Central Processing

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Central Processing Unit:

Central Processing Unit By: Rupal Jain

CPU:

6/18/2012 Central Processing 2 CPU The CPU is made up of a metal box. It contains the power supply, hard disk drive, floppy drive and motherboard as its main parts. The brain of the computer is called as Central Processing Unit or CPU. In human body all thinking and decision making or calculations are done by the brain. In the same manner in a computer all calculations and results are done and prepared in the CPU.

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6/18/2012 Central Processing 3 All the processing work of data is done by the CPU. Hence, it is called the Central Processing Unit . When the CPU is contained on a chip it is called microprocessor. A chip is a single wafer of a material known as silicon on which the circuit is built.

Usefulness of CPU:

6/18/2012 Central Processing 4 Usefulness of CPU When we feed any data in the computer through keyboard, it enters in the CPU. CPU calculates and compares the data and after doing necessary calculations it provides final result or output. Thus, CPU is responsible for all the calculations and comparisons done by the computer. Calculations done by CPU are always accurate and correct.

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6/18/2012 Central Processing 5 For e.g. let us subtract 3 from 5.In human body, this subtraction (5-3) is done by the brain. Similarly this is done by CPU in computers. Not only subtraction but CPU can also do other types of calculations such as addition, multiplication, division, etc. CPU can also compare two numbers to find the greater number.

Functions Of The CPU:

6/18/2012 Central Processing 6 Functions Of The CPU The CPU reads and executes program instructions. It performs calculations. It makes decisions. It also coordinates the activities of the entire computer system.

CPU:

6/18/2012 Central Processing 7 CPU

Parts Of The CPU:

6/18/2012 Central Processing 8 Parts Of The CPU The Central Processing Unit is made up of : The Control Unit (CU) The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) The Main Memory Unit (MMU) or Internal Unit

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6/18/2012 Central Processing 9 Main Memory Unit (RAM and ROM) Control Unit Arithmetic Logic Unit Secondary Memory Output Input

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6/18/2012 Central Processing 10 Control Unit The control unit of the CPU sends command signals to the other components of the other computer system. It controls and coordinates the various operations which take place in the computer. It acts like a traffic signal directing the flow of data in the computer.

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6/18/2012 Central Processing 11 The Arithmetic Logic Unit The ALU is the part of the computer system where all arithmetic calculations and other logical operations like sorting and comparing of data take place. The ALU contains electronic circuits for doing the basic arithmetic operations.

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6/18/2012 Central Processing 12 The Main Memory Unit The main memory is also known as the primary memory or internal memory of the computer. It is divided into Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM). The main memory chip and the CPU chips are separate chips.

Random Access Memory :

6/18/2012 Central Processing 13 Random Access Memory The RAM holds data in current use. This is the place where the programs we are working in get stored temporarily. RAM is known as the VOLATILE MEMORY . That is the data stored in RAM gets erased when we switch off the

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6/18/2012 Central Processing 14 computer. A computer could have 128, 256 or 512 MB RAM or even more. The RAM of a computer controls the performance of the machine to a large extent. One can always add more RAM to a computer system.

Read Only Memory:

6/18/2012 Central Processing 15 Read Only Memory The ROM of a computer comes with information permanently stored inside it and these instructions cannot be overwritten . It is therefore, known as the Permanent Memory .

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6/18/2012 Central Processing 16 These instructions have been stored at the time of the computer. ROM is used for storing special sets of the instructions which the computer needs when it starts up , i.e. foe the booting process.

Silicon Chips:

6/18/2012 Central Processing 17 Silicon Chips The electronic circuits in a computer are contained in chips. These small chips are small slices of material called silicon. Each chips has million of circuits. These chips are building blocks of a computer. The way circuits are arranged decides the type of jobs each chip can do. For e.g.for the memory of the computer, there is one

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6/18/2012 Central Processing 18 chip and for the processing wok like adding, subtraction, multiplication, comparing and calculating there is another chip for all the processing. The chip for processing work is called the CPU chip or microprocessing chip. There is also a clock chip or time chip to control time intervals of electronic pulses sent, as instructions, to and form the microprocessing chip. In a computer, all the chips are mounted on boards called Printed Circuit Boards (PCB).

Motherboard:

6/18/2012 Central Processing 19 Motherboard The mother board is the main PCB inside a PC. Motherboard is the board is the board on which the memory chips,. Clock chips, microprocessor, expansion slots and other parts of computer are located.

Input and Output Cards:

6/18/2012 Central Processing 20 Input and Output Cards Input and output cards control the input (entry of data) and outputs (final results) of the computer.

Types of Cards:

6/18/2012 Central Processing 21 Types of Cards Floppy Disk Drive Controller Card Hard Disk Drive Controller Card

Floppy Disk Drive Controller Card:

6/18/2012 Central Processing 22 Floppy Disk Drive Controller Card This card controls the operation of the Floppy Disk Drive.

Hard Disk Drive Controller Card :

6/18/2012 Central Processing 23 Hard Disk Drive Controller Card In computer this card controls the operations of the Hard Disk Except these cards, more cards can be put in depending upon the additional features you may be using. For example, if you plan to connect your computers to another computers for networking, then both computers will need networking cards.

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6/18/2012 Central Processing 24 Also if you want to connect your telephone line to the computer, you will have to do this through a device known as modem. You will also have to put in a card for it.

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6/18/2012 Central Processing 25 Facts The programs or sets of instructions we give to the computer are kept in the main memory. When the computer is doing any work, the data to be processed is also kept in the primary memory. Computer Clock: The speed of all the operations inside the CPU are controlled by an electric clock.

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6/18/2012 Central Processing 26 This determines the processing speed of a computer is measured in Megahertz. Nowadays many computers have the speed of 1.6MHz.

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6/18/2012 Central Processing 27 Microprocessor

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6/18/2012 Central Processing 28

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6/18/2012 Central Processing 29 THE END

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