Runway incursion and visual aids

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Runway Incursion Prevention & Visual Aids at Aerodromes :

ICAO-ANB Runway Incursion Prevention & Visual Aids at Aerodromes Yong Wang Chief, Aerodromes, Air Routes and Ground Aids TRAINRO/1-PPT/30 First Training Course of Regional Officers (FLS and ATM Regional Officers) (Montreal, 16 – 27 November 2009)

Overview:

ICAO-ANB Overview Definition of RI Contributory factors ICAO documentation Annex 14, Volume I provisions on visual aids & RI prevention Annex 14 provisions on aerodrome vehicle operations Other Annexes provisions

ICAO Definition of RI:

ICAO-ANB ICAO Definition of RI Any occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take-off of aircraft.

PowerPoint Presentation:

ICAO-ANB US Airways Runway Incursion Accident – Los Angeles: Controller cleared aircraft to land with another aircraft on the runway. February 1991

Contributory Factors:

ICAO-ANB Contributory Factors Breakdown in Communications Pilot Factors Air Traffic Control Factors Airside Vehicle Driver Factors Aerodrome Design Factors

ICAO Documentation:

ICAO-ANB ICAO Documentation Annexes 2,11,14 PANS-ATM (Doc 4444); PANS-OPS (Doc 8168) Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (A-SMGCS) Manual (Doc 9830) Manual on Simultaneous Operations on Parallel or Near-Parallel Instrument Runways (SOIR) (Doc 9643) Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4, Visual Aids (Doc 9157) Safety Management Manual (SMM) (Doc 9859) Manual on the Prevention of Runway Incursions (Doc 9870) Runway Safety toolkit

Visual Aids at Aerodromes :

ICAO-ANB Visual Aids at Aerodromes Marking Lighting Signs Markers

Markings:

ICAO-ANB Markings Runway-holding position markings Intermediate holding position marking Road-holding position marking Mandatory instruction marking Information marking

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Lighting:

ICAO-ANB Lighting Stop bars Runway guard lights Intermediate holding position lights Road holding position lights

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Signs:

ICAO-ANB Signs Mandatory instruction signs Information signs Road-holding position sign

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Annex 14, Volume I provisions on stop bars:

ICAO-ANB Annex 14, Volume I provisions on stop bars Note 1. – The provision of stop bars requires their control either manually or automatically by air traffic services. Note 2. – Runway incursions may take place in all visibility or weather conditions. The provision of stop bars at runway holding positions and their use at night and in visibility conditions greater than 550 m runway visual range can form part of effective runway incursion prevention measures.

Annex 14, Volume I provisions on stop bars :

ICAO-ANB Annex 14, Volume I provisions on stop bars 5.3.19.1 A stop bar shall be provided at every runway-holding position serving a runway when it is intended that the runway will be used in runway visual range conditions less than a value of 350 m, except where: … …

Annex 14, Volume I provisions on stop bars :

ICAO-ANB Annex 14, Volume I provisions on stop bars 5.3.19.1 A stop bar shall be provided at every runway-holding position serving a runway when it is intended that the runway will be used in runway visual range conditions of values between 350 m and 550 m, except where: … …

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Annex 14, Volume I provisions on stop bars :

ICAO-ANB Annex 14, Volume I provisions on stop bars 5.3.19.4 Recommendation.- Where the normal stop bar lights might be obscured (from a pilot’s view), for example, by snow or rain, or where a pilot may be required to stop the aircraft in a position so close to the lights that they are blocked from view by the structure of the aircraft, then a pair of elevated lights should be added to each end of the stop bar.

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Annex 14, Volume I provisions on stop bars :

ICAO-ANB Annex 14, Volume I provisions on stop bars 9.8.6 Where a surface movement guidance and control system is provided by selective switching of stop bars and taxiway centre line lights, the following requirements shall be met: a) taxiway routes which are indicated by illuminated taxiway centre line lights shall be capable of being terminated by an illuminated stop bar; …

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Annex 14, Volume I provisions on runway guard lights:

ICAO-ANB Annex 14, Volume I provisions on runway guard lights Note.— The purpose of runway guard lights is to warn pilots, and drivers of vehicles when they are operating on taxiways, that they are about to enter an active runway. There are two standard configurations of runway guard lights as illustrated in Figure 5-27.

Annex 14, Volume I provisions on runway guard lights :

ICAO-ANB Annex 14, Volume I provisions on runway guard lights 5.3.22.1 Runway guard lights, Configuration A, shall be provided at each taxiway/runway intersection associated with a runway intended for use in: a) runway visual range conditions less than a value of 550 m where a stop bar is not installed; and b) runway visual range conditions of values between 550 m and 1 200 m where the traffic density is heavy.

Annex 14, Volume I provisions on runway guard lights :

ICAO-ANB Annex 14, Volume I provisions on runway guard lights 5.3.22.2 Recommendation.— Runway guard lights, Configuration A, should be provided at each taxiway/runway intersection associated with a runway intended for use in: a) runway visual range conditions of values less than a value of 550 m where a stop bar is installed; and b) runway visual range conditions of values between 550 m and 1 200 m where the traffic density is medium or light .

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Annex 14, Volume I provisions on runway guard lights:

ICAO-ANB Annex 14, Volume I provisions on runway guard lights 5.3.22.3 Recommendation.— Runway guard lights, Configuration A or Configuration B or both, should be provided at each taxiway/runway intersection where enhanced conspicuity of the taxiway/runway intersection is needed, such as on a wide-throat taxiway, except that Configuration B should not be collocated with a stop bar.

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Annex 14 provisions on aerodrome vehicle operations:

ICAO-ANB Annex 14 provisions on aerodrome vehicle operations Note 1.— Guidance on aerodrome vehicle operations is contained in Attachment A, Section 18 and on traffic rules and regulations for vehicles in the Manual of Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (SMGCS). Note 2.— It is intended that roads located on the movement area be restricted to the exclusive use of aerodrome personnel and other authorized persons, and that access to the public buildings by an unauthorized person will not require use of such roads.

Annex 14 provisions on aerodrome vehicle operations :

ICAO-ANB Annex 14 provisions on aerodrome vehicle operations 9.7.1 A vehicle shall be operated: a) on a manoeuvring area only as authorized by the aerodrome control tower; and b) on an apron only as authorized by the appropriate designated authority.

Annex 14 provisions on aerodrome vehicle operations :

ICAO-ANB Annex 14 provisions on aerodrome vehicle operations 9.7.2 The driver of a vehicle on the movement area shall comply with all mandatory instructions conveyed by markings and signs unless otherwise authorized by: a) the aerodrome control tower when on the manoeuvring area; or b) the appropriate designated authority when on the apron.

Annex 14 provisions on aerodrome vehicle operations :

ICAO-ANB Annex 14 provisions on aerodrome vehicle operations 9.7.3 The driver of a vehicle on the movement area shall comply with all mandatory instructions conveyed by lights.

Amendment 10 to Annex 14, Volume I:

ICAO-ANB Amendment 10 to Annex 14, Volume I Amendment 10 to Annex 14, Volume I brings to the Annex provisions on enhanced taxiway centre line markings and mandatory instruction markings and enhanced mandatory instruction signs to further strengthen runway incursion prevention Recently adopted by Council on 4 March 2009 Will become applicable as of 19 November 2009

Enhanced taxiway centre line markings:

ICAO-ANB Enhanced taxiway centre line markings 5.2.8.4 Recommendation.— Where it is necessary to denote the proximity of a runway-holding position, enhanced taxiway centre line marking should be provided. Note.— The provision of enhanced taxiway centre line marking may form part of runway incursion prevention measures.

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Enhanced taxiway centre line markings:

ICAO-ANB Enhanced taxiway centre line markings 5.2.8.5 Where provided, enhanced taxiway centre line marking shall be installed at all taxiway/runway intersections at that aerodrome

Enhanced taxiway centre line markings:

ICAO-ANB Enhanced taxiway centre line markings 5.2.8.9 Where provided, an enhanced taxiway centre line marking shall extend from the runway holding position Pattern A (as defined in Figure 5-6, Taxiway markings) to a distance of up to 45 m (a minimum of three (3) dashed lines) in the direction of travel away from the runway or to the next runway holding position, if within 45m distance.

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Mandatory Instruction Markings:

ICAO-ANB Mandatory Instruction Markings 5.2.16.2 Recommendation. — Where operationally required, such as on taxiways exceeding 60 m in width, or to assist in the prevention of a runway incursion, a mandatory instruction sign should be supplemented by a mandatory instruction marking.

Mandatory Instruction Markings:

ICAO-ANB Mandatory Instruction Markings 5.2.16.3 The mandatory instruction marking on taxiways, where the code letter is A, B, C, or D, shall be located across the taxiway equally placed about the taxiway centre line and on the holding side of the runway-holding position marking as shown in Figure 5-9 (a). The distance between the nearest edge of the marking and the runway holding position marking or the taxiway centre line marking shall be not less than 1 m

Mandatory Instruction Markings:

ICAO-ANB Mandatory Instruction Markings 5.2.16.4 The mandatory instruction marking on taxiways, where the code letter is E or F, shall be located on both sides of the taxiway centre line marking and on the holding side of the runway-holding position marking as shown in Figure 5-9 (b). The distance between the nearest edge of the marking and the runway holding position marking or the taxiway centre line marking shall be not less than 1 m.

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Enhanced Mandatory Instruction Signs:

ICAO-ANB Enhanced Mandatory Instruction Signs 5.4.2.13 Recommendation.— Where, owing to environmental or other factors, the conspicuity of the inscription on a mandatory instruction sign needs to be enhanced, the outside edge of the white inscription should be supplemented by a black outline measuring 10 mm in width for runway code numbers 1 and 2, and 20 mm in width for runway code numbers 3 and 4.

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Other ICAO Annexes Provisions:

ICAO-ANB Other ICAO Annexes Provisions Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Aircraft shall not taxi onto maneuvering area without clearance Aircraft shall stop and hold at all runway holding positions Annex 11 — Air Traffic Services Movement of persons and vehicles must be controlled by the control tower

Other ICAO Annexes Provisions:

ICAO-ANB Other ICAO Annexes Provisions Annex 11 — Air Traffic Services Movement of persons and vehicles must be controlled by the control tower ATS safety management Read-back of clearances Use of surface movement radar

Other ICAO Annexes Provisions:

ICAO-ANB Other ICAO Annexes Provisions Amendment to Annex 13 — Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation and the Procedures for Air Navigation Services — Air Traffic Management (PANS-ATM) to include runway incursions (severity A) as serious incidents to be reported by States to ICAO and new runway incursion reporting forms Applicable from November 2009)

Thank you:

ICAO-ANB Thank you Yong Wang Chief, AGA/ANB International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

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