities of zinc, therefore, its deficiency in carnivores are unlikely . Milk deficit in zinc. Cow, giraffe and reindeer milk contains 3.0 ppm , 5.4 ppm and 10.4 ppm zinc, respectively.

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Availability of zinc in plants is low because of its complexing with phytate ( inositol hexaphosphoric acid), which is most prevalent in seeds. High level of dietary calcium can further affect zinc availability . Zinc requirements of captive wildlife can usually be met by feeding and watering from galvanized pails, pipes and troughs. FLUORIDE It is primarily concentrated in bones and teeth. Excess fluoride intake causes fluorosis , characterized by broken, pitted, blackened teeth, excessive or abnormal wear due to softening of the teeth, fractures of the teeth and jaw bones, anorexia and possibly impaired reproduction. In addition to above mentioned macro- and micro-minerals, silicon, tin, vanadium, nickel and arsenic are also required to be added in animal diet for proper growth, hair/feather development, and bone formation.

Daily Requirements (mg/kg DM) and Maximum Tolerable Level (mg/kg DM) of Minerals in Bovine (Ovine) and Toxicity Symptoms* : 

Daily Requirements (mg/kg DM) and Maximum Tolerable Level (mg/kg DM) of Minerals in Bovine (Ovine) and Toxicity Symptoms* Daily req. cattle/sheep Maximum tolerable level Symptoms of toxicosis Arsenic 50 A -50 B ( 50 A -50 B ) Acute: weakness, in-coordination, trembling, abdominal pain, collapse, death Sub-acute: depression, anorectic, watery diarrhea, emaciation, dehydration, death Boron 150 (150) Anorexia, diarrhea, central nervous system depression Bromine 200 (200) n. a. Cadmium 0.5 (0.5) Hypertension, decreased kidney manganese, damage to intestinal villi , reduced growth rates, anemia, enteropathy , kidney damage, infertility, deformed fetuses, abortions

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Daily req. cattle/sheep Maximum tolerable level Symptoms of toxicosis Calcium 20,000 (20,000) Not specific: interfere with phosphorus, magnesium, iron, iodine, zinc and manganese metabolism which may cause these mineral elements to be deficient. Chromium 3000c/1000d (3000c/1000d) Inflammation and congestion of the stomach, ulceration of the rumen and abomasum , and high blood (>4 ppm ) and liver (>30 ppm ) chromium levels, Cobalt 0.1/0.1 10 (20) Lack of appetite, decreased water intake, increased haemoglobin , red cell count and packed red cell volume, incoordination

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Daily req. cattle/sheep Maximum tolerable level Symptoms of toxicosis Copper 10/5 100 (25) Young: exhibit thirst, apathy, hemolytic crises, icterus , hepatic necrosis, death Mature: hemolytic crises, anorectic, weak, death (blood levels should be in the range of 0.7-2.0 ppm ) Fluoride 1/1 Heifers: 30 Mature dairy: 40; Finishing: 100; Mature beef: 50 (Breeding ewes: 60, Feeder lambs: 150) High fluoride content in blood and urine, lameness, stiffness, anorexia, reduced milk production, convulsions, weakness, lesions of skeleton and teeth, death Iodine 0.25 a - 0.50 lg / 0.25 50 (50) Goiter and reduced thyroid synthesis, slow rate of gain

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Daily req. cattle/sheep Maximum tolerable level Symptoms of toxicosis Iron 100 y -50 m 1000 (500) Reduced feed intake, growth rate and efficiency of feed conversion, diarrhea, anorexia, oliguria , hypothermia, acidosis, death. Lead 30 (30) Anaemia , fatigue, anorexia, depression, blindness, excitability in calves, weight loss, abortion. Magne-sium 700 y -2000 m 5000 (5000) Lethargy, disturbance in locomotion, diarrhea, lowered feed intake and performance, death. Manga-nese 40/ 1000 (1000) Slow growth, anaemia , gastro-intestinal lesions and occasionally neurological signs. Mer-cury 2 (2) Nausea, gastrointestinal irritation and pain, uremia, incoordination , unsteady gait, death

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Daily req. cattle/sheep Maximum tolerable level Symptoms of toxicosis Molybde -num Young: 5 (5) Mature: 6 (6) Daiarrhea , anorexia, depigmentation of hair, achromotrichia and posterior weakness, death Phosphorus 10,000 (6000) Decreased appetite, low blood phosphorus, reduced rate of gain and milk production, pica, lameness, stiffness, bone fractures, osteomalacia , osteoporosis, osteitis fibrosa Potassium 6000-8000/ 5000 30,000 (30,000) Slow growth, reduced feed consumption, stiffness and emaciation, pica, dull hair, lower plasma level Selenium 0.1-0.3/0.1 2 (2) Blind staggers, lameness, hoof malformations, loss of hair, emaniciation , laboured breathing, ataxia, abnormal posture, prostration, diarrhea

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Daily req. cattle/sheep Maximum tolerable level Symptoms of toxicosis Sodium chloride 2500 a 4600 l / 2500 40,000 l ; 90,000 a (90,000 a ) Increased water consumption, anorexia, weight loss, edema, nervousness, paralysis, death Sulphur 2000 l , 10: 1 ae / 1800-2600 y -1400-1800 m 4,000 (4,000) Anorexia, weight loss, constipation, diarrhea, pulmonary emphysemia , cardiac petechiation , catarrhal enteritis, hepatic necrosis Tin 150 f ( 150 f ) Anorexia, growth depression, impairs haematopoiesis and effects calcium metabolism Zinc 40 l - 30 a / 500 (300) Slow growth, listlessness, swollen feet with scaly lesions, alopecia, dermatitis around legs, neck, head and nostrils, other type parakeratotic lesions

Abbreviations: 

Abbreviations A inorganic g Sheep are less tolerant to arsenic than cattle B organic h As oxide a All ages i As chloride c As Cr 2 O 3 l Lactation d As CrCl 3 lg Lactating and late gestation e 10 parts urea to 1 part inorganic sulphur m Mature f Estimated for rodents y young * Kearl , L. C. (1982). Nutrient Requirements of Ruminants in Developing Countries . International Feedstuffs Institute, Utah Agricultural Experimental Station, Utah State University, Logan Utah, 381p.

Chemistry of Minerals of Nutritional Importance: 

Chemistry of Minerals of Nutritional Importance Group Atomic No. Symbol Name Ave. Atomic Mass Valence A. Essential Component of Structural and Functional Organic Compounds I 1 H Hydrogen 1.007 (-1), +1 XIV 6 C Carbon 12.011 (+2), +4 XV 7 N Nitrogen 14.007 -3, -2, -1, (+1), +2, +3, +4, +5 XVI 8 O Oxygen 15.999 -2 B. Macro-minerals I 11 Na Sodium 22.989 +1 II 12 Mg Magnesium 24.305 +2 XV 15 P Phosphorus 30.973 -3, +1, +3, +5 XVI 16 S Sulphur 32.065 -2, +2, +4, +6 XVII 17 Cl Chloride 35.453 -1, +1, (+2), +3, (+4), +5, +7 I 19 K Potassium 39.098 +1 II 20 Ca Calcium 40.078 +2

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Group Atomic No. Symbol Name Ave. Atomic Mass Valence C. Essential Micro-mineral VI 24 Cr Chromium 51.996 +2, +3, +6 VII 25 Mn Manganese 54.938 +2, (+3), +4, (+6), +7 VIII 26 Fe Iron 55.845 +2, +3, (+4), (+6) IX 27 Co Cobalt 58.933 +2, +3, (+4) XI 29 Cu Copper 63.546 +1, +2, (+3) XII 30 Zn Zinc 65.409 +2 XVI 34 Se Selenium 78.96 -2, (+2), +4, +6 VI 42 Mo Molybdenum 95.940 (+2), +3, (+4), (+5), +6 XVII 53 I Iodine 126.904 -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5, +7

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Group Atomic No. Symbol Name Ave. Atomic Mass Valence D. Other Recognized Essential Micro-minerals XVII 9 F Fluoride 18.998 -1, (+1) XIV 14 Si Silicon 28.086 -4, (+2), +4 V 23 V Vanadium 50.942 +2, +3, +4, +5 X 28 Ni Nickel 58.693 (+1), +2, (+3), (+4) XIV 50 Sn Tin 118.710 +2, +4 XV 83 As Arsenic 74.921 -3, (+2), +3, +5 F. Non-essential, but Commonly Encountered in Animal-feeds and -Products I 3 Li Lithium 6.941 +1 XIII 5 Bo Boron 10.811 -3, +3 XIII 13 Al Aluminum 26.981 +3 XI 47 Ag Silver 107.868 +1, (+2), (+3) XII 48 Cd Cadmium 112.411 (+1), +2 XII 80 Hg Mercury 200.59 +1, +2 XIV 82 Pb Lead 207.2 +2, +4

FURTHER READINGS : 

FURTHER READINGS ARC. (1980). The Nutrient Requirements Of Ruminant Livestock . Common Agricultural Bureaux, Slough, England, 351p. Kearl , L. C. (1982). Nutrient Requirements of Ruminants in Developing Countries . International Feedstuffs Institute, Utah Agricultural Experimental Station, Utah State University, Logan Utah, 381p. McDonald, P., Edwards, R. A. and Greenhalgh , J. F. D. (1977). Animal Nutrition. The English Language book Society and Longman, London, 479p. Pike, R. L. And Brown, M. L. (1970). Nutrition: an Integrated Approach, Wiley eastern Private Limited, New Delhi. Robbins, C. T. (1983). Wildlife Feeding and Nutrition. Academic press, Inc., New York, 343p. Underwood, E. J. (1971). Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, Academic press, Inc., New York.