TEACHING STRATEGIES AND METHODS 1

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

TEACHING STRATEGIES AND METHODOLOGIES FOR TEACHING & LEARNING:

TEACHING STRATEGIES AND METHODOLOGIES FOR TEACHING & LEARNING

PowerPoint Presentation:

I. Traditional Teaching strategies Lecturing Discussion Questioning Using audio-visuals

PowerPoint Presentation:

II. Activity based strategies Cooperative learning Simulations Problem based learning Self-learning modules

PowerPoint Presentation:

III. Computer teaching strategies Computer-assisted instructions Internet Virtual reality IV. Distance learning Interactive television Classes via internet

PowerPoint Presentation:

V. Teaching psychomotor skills Approaches Assessment of pscyhomotor skills learning VI. Clinical Teaching Purpose of clinical laboratory Models of clinical teaching Preparation of clinical instruction Conducting a clinical laboratory research

I. TRADITIONAL:

I. TRADITIONAL 1 Lecturing 2. Discussion 3. Questioning 4. Using Audio-visual

1. LECTURING:

1. LECTURING

TYPES OF LECTURES:

TYPES OF LECTURES 1. TRADITIONAL ORAL ESSAY The teacher is the orator and ONLY speaker Expositions done on topic – inspirational or information 2. PARTICIPATORY LECTURE > Begins w/ brainstorming from what students read

PowerPoint Presentation:

3. LECTURE W/ UNCOMPLETED HANDOUTS Resembles traditional oral essay but w/ handouts (blank spaces) 4. FEEDBACK LECTURE > Consists of mini-lectures interspaced w/ 10 minute small group discussions

PowerPoint Presentation:

5. MEDIATED LECTURE – uses media such as films, slides or Web based images + traditional lecture

PURPOSES OF LECTURES:

PURPOSES OF LECTURES

PowerPoint Presentation:

Efficient means of introducing learners to new topic and sets the stage of learning Stimulates learner’s interest Helps to integrate and synthesize a large body of knowledge For clarification of difficult parts (arrythmia, acid-base balances) To advance knowledge when textbooks are not available

ADVANTAGES OF LECTURING:

ADVANTAGES OF LECTURING It is economical . Great deal of information – shared. Supplies and textbooks become true to life  ‘theater’ Teacher serves as model  students see a ‘creative mind at work’ Helps students develop their listening abilities

DISADVANTAGES OF LECTURING:

DISADVANTAGES OF LECTURING Puts learners in the PASSIVE ROLE of a sponge Focuses on the TEACHING OF FACTS with little focus on PS, DM, analytical thinking or transfer of learning  results in SURFACE learning Does not meet student’s individual learning needs Student’s have little attention time span (15 minutes)

ORGANIZING LECTURES:

ORGANIZING LECTURES Take time to plan for the objective of a lecture Make an outline  HEIRARCHICAL/CLASSICAL LECTURE Ex. Research Design

Ex.:

Ex. Research Design I. Why we need different research design II. Research Design: A. Research (clinical trials) > Quasi-experimental > Pre-experimental B. Correlation > Ex-post facto > Restrospective III. Validity and Reliability of Design

DELIVERING THE LECTURE:

DELIVERING THE LECTURE Plan your delivery Rehearse Consciously think of the delivery  to maximize effectiveness

2. DISCUSSIONS:

2. DISCUSSIONS

TYPES OF DISCUSSIONS:

TYPES OF DISCUSSIONS 1. FORMAL DISCUSSIONS Announced topic Reading, watching movie – done in advance 2. INFORMAL DISCUSSIONS Spontaneous

PURPOSES & ADVANTAGES:

PURPOSES & ADVANTAGES Learns problem solving method (groups) Opportunity to apply principles, concepts & theories Clarifies information & concepts Assists to evaluate beliefs/positions (professional, societal or ethical issues) > change in attitudes & values

DISADVANTAGES:

DISADVANTAGES Takes a lot of time One person/few participants (monopolies) Gathering of uninformed opinions

DISCUSSION TECHNIQUES:

DISCUSSION TECHNIQUES Make expectations clear. ‘Students know exactly what they have to do for discussion’ Ex. Chapter to read, watch a video 2. Set ground rules. > Limitations (e.g. time, no. of speakers, interruptions during speech)

PowerPoint Presentation:

3 . Arrange physical space. Circle sitting arrangement 4. Plan a discussion starter. Ask participants to come up with opening questions Study questions – handed out prior to meeting

PowerPoint Presentation:

5. Facilitate, do not discuss. Refrain from talking. Watch group progress. Keep everyone engage in discussions. 6. Encourage quiet members to participate. Make eye contact and smile. Give direct, simple questions: “Mary, what do you think?”

PowerPoint Presentation:

7. Don’t allow monopolies. Eye contact. Be blunt when needed.. “We’ve been hearing a lot fro Sarah. Now, let us hear of the rest of you think.” 8. Direct the discussion among group members. > Leaders facilitate.

PowerPoint Presentation:

9. Keep the discussion on track. “We seem to have strayed a little fro our topic. Let’s pick up on the last topic that Lot was talking about.” 10. Clarify when confusion reigns. > Recording may help the group. Let them learn the act of clear self-expression.

PowerPoint Presentation:

11. Tolerate some silence. Silence gives everyone a chance to think. 12. Summarize when appropriate.

3. QUESTIONING:

3. QUESTIONING Can be a teaching strategy Ask questions  higher order thinking

FUNCTIONS OF QUESTIONS:

FUNCTIONS OF QUESTIONS Places the learners in an active role Simple recall Helps students analyze concepts Evaluate worth of ideas Speculate “if” 2. Assesses baseline knowledge  retention

PowerPoint Presentation:

3. Helps review content – enlightens gray areas 4. Motivates students Stimulates thinking & curiosity 5. Guides learner’s thought process

LEVELS OF QUESTIONS:

LEVELS OF QUESTIONS According to WINK classification CONVERGENT Qs specific, usually short & unexpected answers PURPOSE -- recall and integrate information Ex. What happens to the bronchioles when a client has pneumonia versus an asthma attack?

PowerPoint Presentation:

B. DIVERGENT Qs Generates new ideas, draws implications, formulates a new perspective Ex. What might happen if you relocate an elderly person with dementia to another type of residence where he or she is presently living?

PowerPoint Presentation:

2. According to BARDEN A. LOWER-ORDER QUESTIONS Recall information, read or memorize B. HIGHER-ORDER QUESTIONS > Requires comprehension and critical thinking

TYPES OF QUESTIONS:

TYPES OF QUESTIONS 1. FACTUAL QUESTIONS Requires simple recall questions Assess learner’s understanding To check if students are listening 2. PROBING QUESTIONS Seeks further explanation Ex. “Can you explain that?”

PowerPoint Presentation:

3. MCQs Tests recall or used to begin a discussion 4. OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS All questions that request learners to construct an answer Ex. “When shall you use clean versus sterile dressing technique?”

PowerPoint Presentation:

5. DISCUSSION-STIMULATING Qs Uses various questions to promote the topic Ex. “Do you agree with John’s position?” 6. QUESTIONS THAT GUIDE PS Guides learners through problem solving thinking Ex. “What information do you need to have before we can solve this problem?”

PowerPoint Presentation:

7. RHETORICAL QUESTIONS Stimulates thinking Guides learners into asking some of their own questions

QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES:

QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES Supportive teachers  promote questioning 1. Prepare some questions ahead of time Match with objectives 2. State questions clearly and specifically > Ex. “Can you give me an example of how respnodeat superior can be practiced?”

PowerPoint Presentation:

3. Tolerate some silence. 4. Listen carefully to responses. Don’t interrupt. 5. Use the “beam, force, build” technique. BEAM – send Q to the class FORCE – call one student at a time BUILD – redirect the question to other students

PowerPoint Presentation:

6. Provide feedback. Allow a few seconds of silence and ask, “Can anyone add to the answer?” 7. Handle wrong answers carefully. “I am sorry Edward but it’s not quite it.” “Yvette, you are correct in saying that ____, but that is not the best way to go.”

STIMULATING LEARNERS TO ASK QUESTIONS:

STIMULATING LEARNERS TO ASK QUESTIONS Learners should be rewarded for asking good questions. Thinking is driven not by answers by good questioning .

HOW TO ENGAGE?:

HOW TO ENGAGE? Thank or praise the student for asking questions. Talk to the whole class not only the questioner. This keeps the whole class / group involved.

4. USING VISUAL AIDS:

4. USING VISUAL AIDS Can enhance teaching Can add interest to the classroom

ISSUES:

ISSUES Correct choice? Available? Effective?

FACTORS TO CONSIDER: SELECTING MEDIA:

FACTORS TO CONSIDER: SELECTING MEDIA 1. Learning objectives Opt for variety 2. Availability of materials / technical assistance 3. Level, ability & number of students

TYPES OF TRADITIONAL AUDIOVISUALS:

TYPES OF TRADITIONAL AUDIOVISUALS HANDOUTS Printed materials – communicate facts, figures, concepts Saves a lot of time for information 2. CHALKBOARDS/ WHITEBOARDS Useful for mathematical problems

PowerPoint Presentation:

3. OVERHEAD TRANSPARENCIES (OHP) Saves time, helps organize and illustrates content Costly 4. SLIDES > Used to show pictures, project diagrams, charts and word concepts

PowerPoint Presentation:

ADVANTAGES OF SLIDES: Affordable Easy to store Easy to update/ recognize DISADVANTAGES OF SLIDES: Costly projector bulbs – don’t last long

PowerPoint Presentation:

5. VIDEO TAPES In-house filming, video-clips Used during: 1) role playing; 2) communication; 3) counseling skills ADVANTAGES OF VIDEOTAPES: Provides personal touch Standardized exposure – in spite of distance Used at learner’s own pacing

PowerPoint Presentation:

DISADVANTAGES OF VIDEOTAPES Costly Communication is one way – learner’s become passive

SUMMARY: INTERACTIVE LEARNING:

SUMMARY: INTERACTIVE LEARNING Combine variety of techniques Change tactics every 15 to 20 minutes to recapture student’s interest

II. ACTIVITY BASED TEACHING STRATEGIES:

II. ACTIVITY BASED TEACHING STRATEGIES Cooperative learning Simulations Problem based learning Self-learning modules

STRENGTH::

STRENGTH: Students are involved in creating and storing up knowledge for themselves

1. COOPERATIVE LEARNING:

1. COOPERATIVE LEARNING Small groups of learners  work together toward achieving shared learning goal Learners are aware that they are responsible not only for their own learning but also for that of the others in the group.

TYPES OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING GROUPS:

TYPES OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING GROUPS A. FORMAL COOPERATIVE LEARNING GROUP Done in traditional class / distance learning groups Individual or group accountability Most useful in group setting

PowerPoint Presentation:

B. INFORMAL COOPERATIVE LEARNING GROUP Can be used in any setting Helps the members to understand and clarify misconceptions as well as to share experiences

PowerPoint Presentation:

C. BASE COOPERATIVE LEARNING GROUP surveys/focus groups Applied easily to new staff orientation or preceptor programs

ADVANTAGES OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING:

ADVANTAGES OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING Promotes critical thinking – varied positions  discussions --? Enhances social skill. Helps address learning needs & learning styles Members learn to function as a team.

DISADVANTAGES OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING:

DISADVANTAGES OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING > Does not cover all content/ topics in syllabus

2. SIMULATIONS:

2. SIMULATIONS Controlled representations of reality Exercises that learners engage in to learn in the real world

PURPOSES & USES OF SIMULATIONS:

PURPOSES & USES OF SIMULATIONS Enhances DM & PS skills Enhances interaction abilities Helps student learn psychomotor skills in a safe and controlled setting Chance to apply theories & principles in practice Achieves learning objectives – communication skills

PowerPoint Presentation:

6. Ensures attitudinal change Helps discover factors affecting people & situations (exercise, game, role-playing) 7 . Helps in mastery of skills 8. Helps evaluate learning (simulation tests)

ROLE OF EDUCATOR IN SIMULATION LEARNING:

ROLE OF EDUCATOR IN SIMULATION LEARNING Planner – read carefully, assign reading Facilitator – introduce activity, moderator Debriefer – summarize what happened, let learners explain what they did and why, point out principles and theories applied

TYPES OF SIMULATIONS:

TYPES OF SIMULATIONS 1. SIMULATION EXERCISE Focuses on process learning Ex. Earthquake drills, fire drills 2. SIMULATION GAMES > Focuses on CONTENT / PROCESS learning

TYPES -- SIMULATION GAMES:

TYPES -- SIMULATION GAMES A. CONTENT LEARNING Focuses on teaching / reinforcing factual information (ex. Crosswords, word games, bingo gaes) B. PROCESS LEARNING > Emphasizes problem solving & application of information (ex. Sim City)

ADVANTAGES OF SIMULATION GAMES:

ADVANTAGES OF SIMULATION GAMES Teaches facts & application of information Stimulates learning – makes learning fun Helps to evaluate learning Increases interaction among learners

DISADVANTAGES OF SIMULATION GAMES:

DISADVANTAGES OF SIMULATION GAMES Waste of time Unprofessional Teachers dislike competition which games promote

PowerPoint Presentation:

3. ROLE PLAYING Form of drama – spontaneous acting out of roles (interaction) Lasts for 3 to 5 minutes (illustrates one aspect of human relationship) Expression of non-verbal and verbal behavior, response patterns and implementation of principles

PowerPoint Presentation:

4. CASE STUDIES > An analysis of an incident or situation on which characteristics and relationships are described, factual or hypothetical events transpire, and problems need to resolved or solved

PowerPoint Presentation:

Steps to follow in case studies: Develop objectives – What do you want learners to learn? Select a situation – Choose a topic & a scenario that fits the objectives & concept you want to apply. Develop the characters. Develop the discussion questions. Lead the group discussion.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Note: There is NO ONE RIGHT ANSWER to a case. Many problems are so complex that they have a variety of resolutions rather than a solution.

3. PROBLEM BASED LEARNING:

3. PROBLEM BASED LEARNING Involves confronting students w/ real life situations – enhances CT & DM

POINTS IN PBL!:

POINTS IN PBL! SMALL GROUPS  ANALYZE THE CASE  IDENTIFY THEIR OWN NEEDS FOR INFORMATION  SOLVE PROBLEMS. OUTPUT Students will become GOOD PROBLEM SOLVERS in their future work Students become LIFE LONG LEARNERS

DIFFERENCES:

DIFFERENCES PBL CASE STUDIES > CONDUCTED IN SMALL GROUPS > USED BY INDIVIDUALS/GROUPS > STUDENTS HAVE LITTLE BACKGROUNDS KNOWLEDGE OF SUBJECT MATTER > STUDENTS HVE MOST OF THE BACKGROUND LEARNING THEORY TO APPLY TO THE CASE > CASES ARE USUALLY BRIEF & PRESENTING PROBLEMS ARE ILL-STRUCTURES > CASES ARE OFTEN LONG & DETAILED, AND THEIR PROBLEMS ARE WELL-DEFINED

Example of PBL:

Example of PBL A small community hospital is confronted with a severe nursing shortage. They are considering a change in the nursing delivery system to a model that involves cross training of personnel and increased use of assistive personnel. Rumors about a change began to circulate around the hospital and many staff seem unhappy.

Identified issues by the group:

Identified issues by the group NURSING SHORTAGES How often do they occur? How severe do they get? What causes them? What past solutions have been tried and do they work?

PowerPoint Presentation:

II. NURSING CARE DELIVERY SYSTEM What is this one called? Is it being used anywhere? How would it work? What might cross-training involve? Are there published job descriptions for assistive personnel?

4. SELF-LEARNING MODULES:

4. SELF-LEARNING MODULES Also known as SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING MODULES SELF-PACED LEARNING MODULES SELF-LEARNING PACKETS INDIVIDUALIZED LEARNING ACTIVITY PACKAGES

DEFINITION OF SELF-LEARNING MODULES:

DEFINITION OF SELF-LEARNING MODULES A self-contained unit or package of study materials for use by an individual Audience where this WORKS BEST: Adult learners

Principles in handling adult learners::

Principles in handling adult learners: Adults are self-motivated to learn (relevant) Adult’s prior experience is a resource for further learning. Adults are problem focused and readily learn material they can use to solve problems.

COMPONENTS OF SELF-LEARNING MODULES:

COMPONENTS OF SELF-LEARNING MODULES Introduction and instructions Behavioral objectives Pretest Learning activity Self-evaluation Pretest

TIPS:

TIPS 1. INTRODUCTION & INSTRUCTIONS Topic for module – single topic Ex. Problem of elimination – divide this into urinary elimination and intestinal elimination 2. BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES Expected of the learner Objectives – over-all objectives / specific

PowerPoint Presentation:

3. PRETEST Optional Pretest – diagnostic test / assesses prerequisite knowledge helps evaluate which sections of the module to skip and which ones need to be studied in depth

PowerPoint Presentation:

4. LEARNING ACTIVITIES Most creative portion Designed to help meet objectives Must appeal to people – diff. learning styles Ex. Attending short lectures, speeches, demo Watching a video or slide Using a computer program

PowerPoint Presentation:

4. SELF-EVALUATION TOOLS Assesses how the students are achieving the objectives 5. POSTTEST A self quiz (MCQ or short answer questions) Retake is okay Determines mastery

DEVELOPING A MODULE:

DEVELOPING A MODULE Takes time (weeks/months) Begin with the body (behavioral objectives, pretest, learning activity, self-evaluation, posttest) Last to write – introduction & instructions PILOT TESTING – have one or two people work at the module for feedback (e.g. unclear objectives etc)

ADVANTAGES OF SELF-LEARNING MODULES:

ADVANTAGES OF SELF-LEARNING MODULES Very flexible – do it at your own pacing, done independently Individualized approach – helps students Sparks interest in teaching – creativity Standardized Reduces travel time Reduces costs

DISADVANTAGES OF SELF-LEARNING MODULES:

DISADVANTAGES OF SELF-LEARNING MODULES Miss interactions with people May lead to further procastination – lack of structures and deadlines Promotes dishonesty Takes many hours to design and test

IV. COMPUTER TEACHING STRATEGIES:

IV. COMPUTER TEACHING STRATEGIES Computer Aided Instruction Computer Managed Instruction Internet

1. COMPUTER-AIDED INSTRUCTION:

1. COMPUTER-AIDED INSTRUCTION

LEVELS OF Computer Aided Instruction:

LEVELS OF Computer Aided Instruction 1. Drill and Practice Recognition and application of information Ex. Drugs names and actions 2. Tutorials Useful teaching material at the rule/concept level Forces teachers from learning some basic material

PowerPoint Presentation:

3. Games Game mode can teach 4. Simulation Provides off real world experiences Provides chances to learn how to solve clinical problems

PowerPoint Presentation:

5. Multimedia presentations Also called hypermedia Older form: Interactive videodisc (IVD) program

EVALUATING SOFTWARE: CRITERIA:

EVALUATING SOFTWARE: CRITERIA Accuracy – Up to date? Easy to use – computer friendly? Design –Interactive? Appearance – Graphics? Animation & sound? Feedback – rationale? Cost-effectiveness – price? Discounts?

2. COMPUTER-MANAGED INSTRUCTION:

2. COMPUTER-MANAGED INSTRUCTION

PowerPoint Presentation:

Any system of record keeping Use of authoring systems – pre-developed software packages that guide the educator t process of development of CAI

3. THE INTERNET:

3. THE INTERNET > A mammoth complex of computer connections across continents, connecting many millions of computers

PowerPoint Presentation:

EMAIL (electronic) Greater collaboration between teachers vs. students and between students vs. students Source of peer support Means to seek referrals, for consultation and for post-discharge follow-up EX. LIST SERVS – a group of people who have similar interests and want to share information and experience regarding their interest in a type of discussion groups

PowerPoint Presentation:

2. NEWS GROUPS Discussions groups of people with same interest Messages appear in general mailbox Ex. Sci.med.nursing – group discussing all kinds of nursing issues (needs a news render softward) Also used for online support groups Ex. Groups for caregivers of Alzheimer’s disease

PowerPoint Presentation:

3. World Wide Web A collection of “documents” found on Web pages A place to find specialized knowledge and multimedia presentations Ex. MEDLINE – for National Library of Medicine Criteria to choose WWW site Purpose – audience? Currency Credibility Content accuracy Design

PowerPoint Presentation:

ADVANTAGES IN HOSPITAL USE Provides home-based care support for the chronically ill Tool for patient care management – part of hospital information system Provides patient teaching Supports mastery learning

PowerPoint Presentation:

> Maximizes time on task and helps develop overlearning (beyond mastery, responses becomes automatic) > Provides instant feedback > Develops cognitive residues (skills in researching  skills in managing information) > Promotes interactivity, institutional consistency, individualized instruction, time efficiency and cost-effectiveness (savings)

PowerPoint Presentation:

DISADVANTAGES High-cost  initial outlay for hardware and software Negative effect  personal and professional communication