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Marketing Research : 

Marketing Research Aaker, Kumar, Day Seventh Edition Instructor’s Presentation Slides

Chapter Eleven : 

Chapter Eleven Attitude Measurement

Attitude Measurement : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Attitude Measurement Majority of questions in marketing research are designed to measure attitudes Attitudes include Information possessed Feelings of like and/or dislike Intentions to behave Management wants to understand and influence behavior

Reasons for Measuring Attitudes : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Reasons for Measuring Attitudes Attitudes lead to behavior More feasible to ask questions on attitudes than to observe and interpret behavior Large capacity for diagnosis and explanation Learn which features of a new product concept are acceptable or unacceptable Measure the perceived strengths and weaknesses of competitive alternatives

What Are Attitudes? : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day What Are Attitudes? Mental states used by individuals to structure the way they perceive their environment and guide the way they respond to it

Components of Attitude : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Components of Attitude Cognitive or Knowledge Component Represents a person’s information about an object Awareness of existence on the object Beliefs about the characteristics or attributes of the object Judgments about the relative importance of each of the attributes

Components of Attitude (Cont.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Components of Attitude (Cont.) Affective or Liking Component Summarizes a person’s overall feelings toward an object, situation, or person On a scale of like-dislike or favorable-unfavorable When there are several alternatives, liking is expressed in terms of preference Measured by asking which alternative is “most preferred” or “first choice,” which is the “second choice,” and so on

Components of Attitude (Cont.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Components of Attitude (Cont.) Intention or Action Component Refers to a person’s expectations of future behavior toward an object Intentions are usually limited to a distinct time period that depends on buying habits and planning horizons Advantage Incorporates information about a respondent’s ability or willingness to pay for the object, or other taken action

Measurement and Scaling : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Measurement and Scaling Measurement Standardized process of assigning numbers or other symbols to certain characteristics of objects of interests according to pre-specified rules Characteristics for Standardization One-to-one correspondence between the symbol and the characteristic in the object that is being measured Rules for assignment should be invariant over time and the objects being measured

Measurement and Scaling (Contd.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Measurement and Scaling (Contd.) Scaling Process of creating a continuum on which objects are located according to the amount of the measured characteristic that the object possesses

Measurement Scales : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Measurement Scales Nominal Scale Objects are assigned to mutually exclusive, labeled categories No necessary relationships among categories No ordering or spacing are implied Only possible arithmetic operation is a count of each category

Measurement Scales (Contd.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Measurement Scales (Contd.) Ordinal Scale Rank objects or arrange them in order by some common variable Does each object have more or less of a variable than some other object? Does not provide information on how much difference between objects Arithmetic operations are limited to statistics such as median or mode

Measurement Scales (Contd.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Measurement Scales (Contd.) Interval Scale Numbers are assigned to objects that represent categories, rank orders, as well as how much the object is preferred on the attribute being measured Differences can be compared Entire range of statistical operations can be employed

Measurement Scales (Contd.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Measurement Scales (Contd.) Ratio Scale Type of interval scale with meaningful zero point Possible to say how many times greater or smaller one object is than another Magnitude scaling of attitudes has been calibrated through numeric estimation

Attitude Rating Scales : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Attitude Rating Scales Present a respondent with a continuum of numbered categories that represent the range of possible attitude adjustments Single item or multiple item scales

Slide 16: 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Attitude Scales Single-Item Scales Continuous Scales Multi-Item Scales Stapel Scales Thurstone Scales Likert Scales Associative Scales Semantic Differential Scale Paired Comparison Scales Q-sort Scales Comparative Scales Itemized Category Scales Pictorial Scales Constant Sum Scales Rank Order Scales Classification of Attitude Scales

Single Item Scales : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Single Item Scales Only have one item to measure a construct Itemized-category scale most widely used by marketing researchers Other single item scales Comparative Rank-order Q-sort Pictorial Constant sum

Single Item Scales (Contd.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Single Item Scales (Contd.) Itemized-category Scales Scales in which the respondent selects from a limited number of categories Comparative Scale A judgment comparing one object, concept, or person against one another

Single Item Scales (Contd.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Single Item Scales (Contd.) Rank-order Scales Scale in which the respondent compares one item with another or a group of items against each other and ranks them Q-sort Scaling Respondents sort comparative characteristics into normally distributed groups Ten or more groups increases accuracy of results

Single Item Scales (Contd.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Single Item Scales (Contd.) Constant-sum scale Respondents allocate a fixed number of rating points among serial objects to reflect relative preference Pictorial scales Various categories of the scale are depicted pictorially Thermometer Scale Funny faces scale Format must be comprehensible to respond and allow accurate response

Single Item Scales (Contd.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Single Item Scales (Contd.) Paired-Comparison Scales The brands to be rated are presented two at a time, so each brand in the category was compared once to every other brand Brands are rated on a given 10 pts. that are then divided between the two brands Advantages Performs well on the criteria Limitations Cumbersome to administer Frame of reference is always the other brand being tested; these brands may change over time

Designing Single Item Scales : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Designing Single Item Scales Number of Scale Categories Types of Poles Used in the Scale Strength of the Anchors Labeling of the Categories Balance of a Scale

Multiple-item Scales : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Multiple-item Scales Developed to measure a sample of beliefs toward the attitude objects and combine the set of answers into an average score

Multiple-item Scales (Contd.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Multiple-item Scales (Contd.) Likert Scale Requires respondent to indicate degree of agreement or disagreement with a variety of statements related to the attitude object Summated Scale Scores on individual items are summed to give total score for respondents Likert Scale Is Uni-dimensional

Multiple-item Scales (Contd.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Multiple-item Scales (Contd.) Thurstone Scales Also known as the method of equal-appearing intervals; objective is to obtain a unidimensional scale with interval properties Step 1: Generate a large number of statements or adjectives reflecting all degrees of favorableness toward the attitude of objects Step 2: A group of judges is given this set of items and asked to classify them according to their degree of favorableness or unfavorableness

Multiple-item Scales (Contd.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Multiple-item Scales (Contd.) Thurstone Scales (Cont.) Advantages Easy to administer Requires minimum instructions Limitations Time consuming Expensive to construct Not as much diagnostic value as a Likert scale Values depend on the attitudes of the original judges

Multiple-item Scales (Contd.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Multiple-item Scales (Contd.) Semantic-differential Scale Respondents rate each attribute object on a number of five or seven-point rating scales bounded by polar adjectives or phrases With bipolar scale, the midpoint is a neutral point

Characteristics of Semantic Differential : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Characteristics of Semantic Differential Scales in Semantic Marketing Applications: Pairs of objects or phrases must be meaningful in market being studied and often correspond to product/service attributes Avoid "halo" effect by placing negative pole on either side Category increments are treated as interval scales so group mean values can be computed for each object on each scale May also be analyzed as a summated rating scale

Characteristics of Semantic Differential (Contd.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Characteristics of Semantic Differential (Contd.) Profile Analysis Application of semantic differential scale Plot mean ratings of each object on each scale for visual comparison Overall comparison of brands hard to grasp with many brands and attributes Not all attributes are independent

Multiple-item Scales (Contd.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Multiple-item Scales (Contd.) Stapel Scales Uses one pole rather than two opposite poles Respondents select a numerical response category High positive score reflects good fit between adjective and object Easy to administer and construct No need to assure bipolarity

Multiple-item Scales (Contd.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Multiple-item Scales (Contd.) Associative Scaling Most effective for markets where respondent is knowledgeable only about a small subset of a large number of choices Appropriate to choice situations that involve a sequential decision process Best suited to market tracking where the emphasis is on understanding shifts in relative competitive positions

Multiple-item Scales (Contd.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Multiple-item Scales (Contd.) Continuous Rating Scales Respondents rate objects by placing a mark at appropriate position on a line running from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other Values can be interpreted as interval or ratio scaled data It is easy to construct Scoring is cumbersome and unreliable

General Guidelines For Developing A Multiple-Item Scale : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day General Guidelines For Developing A Multiple-Item Scale Determine clearly what you are going to measure Generate as many items as possible Ask experts in the field to evaluate the initial pool of items Determine the type of attitudinal scale to be used

Slide 34: 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Include some items that will help in the validation of the scale Evaluate and refine the items Administer the items to an initial sample Finally, optimize the scale length

Choosing An Attitudinal Scale : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Choosing An Attitudinal Scale Problems in choosing There are many different techniques, each with its own strengths and weaknesses Virtually any technique can be adapted to the measurement of any one of the attitude components Researchers choice shaped by: The specific information required Adabtability of the scale to the data collection method and budget constraints Compatibility of the scale with the structure of the respondent’s attitude

Accuracy of Attitude Measurements : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Accuracy of Attitude Measurements Validity An attitude measure has validity if it measures what it is supposed to measure Face Validity The extent to which the content of a measurement scale appears to tap all relevant facets of the construct Criterion Validity Based on empirical evidence that the attitude measure correlates with other “criterion” variables

Accuracy of Attitude Measurements (Cont.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Accuracy of Attitude Measurements (Cont.) Concurrent validity Two variables are measured at the same time Predictive validity The attitude measure can predict some future event Convergent validity A form of construct validity that represents the association between the measured construct and measures of other constructs with which the construct is related on theoretical grounds

Accuracy of Attitude Measurements (Cont.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Discriminant validity A form of construct validity that represents the extent to which the measured construct is not associated with which the construct is related on theoretical grounds Construct Validity A scale evaluation criterion that relates to the underlying question "what is the nature of the underlying variable or construct measured by the scale?" Accuracy of Attitude Measurements (Cont.)

Accuracy of Attitude Measurements (Contd.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Accuracy of Attitude Measurements (Contd.) Reliability The consistency with which the measure produces the same results with the same or comparable population Sensitivity Extent to which ratings provided by a scale are able to discriminate between the respondents who differ with respect to the construct being measured

Accuracy of Attitude Measurements (Contd.) : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Accuracy of Attitude Measurements (Contd.) Generalizability Refers to the ease of scale administration and interpretation in different research settings and situations Relevancy Relevance = reliability * validity

Scales in Cross-national Research : 

Marketing Research 7th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day Scales in Cross-national Research Responses Can Be Affected by: Low literacy and educational levels Culture in a country Semantic differential scale is closest to pan cultural scale Adapting response formats, particularly their calibration, for specific countries and cultures

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