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The BIOLOGISTS

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Aristotle

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Aristotle ( Greek : Ἀριστοτέλης , Aristotélēs ) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great . He wrote on many subjects, including physics, metaphysics , poetry , theater, music, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, biology and zoology.

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Antony van Leeuwenhoek

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Anton Philips van Leeuwenhoek was a Dutch tradesman and scientist from Delft , the Netherlands . He is commonly known as " the Father of Microbiology ", and considered to be the first microbiologist . He is best known for his work on the improvement of the microscope and for his contributions towards the establishment of microbiology .

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Using his handcrafted microscopes he was the first to observe and describe single celled organisms, which he originally referred to as animalcules , and which we now refer to as microorganisms. He was also the first to record microscopic observations of muscle fibers, bacteria , spermatozoa and blood flow in capillaries (small blood vessels ). Van Leeuwenhoek never wrote a book, just letters.

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Replica of microscope by Van Leeuwenhoek

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Microscopic Section through one year old ash tree ( Fraxinus ) wood, drawing made by Van Leeuwenhoek.

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Born October 24, 1632(1632-10-24) Delft , Netherlands Died August 30, 1723 (aged 90) Delft , Netherlands Residence Netherlands Nationality Dutch Fields Microscopist Known for Discovery of protozoa First red blood cell description Religious stance Dutch reformed Antony van Leeuwenhoek

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Robert Hooke

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Hooke is known principally for his law of elasticity ( Hooke's Law ). He is also remembered for his work as "the father of microscopy " — it was Hooke who coined the term "cell" to describe the basic unit of life.

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Robert Hooke Born 18 July 1635 Freshwater , Isle of Wight , England Died 3 March 1703 (aged 67) London , England Academic advisors Robert Boyle Known for Hooke's Law Microscopy Influences Richard Busby

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Robert Brown

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Robert Brown FRS (21 December 1773 – 10 June 1858) was a Scottish botanist who made important contributions to botany largely through his pioneering use of the microscope. His contributions include the discovery of the cell nucleus and cytoplasmic streaming ; the first observation of Brownian motion ; early work on plant pollination and fertilisation , including being the first to recognise the fundamental difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms ; and some of the earliest studies in palynology .

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Félix Dujardin ( April 5 , 1802 - April 8 , 1860 ) was a French biologist born in Tours . He is remembered for his research of protozoans and other invertebrates . Dujardin is primarily known for his work with microscopic animal life, and in 1834 proposed that a new group of one-celled organisms be called Rhizopoda ; meaning "root-foot. The name was later changed to Protozoa . He refuted naturalist Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg 's (1795–1876) concept that microscopic organisms are "complete organisms" similar to higher animals .

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In Foraminifera , he noticed an apparently formless life substance that he named " sarcode "; which was later renamed protoplasm by Hugo von Mohl (1805-1872). In addition, he conducted extensive research of invertebrate groups that included echinoderms , helminths and cnidarians .

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Jan Evangelista Purkyně

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He is best known for his 1837 discovery of Purkinje cells , large neurons with many branching dendrites found in the cerebellum . He is also known for his discovery, in 1839 of Purkinje fibres , the fibrous tissue that conducts electrical impulses from the atrioventricular node to all parts of the ventricles of the heart .

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Other discoveries include Purkinje images , reflections of objects from structures of the eye, and the Purkinje shift , the change in the brightness of red and blue colours as light intensity decreases gradually at dusk. Purkyně also introduced the scientific terms plasma (for the component of blood left when the suspended cells have been removed) and protoplasm (the substance found inside cells).

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Andreas Vesalius

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Andreas Vesalius (December 31, 1514 – October 15, 1564) was an anatomist , physician , and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy , De humani corporis fabrica ( On the Structure of the Human Body ). Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy.

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Theodor Schwann

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Theodor Schwann ( 7 December 1810 – 11 January 1882 ) was a German zoologist. His many contributions to biology include the development of cell theory , the discovery of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system , the discovery and study of pepsin , the discovery of the organic nature of yeast , and the invention of the term metabolism .

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Rudolf Virchow

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Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German doctor , anthropologist , public health activist , pathologist , prehistorian , biologist and politician . He is referred to as the "Father of Pathology," and founded the field of Social Medicine .

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Matthias Jakob Schleiden

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Matthias Jakob Schleiden ( 5 April 1804 - 23 June 1881 ) was a German botanist and co-founder of the cell theory , along with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow .

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Marie François Xavier Bichat

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Marie François Xavier Bichat ( November 14 , 1771 - July 22 , 1802 ), French anatomist and physiologist , was born at Thoirette (Jura). Bichat is best remembered as the father of modern histology and pathology . Despite the fact that he worked without a microscope he was able to advance greatly the understanding of the human body. He was the first to introduce the notion of tissue ( tissues ) as distinct entities. He maintained that diseases attacked tissues rather than whole organs .

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Carl Linnaeus (Carl von Linné)

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Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus , also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné , May 23 [ O.S. May 12] 1707 – January 10, 1778) was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature . He is known as the father of modern taxonomy , and is also considered one of the fathers of modern ecology .

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Carl von Linné , Alexander Roslin , 1775. Currently owned by and displayed at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences . Born May 13, 1707(1707-05-13) (see article note: [1] ) Råshult , Älmhult , Sweden Died January 10, 1778 (aged 70) Uppsala , Sweden Residence Sweden Nationality Swedish Fields Zoology , Medicine , Botany Alma mater Lund University Uppsala University University of Harderwijk Known for Taxonomy Ecology Botany Author abbreviation (botany) L. Religious stance Church of Sweden

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Charles Robert Darwin

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Charles Robert Darwin FRS (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist [I] who realised and presented compelling evidence that all species of life have evolved over time from common ancestors , through the process he called natural selection . [1] The fact that evolution occurs became accepted by the scientific community and much of the general public in his lifetime, while his theory of natural selection came to be widely seen as the primary explanation of the process of evolution in the 1930s, [2] and now forms the basis of modern evolutionary theory . In modified form, Darwin’s scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences , providing logical explanation for the diversity of life . [3]

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Charles Robert Darwin. At the age of 51, Charles Darwin had just published On the Origin of Species . Born 12 February 1809(1809-02-12) Mount House , Shrewsbury , Shropshire , England Died 19 April 1882 (aged 73) Down House , Downe , Kent , England Residence England Nationality British Fields Naturalist Institutions Royal Geographical Society Alma mater University of Edinburgh University of Cambridge Academic advisors John Stevens Henslow Adam Sedgwick Known for The Voyage of the Beagle On The Origin of Species Natural selection

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Jean- Baptiste Lamarck

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In the modern era, Lamarck is remembered mainly for a theory of inheritance of acquired characters , called soft inheritance or Lamarckism . However, his idea of soft inheritance was, perhaps, a reflection of the folk wisdom of the time, accepted by many natural historians. Lamarck's contribution to evolutionary theory consisted of the first truly cohesive theory of evolution, in which an alchemical complexifying force drove organisms up a ladder of complexity, and a second environmental force adapted them to local environments through use and disuse of characteristics , differentiating them from other organisms.

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Portrait of Jean- Baptiste Lamarck Born August 1, 1744(1744-08-01) Bazentin , Picardie Died December 18, 1829 (aged 85) Paris Nationality French Fields Naturalist Institutions French Academy of Sciences ; Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle ; Jardin des Plantes Known for Evolution ; inheritance of acquired characters Influences Buffon Influenced Geoffroy

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Gregor Johann Mendel

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Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20, 1822– January 6, 1884) was an Augustinian priest and scientist , and is often called the father of genetics for his study of the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants. Mendel showed that the inheritance of these traits follows particular laws , which were later named after him. The significance of Mendel's work was not recognized until the turn of the 20th century. Its rediscovery prompted the foundation of the discipline of genetics.

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Born July 20, 1822(1822-07-20) Heinzendorf bei Odrau , Silesia , Austrian Empire Died January 6, 1884 (aged 61) Brno , Austria-Hungary Fields Genetics Institutions Abbey of St. Thomas in Brno Alma mater University of Vienna Known for Discovering genetics Religious stance Roman Catholic Gregor Johann Mendel

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Thomas Hunt Morgan

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Thomas Hunt Morgan ( September 25 , 1866 – December 4 , 1945 ) was an American geneticist and embryologist. Following the rediscovery of Mendelian inheritance in 1900, Morgan's research moved to the study of mutation in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster . In his famous Fly Room at Columbia University Morgan was able to demonstrate that genes are carried on chromosomes and are the mechanical basis of heredity. These discoveries formed the basis of the modern science of genetics . When he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 he was the first person awarded the Prize in genetics, for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity .

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Born September 25, 1866(1866-09-25) Lexington, Kentucky Died December 4, 1945 (aged 79) Pasadena, California Nationality United States Fields geneticist embryologist Institutions Bryn Mawr College Columbia University California Institute of Technology Alma mater University of Kentucky Johns Hopkins University Doctoral students John Howard Northrop Known for Drosophila melanogaster Notable awards Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 Thomas Hunt Morgan

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Louis Pasteur

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Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist born in Dole . He is best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of disease. His discoveries reduced mortality from puerperal fever , and he created the first vaccine for rabies . His experiments supported the germ theory of disease . He was best known to the general public for inventing a method to stop milk and wine from causing sickness - this process came to be called Pasteurization . He is regarded as one of the three main founders of microbiology , together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch . Pasteur also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, most notably the molecular basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals . [1] He is buried beneath the Institute Pasteur .

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French microbiologist and chemist Born December 27, 1822(1822-12-27) Dole, Jura , Franche-Comté , France Died September 28, 1895 (aged 72) Marnes-la-Coquette , Hauts-de-Seine , France Nationality French Religious stance Catholic Louis Pasteur

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Robert Koch

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Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician . He became famous for isolating Bacillus anthracis (1877), the Tuberculosis bacillus (1882) and the Vibrio cholera (1883) and for his development of Koch's postulates . He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his tuberculosis findings in 1905. He is considered one of the founders of microbiology —he inspired such major figures as Paul Ehrlich and Gerhard Domagk .

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Born 11 December 1843(1843-12-11) Clausthal , Kingdom of Hanover Died 27 May 1910 (aged 66) Baden-Baden , Grand Duchy of Baden Fields Microbiology Institutions Imperial Health Office, Berlin, University of Berlin Alma mater University of Göttingen Doctoral advisor Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle Known for Discovery bacteriology Koch's postulates of germ theory Isolation of anthrax , tuberculosis and cholera Notable awards Nobel Prize in Medicine (1905) Robert Koch

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Alexander Fleming

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Alexander Fleming at work Born 6 August 1881(1881-08-06) Lochfield , Scotland Died 11 March 1955 (aged 73) London , England Nationality Scottish Fields Bacteriology , immunology Institutions St Mary's Hospital, London Known for Discovery of penicillin Notable awards Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1945) Religious stance Roman Catholic

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Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish biologist and pharmacologist . Fleming published many articles on bacteriology, immunology and chemotherapy. His best-known achievements are the discovery of the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Walter Florey and Ernst Boris Chain . [1]

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James D. Watson Francis C. Crick

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James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist , best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA . Watson, Francis Crick , and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material". [