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Premium member Presentation Transcript DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES IN PAKISTAN: DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES IN PAKISTAN NASSER HUSSYN BOKHARI HEAD DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY PAKISTAN EMBASSY COLLEGE BEIJINGNATURAL RESOURCE: NATURAL RESOURCE Natural resources are defined as means of meeting a need.HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE: HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE CONDESATIONHydrological cycle: Hydrological cycleSOURCES OF WATER: SOURCES OF WATERKINDS OF WATER RESOURCES IN PAKISTAN: KINDS OF WATER RESOURCES IN PAKISTAN Ground water Under ground water resources known as water table . Ground water resources are exploited by shallow wells, tube wells, and the Karez system. The water table in Pakistan varies due to topographical and seasonal factors. The ground water is very useful where canal water is not available and rainfall is scanty particularly in semi-arid and arid areas. Surface water The river water used for different purposes. This is also called run off water. The main sources of water in Pakistan are rainfall and rivers. The river Indus and its tributaries form the river system in PakistanTHE RIVER SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN: THE RIVER SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN There are two river system in Pakistan; a) The Indus river system b) The river system of Balochistan The Indus River system The river Indus and its tributaries form river system in Punjab, Khyber Pukhtan Khawa and Sindh. The Indus river system consists of Eastern Tributaries and Western tributaries. Eastern Tributaries of River Indus River Jhelum, River Chenab, River Ravi , River Sutluj and River Beas. Eastern tributaries form the world’s canal irrigation network in Punjab. They receive water in summer due to Monsoon rainfalls, melting of snow and glaciers. All these rivers have their sources in Himalayan mountains. They merge into river Indus in Punjab province of Pakistan at different location. The highest volume of water in eastern tributaries is during Monsoon season every year.THE RIVER SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN: THE RIVER SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN Western Tributaries of River Indus The River Kabul, River Swat, River Kurrum, River Gilgit, River Hunza, River Gomal, River Zhob . They are small rivers. They receive water usually in summer due to melting of snow. The volume of water is low The provide water to KPK, and north part of Balochistan. The Balochistan River System Quetta being a highest area has a central position in Balochistan river system. Rivers Zhob, River Khandar, and River Kulachi flow eastwards and fall into Indus River. The River Loralai, River Chakar, River Bolan and River Mula are absorbed in into the Kacchi-Sibbi Plain in Balochistan Plateau. The River Hub, River, Porali, River Hingol and River Dasht merge into Arabian sea. Playa lakes / salt lakes are called Human. Human-i- Mashkail, Human-i- Lora, and Human-i- Murgho are found in Balochistan also. The rivers of Balochistan receive water in winter due to Western season and volume of water is low.Rainfall In Monsoon in Pakistan: Rainfall In Monsoon in PakistanIRRIGATION SYSTEM: IRRIGATION SYSTEM Irrigation System a land area, together with the network of canals and other hydraulic-engineering and operating structures that ensure its irrigation. In addition to the land, systems for regular irrigation include a main water-intake unit, which draws water from a source (river, reservoir, canal, or well) and protects the system from debris, slush, and trash; an irrigation network; a runoff network; a collector-drainage network, which lowers the level of groundwater and carries water and salts away from the territory being irrigated; hydraulic-engineering structures, which regulate water intake (regulator sluices, water-lifting structures, and so on) and its distribution over the area being irrigated; operating structures, such as roads and devices for observing the condition of the land being irrigated; and wooded strips. Source: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Irrigation+SystemIRRIGATION SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN: IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN What is irrigation? Irrigation means the action of applying water to land in order to supply crops and other plants with necessary water. Sometimes nutrients may be applied via irrigation as well. Congressional Research Service (CRS) notes that: "Producers who irrigate in arid areas are more likely to use irrigation throughout the growing process (full irrigation), while producers in more humid areas may use irrigation to supplement rainfall and soil moisture under drought conditions.“ Source: http://organic.about.com/od/organicdefinitionsij/g/Irrigation.htmWHY DOES PAKISTAN NEED IRRIGATION?: WHY DOES PAKISTAN NEED IRRIGATION? Arid and semi arid climate Aridity increase from North to South Ineffectiveness of rainfall Annual rainfall is less than 250 mm Number of rainy days is less than 10 especially in South of Pakistan Balochistan receives very low amount of rainfall Spells of high temperatures increase the rate of evapo-transpiration Monsoon winds are main source of rainfall but they are of pulsating nature Rains occur heavily and land absorb small amount of water Long and frequent dry spell Lack of well – developed irrigation system.Floods in Pakistan: Floods in PakistanMethods of Irrigation in Pakistan: Methods of Irrigation in Pakistan Two irrigation methods are used in Pakistan Lift Irrigation / Artificial Irrigation a)Shaduf b) Persian Wheel c)Charsa d) Tubewells Canal Irrigation a) Inundation / Flood Canals b) Perennial Canals c) Link Canals d) KarezLIFT IRRIGATION-SHADUF & TUBEWELL: LIFT IRRIGATION-SHADUF & TUBEWELLLIFT IRRIGATION-PERSIAN WHEEL & CHARSA : LIFT IRRIGATION-PERSIAN WHEEL & CHARSASPRINKLE IRRIGATION- A MODERN METHOD : SPRINKLE IRRIGATION- A MODERN METHODTHE RIVER INDUS : THE RIVER INDUS Names of Indus River Sanskrit : सिन्धु Sindhu ; Urdu : دریائے سندھ Daryā-e Sindh ; Hindi : सिन्धु नदी Sindhu ; Sindhi : سنڌو Sindhu ; Punjabi : سندھ Sindh ; Gujarati : સિંધુ નદી Sindhu ; Pashto : اباسين Abāsin "Father of Rivers"; Persian : رود سند Rūd-e Sind ; Arabic : السند Al-Sind ; Tibetan : སེང་གེ།་གཙང་པོ Sênggê Zangbo "Lion River"; Greek : Ινδός Indós ; Turki : Nilab ) is a major river which flows through Pakistan . It also has courses through China and India . Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_RiverRIVER INDUS ENTERS PAKISTAN : RIVER INDUS ENTERS PAKISTANTHE RIVER INDUS : THE RIVER INDUS Originating in the Tibetan plateau in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar, the river runs a course through the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, Gilgit, Baltistan and flows through Pakistan in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh. The total length of the river is 3,180 km (1,980 mi). It is Pakistan's longest river. The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km 2 (450,000 sq mi). Its estimated annual flow stands at around 207 km 3 (50 cu mi), making it the twenty-first largest river in the world in terms of annual flow. Zanskar is its left bank tributary in Ladakh. In the plains, its left bank tributary is Chenab which itself has four major tributaries, namely, Jhelum, Ravi Beas and Satluj. Its principal right bank tributaries areShyok, Gilgit, Kabul, Gomal and Kurram. Beginning at the heights of the world in a spring and fed with glaciers and rivers in the Himalayas, the river supports ecosystems of temperate forests, plains and arid countryside. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_RiverDEFINITION OF CANAL: DEFINITION OF CANAL canal, an artificial waterway constructed for navigation or for the movement of water. The digging of canals for irrigation probably dates back to the beginnings of agriculture, and traces of canals have been found in the regions of ancient civilizations. Canals are also used to provide municipal and industrial water supplies.IMPORTANCE OF RIVERS FOR PAKISTAN: IMPORTANCE OF RIVERS FOR PAKISTANCANAL SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN: CANAL SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN Inundation Canal/ Flood Canal They flow during flood season Perennial Canal They have been dug out from head works/ barrages and dams. They flow through out the year. They supply water to agriculture fields. Link Canals The link canals were constructed to meet the deficiency of water in Eastern Rivers occurred after Indus Basin Treaty 1960.FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CANAL SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN: FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CANAL SYSTEM IN PAKISTANLINK CANALS UNDER THE INDUS WATER TREATY 1960: LINK CANALS UNDER THE INDUS WATER TREATY 1960 NO LINK CANAL DESCRIPTION 1 Rasul - Qadirabad Carries water from Rasul Barrage on the Jhelum to Chenab 2 Qadirabad- Balloki An extension of the Rasul – Qadirabad by which water is transferred to the Ravi 3 Balloki- Sulemanki Connects Ravi and Sutlej 4 Trimmu-Sidhnai Trnsfers water from the Trimmu barrage to the Ravi 5 Sidhnai- Mailsi Takes the water transferred from the Trimmu Barrage to the Ravi 6 Mailsi- Bhawal Supplies water to Bhawal canal 7 Chasma - Jhelum Transfers water from the Chasma Barrage on the Indus to the Jhelum River 8 Tounsa – Punjnad Transfers water from the Tounsa Barrage on the Indus to the Chenab to feed the canals in Punjab SOURCE: Khan, Fazle Karim (2006) PAKISTAN: Geography, Economy , & People, OUP, Karachi, Pakistan.Important perennial canals of Pakistan: Important perennial canals of Pakistan River Chenab River Jhelum River Ravi River Indus Upper Chenab Canal Upper Jhelum Canal Upper Bari Doab canal Thal project canals Lower Chenab Canal Lower Jhelum Canal Lower Bari Doab Canal 3 Canals from Guddu Barrage Haveli Canal system Rasul weir Sidhnai Canal 4 canals from Sukkur Barrage Trimmu weir Upper Swat canal Lower Swat Canal Kurram Garhi project Kabul canal Source: Khan , prof , Dr. Abdul Qadir (2011), Introduction to Pakistan Studies , Class X NBF Islamabad PakistanMangla Dam - The First Mega Project of Pakistan : Mangla Dam - The First Mega Project of PakistanMANGLA DAM: MANGLA DAMMANGLA DAM: MANGLA DAM The Mangla Dam water storage and power generation project was the beginning of the construction of mega projects in Pakistan. The construction started on 8 May 1962 and was finally inaugurated on 23 November 1967. The dam was built by a international consortium, which besides the World Bank also included Austria, Canada, West Germany, New eland, the UK and USA. The project was designed primarily to increase the amount of water that could be used for irrigation from the flow of the Jhelum and its tributaries. Its secondary function was to generate electrical power from the irrigation releases at the artificial head of the reservoir. The project was not designed as a flood control structure, although some benefit in this respect also arises from its use for irrigation and water supply. The main structures of the dam include 4 embankment dams, 2 spillways, 5 power-cum-irrigation tunnels and a power station. The main dam is 10,300 feet long and 454 feet high (above core trench) with a reservoir of 97.7 square miles. The dam is 3,353 meters long and 116 meters high above the river bed. Its lake is spread over 100 kilometres. The main dam is supported by two auxiliary dams, the Jari and Sukhian dams. It is designed to store 5.88 MAF water and also used for power generation. Mangla had an initial storage capacity of 5.88 MAF in 1967, which has now been reduced to 1.97 MAF (34% of the initial). In view of its declining storage, recently a massive raising project is presently underway to raise the level by 30 feet from the existing 1210 feet level at an approximate cost of Rs. 59 billion. Mangla Dam is one of the biggest earth filled dams in the world and is approximately two and a half times bigger than the Egyptian Aswan Dam. The dam was damaged partially during an Indian Air Force bombing in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 when the dam was hit by the bombs, against the international convention that large water reservoirs should not be targeted in war. MANGLA DAM: MANGLA DAM Consequent to the Indus Basin Water Treaty, concluded between India and Pakistan, two major water reservoirs were planned to be constructed in Pakistan to store water mainly for irrigation (to make up for the shortfall of water due to water sharing formula agreed vide the treaty); one of these was o be built on River Jhelm at Mangla and the other on River Indus near the small town of Tarbela. Construction for the dam began in 1968, and continued until completion in 1976. The dam has a volume of 138,600,000 cubic yards (106,000,000 m³). With a reservoir capacity of 11,098,000 acre-feet (13.69 km³), the dam is 469 feet (143 m) high and 8,997 feet (2,743 m) wide at its crest and stands 147 meters above the Indus riverbed. It helps to maintain the flow of the Indus during seasonal fluctuations. The dam cost in 1976 was Rs.18.5 billion. Its reservoir is 97 km long with a depth of 137 meters while total area of the lake is 260 square kilometers. From the initial storage capacity of 11.62 MAF in 1974, it has now reduced to 5.51 MAF in 2005 (i.e. 47% of initial capacity) due to silting.TARBELA DAM: TARBELA DAM Tarbela is considered as the largest earth-filled dam on one of the world's most important rivers - the Indus. The dam was completed in 1976 at a cost of Rs.18.5 billion. It is the biggest hydel power station in Pakistan having a capacity of generating 3,478 MW of electricity. It provides nearly 30 percent of all the irrigation water available in dry season, 2100 MW of hydropower was to be initially generated as a by-product. By the year 1992, the generating capacity was raised to 3428 MW, with the 3rd extension comprising four more units of 432 MW capacity each.Indus Basin Water Treaty 1960 The Beginning of the Mega Projects in Pakistan - the signing of Indus Basin Water Treaty -1960 Ayub Khan and Lal Bhadur Shastri Signed the treaty : Indus Basin Water Treaty 1960 The Beginning of the Mega Projects in Pakistan - the signing of Indus Basin Water Treaty -1960 Ayub Khan and Lal Bhadur Shastri Signed the treatyINDUS BASIN WATER TREATY 1960: INDUS BASIN WATER TREATY 1960 Indus Basin Water Treaty 1960 At the time of partition of India and Pakistan, there arose a dispute on the use of water resources since all rivers flowing in to Pakistan originated from India. The accord signed in 1960 at Karachi, Pakistan gave water of Indus, Jhelum and Chenab to Pakistan, whereas Ravi and Beas (Sutlej in Pakistan) were to be used by India. The treaty was signed by Pakistani president Ayub Khan and Indian prime minister Nehru. Consequent to this agreed upon distribution, decision was taken to build to big water storages on the Indus (Tarbela Dam) and Jhelum (Mangla Dam) rivers. Thereafter, many small dams have also been added. In 90s, Ghazi Barotha project came up without constructing a water reservoir for generating electricity.TERBALA DAM: TERBALA DAM TERBELA DAM Discharge of water from the Tarbela power generation tunnelsGhazi Barotha Power Generation Project : Ghazi Barotha Power Generation ProjectGhazi Barotha Power Generation Project: Ghazi Barotha Power Generation Project There have been only two major power generation projects, Tarbela and Mangla Dams, which do not produce adequate electricity for the entire country. In the absence of any other mega dam project, it was planned to utilize the downstream flow of the Indus from Ghazi to Barotha and produce electricity at Barotha by the fast current of downstream water. Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project holds the record for the biggest lined channel in the world. Ghazi Brotha Hydropower Project with a generation capacity of 1,450 MW and an average energy output of 6,600 GWh is a large, renewable and emission-free source of energy towards WAPDA's Vision 2025 goals.DAMS AND BARRAGES IN PAKISTAN: DAMS AND BARRAGES IN PAKISTANWARSAK DAM: WARSAK DAM Warsak Dam is a mass concrete gravity dam located on the Kabul River approximately 20 km northwest of the city of Peshawar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Warsak Dam was completed under the Colombo Plan in two phases and financed by the Canadian Government. The first phase was completed in 1960 and consisted of the construction of the dam. Irrigation tunnels and installation of four power generating units, each of 40 MW capacity with 132 KV transmission system, were also completed in 1960. Two additional generating units of 41.48 MW capacity each were added in 1980-81 in the second phase.WARSAK DAM: WARSAK DAM SOME FACTS SOME FACTS Warsak Dam Location of Warsak Dam Country: Pakistan Place : Peshawar Coordinates34°09′50″N 71°21′29″E Coordinates: 34°09′50″N 71°21′29″EStatusOperationalOpening date1960Owner(s) Water and Power Development Authority Dam and spillwaysType of dam GravityHeight76.2 m (250 ft)Length140.2 m (460 ft)ImpoundsKabul River 9Spillways floodgatesType of spillwayService, controlledSpillway capacity540 m 3 /s (19,070 cu ft/s)ReservoirActive capacity31,207,090 m 3 (25,300acre·ft) (design, now silted) Surface area10.3 km 2 (4 sq mi)Power stationHydraulic head144 m (472 ft)Turbines4 x 40 MW 2 x 41.5 MWFrancis-type Installed capacity243 MWBARRAGES OF PAKISTAN: BARRAGES OF PAKISTANTOUNSA BARRAGE : TOUNSA BARRAGE Taunsa Barrage is located 20 km southeast of Taunsa Sharif city on the Indus river in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Taunsa Barrage was designated a Ramsar site on March 22, 1996. The Taunsa Barrage was completed in 1958, and it has been identified as the barrage with the highest priority for rehabilitation. It requires urgent measures to avoid severe economic and social impacts on the lives of millions of poor farmers through interruption of irrigation on two million acres (8,000 km²) and drinking water in the rural areas of southern Punjab, benefiting several million farmers. In 2003, $123 million used to rehabilitate the Taunsa Barrage on the River Indus whose structure had been damaged owing to soil erosions and old-age. The project was designed to ensure irrigation of the cultivated lands in the area of the Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan Tehsil canals, and through the Taunsa-Panjnad Link Canal that supplements the water supply to Panjnad headworks canalsChashma Barrage: Chashma Barrage Chashma Barrage wetland site is located Indus Monsoon Forest, some 25 km southwest of Mianwali, Punjab, Pakistan. The site comprises a large barrage, a water storage reservoir and a series of embankments (serving as flood bounds) which divide the reservoir into five shallow lakes at low water levels.GUDDU BARRAGE: GUDDU BARRAGE Guddu Barrage is a barrage across river Indus, near Kashmore in Pakistan. President Iskander Mirza laid foundation-stone of the Guddu Barrage on February 2, 1957. The barrage was completed in 1962. Inaugurated by Field Marshal Ayub Khan. At the time of its construction it has maximum design discharge of 1.2 million cubic feet per second (34,000 m³/s). It is a gate-controlled weir type barrage with a navigation lock. The barrage has 64 bays, each 60 feet (18 m) wide. The maximum flood level height of Guddu barrage is 26 feet (8 m). It controls irrigation supplies to 2.9 million acres (12,000 km²) of agricultural lands in the Jacobabad, Larkana and Sukkur districts of Sindh and the Naseerabad district of Balochistan. The cost of the project was 474.8 million rupees. It feeds Ghotki Feeder, Begari Feeder, Desert and Pat Feeder canals.SUKKUR BARRAGE : SUKKUR BARRAGE The Sukkur barrage (Sindhi: سکر بند ) is a barrage across the Indus river near the city of Sukkur, Pakistan. It was built during the British Raj from 1923 to 1932 as the Lloyd Barrage to help alleviate famines caused by lack of rain. The barrage enables water to flow through what was originally a 6166 mile long network of canals, feeding the largest irrigation system in the world, with more than 5 million acres (20,000 km²) of irrigated land. The retaining wall has sixty-six spans, each 60 feet wide; each span has a gate which weighs 50 tons.KOTRI BARRAGE: KOTRI BARRAGE The Kotri Barrage near Hyderabad is 915 metres (3,000 ft) long and provides additional supplies for Karachi. Kotri being the major fishing centres - all in the lower Sindh course. But damming and irrigation has made fish farming an important economic activity. Located southeast of Karachi, the large delta has been recognised by conservationists as one of the world's most important ecological regions. Here the river turns into many marshes, streams and creeks and meets the sea at shallow levels. Here marine fishes are found in abundance, including pomfret and prawns. kotri barrage is the last barrage on river indus as after this barrage the indus river goes to Arabian Sea through Delta. There are total 4 canals which take off from kotri barrage 1 is from right of canal named as kalri canal while 3 are on the left side of barrage named as a) linned canal b) Fuleli canal c) Pinyari canal http://www.defence.pk/forums/current-events-social-issues/69510-rivers-barrages-pakistan.htmlDAMS AND BARRAGES ON INDUS : DAMS AND BARRAGES ON INDUSKAREZ SYSTEM : KAREZ SYSTEM The ancient Karez system is comprised of a series of wells and linking underground channels that uses gravity to bring ground water to the surface, usually far from the source. Originally ancient towns used to depend on the streams and rivers nearby into which glaciers in far-off mountains used to feed. As the time passed the glaciers gradually shrank over the centuries, the streams they fed likewise diminished, resulting in less water flowing downwards. Then people ingeniously created the Karez to draw the underground water to irrigate the farmland. Wells begin at the base of the mountains along the contours of the hillside. To keep the underground channels unclogged, two men and a draught animal work as a team – one man is lowered down to clear the tunnel and buckets of mud are hoisted to the surface by the animal. The tunnels slope less than the contours of the geographical depression, so that the water reaches close to ground level. The water in Karez will not evaporate in large quantities. This technology that originated in the Chinese deserts west of the Himalayas is also commonly used in the highlands of Balochistan, although with some minor modifications. Though it is not known how it reached here. Small water channel that are built along the hill gradient for maintaining the proper gravity flow of water are found in Balochistan in many places.KAREZ IN BALOCHISTAN: KAREZ IN BALOCHISTAN The Karez system on irrigation is one of the traditional engineering wonders of Pakistan. West of Indus Plains and out of monsoon zone is Balochistan the largest landmass in Pakistan with an area of 343,000 square kilometres . Balochistan is scarcely populated, mainly due to its daunting arid geography. It includes the mountainous country separated by intervening valleys. Balochistan receives very low rainfall annually. But innumerable natural springs known as “Karez” and streams are found in most of the areas.KAREZ IN BALOCHISTAN: KAREZ IN BALOCHISTAN The Karez irrigation systems rely on gravitational pull and are comprised of simply a water source, underground tunnels, and vertical shafts that feed the water scarce areas. These irrigation systems are owned and operated wholly by the community. Some work is being planned on to re establish the Karez irrigation system at the sub-tehsil level. The ancient and social water supply system can be reactivated for obvious reason: To improve the socio-economic status of the people of Balochistan, by helping them realize the importance of the Karez system and facilitate self-help activities for rehabilitation of the same; to identify and understand ground water irrigation system deficiencies and the causes for its abandonment by the community; to re-instil a sense of confidence in the Karez system among local communities; to protect, excavate and extend the Karez system in the other areas; to incorporate a delay action mechanism in the Karez system and to check the dam for efficient groundwater recharge; to train community leaders in the efficient operation and management of Karez.CLEANING OF KAREZ: CLEANING OF KAREZ Cleaning of Karez is considered collective social responsibility and people work for it on self-help basis (like bhall Safai in Punjab). Once there existed a large network of these Karez’s in the province. The system has very low operational cast, it not only fulfils daily need of usage of water but also irrigates orchards and supply water for cultivation. We should try to keep the system alive. These are social streams as well.KAREZ IN BALOCHISTAN: KAREZ IN BALOCHISTAN KAREZ UNDER GROUND WATER CHANNEL - KAREZ What is a Karez The Balochistan Province is in the western half of Pakistan. This province is rugged, and it's elevation is much higher than the rest of Pakistan; the area is referred to as the Balochistan Plateau. This area is also very dry. Thus, its inhabitants have, for centuries, used a unique way of gathering water. The method is called karez. In this method, underground tunnels are constructed to gather subsoil water, through gravitational pull, at the foot of hills. This water is then either taken to the fields and villages through vertical shafts which are sunk underground, or it is drawn out at the foot of the hill where it has been gathered. Inhabitants of Balochistan may not mean this exact definition when they use the term Karez. People of an area know the natural water ways which flow just below the sandy surfaces of the valleys of Baluchistan. Some time they appear on surface by themselves and sometime those who know them dig them out for usage. At places where this water is seeping in as a natural spring they put some sort of pound around it. All of this natural phenomena is also called karez by the inhabitants of Balochistan. (Reference: Britannica.com)KAREZ: KAREZUSES OF WATER : USES OF WATERSILTATION IN DAMS: SILTATION IN DAMSWATER LOGGING AND SALINITY: WATER LOGGING AND SALINITYSOURCES : SOURCES See C. Hadfield, World Canals (1986); R. Spangenburg and D. Moser, The Story of America's Canals (1992); R. E. Shaw, Canals for a Nation: The Canal Era in the United States, 1790–1860 (1993); J. M. Bracken, American Waterways: The Role of Canals in America (1997). You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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