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ROBOTICS : 

ROBOTICS Industrial Robots Definition A robot is a programmable arm simulator “A robot is a re-programmable, multifunction manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or special devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks” Robot Institute of America

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– Arm or Manipulator – End effectors – Drive Mechanism – Controller – Custom features: e.g. sensors and transducers Main Components of Industrial Robots

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Robotics Terminology Link: A rigid piece of material connecting joints in a robot. Joint: The device which allows relative motion between two adjoining links in a robot. A robot joint is a mechanism that permits relative movement between parts of a robot arm. The joints of a robot are designed to enable the robot to move its end-effectors along a path from one position to another as desired.

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The Robotic Movements The basic movements required for a desired motion of most industrial robots are: Rotational movement: This enables the robot to place its arm in any direction on a horizontal plane. Radial movement: This enables the robot to move its end-effectors radially to reach distant points. Vertical movement: This enables the robot to take its end-effector to different heights.

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The Robotic Joints Types of JOINTS 1) Linear Joint (L) 2) Rotational Joint (R) 3) Twisting Joint (T) 4) Revolving Joint (V) Linear Joints are also known as sliding as well as Prismatic joints (L) They are called prismatic because the cross section of the joint is considered as a generalized prism. They permit links to move in a linear relationship. Revolute joints permit only angular motion between links. Their variations include: Rotational joint (R) Twisting joint (T) Revolving joint (V) A robot joint

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A rotational joint (R) is identified by its motion, rotation about an axis perpendicular to the adjoining links. A twisting joint (T) is also a rotational joint, where the rotation takes place about an axis that is parallel to both adjoining links.

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A revolving joint (V) is another rotational joint, where the rotation takes place perpendicular to one another at this kind of joint. The rotation involves revolution of one link about another.

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Wrist Movement The Wrist movement is designed to enable the robot to orient the end effector properly with respect to the task to be performed. Eg. Human hand To solve the orientation problem, the wrist is normally provided with upto 3 DOF. Wrist Roll- which involves rotation of the wrist mechanism about the arm axis. Also called as wrist swivel. Wrist Pitch- If the wrist roll is in its center position , the pitch would involve the up and down rotation of the wrist. Also called as wrist bend. Wrist Yaw- If the wrist roll is in its center position of its range, wrist yaw would involve the right or left rotation of the wrist.

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DOF degrees-of-freedom: can be defined as the number of independent motions a device can make. (Also called mobility) five degrees of freedom Robotics Terminology

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Accuracy The ability of a robot to go to the specified position without making a mistake. It is impossible to position a machine exactly. Accuracy is therefore defined as the ability of the robot to position itself to the desired location with the minimal error (usually 25 mm). Repeatability The ability of a robot to repeatedly position itself when asked to perform a task multiple times. Accuracy is an absolute concept, repeatability is relative. A robot that is repeatable may not be very accurate, visa versa.

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Joint Notation Scheme Physical configuration of the robot manipulator can be described by means of a joint notation scheme . Considering the arm and body joints first, the letters can be used to designate the particular robot configuration starting with the joint closest to the base and proceeding to the joint configuration that connects to the wrist.

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ROBOT CLASSIFICATION Depending on Configuration Depending on type of control system Fixed or variable sequence robot Depending upon generation Servo / nonservo robots Point to Point or continuous controlling robots

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ROBOT CLASSIFICATION Classification Based on Physical Configuration: 1. Cartesian configuration 2. Cylindrical configuration 3. Polar configuration 4. Joint-arm configuration 5. SCARA

ROBOT CLASSIFICATION : 

ROBOT CLASSIFICATION Cartesian Configuration: Robots with Cartesian configurations consists of links connected by linear joints (L). Gantry robots are Cartesian robots (LLL).

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Cartesian Robots A robot with 3 prismatic joints – the axes consistent with a Cartesian coordinate system. Commonly used for: pick and place work assembly operations handling machine tools arc welding

Cartesian Robots : 

Cartesian Robots Advantages: ability to do straight line insertions into furnaces. easy computation and programming. most rigid structure for given length. Disadvantages: requires large operating volume. exposed guiding surfaces require covering in corrosive or dusty environments. can only reach front of itself axes hard to seal

ROBOT CLASSIFICATION : 

ROBOT CLASSIFICATION Cylindrical Configuration: Robots with cylindrical configuration have one rotary ( R) joint at the base and linear (L) joints succeeded to connect the links.

Cylindrical Robots : 

Cylindrical Robots A robot with 2 prismatic joints and a rotary joint – the axes consistent with a cylindrical coordinate system. Commonly used for: handling at die-casting machines assembly operations handling machine tools spot welding

Cylindrical Robots : 

Advantages: can reach all around itself rotational axis easy to seal relatively easy programming rigid enough to handle heavy loads through large working space good access into cavities and machine openings Disadvantages: can't reach above itself linear axes is hard to seal won’t reach around obstacles exposed drives are difficult to cover from dust and liquids Cylindrical Robots

ROBOT CLASSIFICATION : 

ROBOT CLASSIFICATION Polar Configuration: Polar robots have a work space of spherical shape. Generally, the arm is connected to the base with a twisting (T) joint and rotatory (R) and linear (L) joints follow.

ROBOT CLASSIFICATION : 

ROBOT CLASSIFICATION The designation of the arm for this configuration can be TRL or TRR. Robots with the designation TRL are also called spherical robots. Those with the designation TRR are also called articulated robots. An articulated robot more closely resembles the human arm.

ROBOT CLASSIFICATION : 

ROBOT CLASSIFICATION Joint-arm Configuration: The jointed-arm is a combination of cylindrical and articulated configurations. The arm of the robot is connected to the base with a twisting joint. The links in the arm are connected by rotatory joints. Many commercially available robots have this configuration.

ROBOT CLASSIFICATION : 

ROBOT CLASSIFICATION

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Articulated Robots A robot with at least 3 rotary joints. Commonly used for: assembly operations welding weld sealing spray painting handling at die casting or fettling machines

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Advantages: all rotary joints allows for maximum flexibility any point in total volume can be reached. all joints can be sealed from the environment. Disadvantages: extremely difficult to visualize, control, and program. restricted volume coverage. low accuracy Articulated Robots

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SCARA (Selective Compliance Articulated Robot Arm) Robots A robot with at least 2 parallel rotary joints. Commonly used for: pick and place work assembly operations

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Advantages: high speed. height axis is rigid large work area for floor space moderately easy to program. Disadvantages: limited applications. 2 ways to reach point difficult to program off-line highly complex arm SCARA (Selective Compliance Articulated Robot Arm) Robots

Spherical/Polar Robots : 

Spherical/Polar Robots A robot with 1 prismatic joint and 2 rotary joints – the axes consistent with a polar coordinate system. Commonly used for: handling at die casting or fettling machines handling machine tools arc/spot welding

Spherical/Polar Robots : 

Advantages: large working envelope. two rotary drives are easily sealed against liquids/dust. Disadvantages: complex coordinates more difficult to visualize, control, and program. exposed linear drive. low accuracy. Spherical/Polar Robots

ROBOT CLASSIFICATION : 

ROBOT CLASSIFICATION Classification Based on Control Systems: 1. Point-to-point (PTP) control robot 2. Continuous-path (CP) control robot 3. Controlled-path robot

Point to Point Control Robot (PTP): : 

Point to Point Control Robot (PTP): The PTP robot is capable of moving from one point to another point. The locations are recorded in the control memory. PTP robots do not control the path to get from one point to the next point. Common applications include: component insertion spot welding hole drilling machine loading and unloading assembly operations

Continuous-Path Control Robot (CP): : 

Continuous-Path Control Robot (CP): The CP robot is capable of performing movements along the controlled path. With CP from one control, the robot can stop at any specified point along the controlled path. All the points along the path must be stored explicitly in the robot's control memory. Applications Straight-line motion is the simplest example for this type of robot. Some continuous-path controlled robots also have the capability to follow a smooth curve path that has been defined by the programmer. In such cases the programmer manually moves the robot arm through the desired path and the controller unit stores a large number of individual point locations along the path in memory (teach-in).

Continuous-Path Control Robot (CP): : 

Continuous-Path Control Robot (CP): Typical applications include: spray painting finishing gluing arc welding operations

Controlled-Path Robot: : 

Controlled-Path Robot: In controlled-path robots, the control equipment can generate paths of different geometry such as straight lines, circles, and interpolated curves with a high degree of accuracy. Good accuracy can be obtained at any point along the specified path. Only the start and finish points and the path definition function must be stored in the robot's control memory. It is important to mention that all controlled-path robots have a servo capability to correct their path.

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Robot Specifications

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