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Temperature control, Humidity control, Dust Collector,Air filtration:

Temperature control, Humidity control, Dust Collector,Air filtration Submitted by –Jeevan kaur MPharma 1 st year

Temperature control:

Temperature control Temperature control is a process in which change of temperature of a space (and objects collectively there within) is measured or otherwise detected, and the passage of heat energy into or out of the space is adjusted to achieve a desired average temperature.

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To accurately control process temperature without extensive operator involvement, a temperature control system relies upon a controller, which accepts a temperature sensor such as a thermocouple . It compares the actual temperature to the desired control temperature, or setpoint, and provides an output to a control element. The controller is one part of the entire control system, and the whole system should be analyzed in selecting the proper controller. The following items should be considered when selecting a controller. How do Temperature Controllers work?

The following items should be considered when selecting a controller. :

The following items should be considered when selecting a controller. Type of input sensor (thermocouple) and temperature range Type of output required ( analog output) Control algorithm needed (on/off, proportional, PID) Number and type of outputs (heat, cool, alarm, limit)

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Different Types of Controllers, and How Do They Work? There are three basic types of controllers: on-off, proportional and PID. Depending upon the system to be controlled, the operator will be able to use one type or another to control the process. On/Off Control An on-off controller is the simplest form of temperature control device. The output from the device is either on or off, with no middle state. An on-off controller will switch the output only when the temperature crosses the setpoint.

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On-off control is usually used where a precise control is not necessary, in systems which cannot handle having the energy turned on and off frequently, where the mass of the system is so great that temperatures change extremely slowly, or for a temperature alarm. One special type of on-off control used for alarm is a limit controller. This controller uses a latching relay, which must be manually reset, and is used to shut down a process when a certain temperature is reached.

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Proportional controls It is designed to eliminate the cycling associated with on-off control. A proportional controller decreases the average power supplied to the heater as the temperature approaches setpoint. This has the effect of slowing down the heater so that it will not overshoot the setpoint, but will approach the setpoint and maintain a stable temperature. This proportioning action can be accomplished by turning the output on and off for short time intervals. This "time proportioning" varies the ratio of “on” time to "off" time to control the temperature.

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PID Control The third controller type provides proportional with integral and derivative control, or PID. This controller combines proportional control with two additional adjustments, which helps the unit automatically compensate for changes in the system. These adjustments, integral and derivative, are expressed in time-based units; they are also referred to by their reciprocals, RESET and RATE, respectively. The proportional, integral and derivative terms must be individually adjusted or “tuned” to a particular system using trial and error. It provides the most accurate and stable control of the three controller types, and is best used in systems which have a relatively small mass, those which react quickly to changes in the energy added to the process.

Temperature Controller - Water Type KC-056L,110L,216L,326L,326L-2,539L,745L,1060L,539L-S:

Temperature Controller - Water Type KC-056L,110L,216L,326L,326L-2,539L,745L,1060L,539L-S High Performance, Accurate Temperature Control, Fast Heat-up, Comprehensive Safety Guards. The controller withstands temperatures up to 200℃. P.I.D micro computerized calculation assures accurate mold temperature control. The unit provides temperature uniformity on a mold, and ensures long mold service life.

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Two-step heating mechanism allows for electricity adjustment to suit temperature variations. The specially-constructed heating system provides time and power saving performance . COMPREHENSIVE SAFETY GUARDS Non-fuse breaker, Lack of Water or Oil Alarm, Abnormal Temperature Alarm, Pump Overload Alarm, and an Automatic Power Cut Off for Maximum Safety.

Water Type Temperature Controller:

Water Type Temperature Controller

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Industrial Dehumidifier Industrial air conditioner a basic introduction of the equipment. This industrial air conditioner is designed for injection molders and has the same function as domestic air conditioners. It is applied for controlling the ambient temperature around an injection mold. Too much moisture in the air may affect the quality of the mold surface because of condensation forming on the molded surface. This industrial air conditioner is ideal for controlling moisture and maintaining consistent quality in molded products. The industrial air conditioner is used for perform injection molding machines. The air conditioner is linked to the mold through its built-in blower .

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The evaporator and the condenser in the air conditioner process the moisturized air to produce dry cold air. The dry, cold air is then blown into the mold chamber to minimize moisture that causes condensation problems. The air conditioner fills the mold chamber with cold air and totally eliminates condensation on the mold surface whilst it is cooling . CONDENSATION REMOVAL PRINCIPLE-HOW THE MOISTURE IS ELIMINATED . The air compressor forces refrigerant into the evaporator to absorb heat. When the air flows through the evaporator, moisture will be condensed. The blower then delivers cold, dry air into the mold chamber removing any condensation on molded surfaces.

Industrial air conditioner:

Industrial air conditioner

Temperature Chamber :

Temperature Chamber

TEMPERATURE CHAMBER:

TEMPERATURE CHAMBER Scientific Climate Systems has been the industry leader in designing and building walk-in temperature chambers for many applications including testing components, products and assemblies. SCS temperature chambers are used for testing and controlled storage for many industries including Pharmaceutical , electronics and many more. With a track record of thousands of successful installations worldwide, SCS is the choice for first-class quality in engineering and construction of temperature chambers.

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Temperature chamber is kept at an extremely precise range: SCS temperature chambers have superior temperature control: as precise as ± .5°C. SCS temperature chambers may operate in ranges from -40°C to +85°C. Ramp rates available up to 5oC per minute. Air- and water-cooled condensing units are available. Complete refrigeration systems designed to meet your precise requirement. Options for Your Temperature Chamber.

Cont..:

Cont.. We also offer a wide range of options to fit your precise needs including: Indoor and outdoor chamber installations available. Sophisticated control technology: We can design your temperature chamber to ramp and soak multiple test applications simultaneously, allowing for unmanned testing during nights and weekends.

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Run your tests online: remote monitoring allows you to monitor chamber from a Web interface on your desktop computer. Custom air handling systems can be mounted on top of indoor installations and anywhere remotely for outdoor chambers. To provide complete quality assurance, we can provide documentation to validate the installation, operation and performance of your custom temperature chamber to your specified parameters.

Humidity control :

Humidity control J10-808 Wall or Duct Mount Humidistat. Ranco® J10 Series are designed to regulate the relative humidity of confined spaces by cycling humidifying or dehumidifying equipment. They are designed for use as internal components for portable humidifiers and dehumidifiers, and as wall mounted humidity controls for central systems. A nylon sensing element provides long life and accurate humidity control.

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The Wall/Duct Humidistat can be wall mounted or installed directly in a cold air return duct. The Wall Mount Dehumidistat is designed to be wall mounted and can be wired in series or parallel with a 24 volt non electric thermostat.

Humidity chamber:

Humidity chamber Wide range humidity chambers from less than 1% RH to 99% RH. Our humidity chambers are custom engineered to meet your specified humidity at the required temperature. Utilizing superior precision humidity control, our standard chambers are 20% RH to 95% RH, +/- 5% and 10% to 98%, plus or minus 2%. Additionally, our humidity test chambers have: Modular construction allows for easy installation and relocation of your humidity chamber. Stainless Steel construction for high humidity applications to prevent rusting.

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Steam distributors designed to maintain steam flow evenly across the full duct width to help with uniformity throughout your humidity chambers Humidifier consists of steam generator cylinder will be of the disposable type to help facilitate easy and quick maintenance All mineral and calcium deposits are contained in the discarded cylinder eliminating time-consuming cleaning of humidifier Scientific Climate Systems is also an industry leader in cold cleanrooms , temperature chambers and stability chambers

Liquid desiccant:

Liquid desiccant Principles of Liquid Desiccant Kathabar liquid systems utilize a liquid absorbent known as Kathene. This absorbent which is primarily composed of water and lithium chloride salt will dehumidify or humidify its surrounding environment in order to maintain equilibrium. The Kathabar systems discharge condition is controlled by adjusting the concentration and temperature of the solution.

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As the moisture is absorbed by the Kathene solution in the “Conditioner” it becomes dilute. To drive the moisture back out of the desiccant it is heated in the “Regenerator” and the moisture is released to the scavenger airstream (typically outside air). The process is done continuously to provide precise conditions to the process. Kathene (LiCl) is a chemically stable, non toxic, non-vaporizing solution which acts as a biocide to mold, bacteria and viruses.

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Kathabar Dry Systems Utilize an adsorbent desiccant wheel / rotor which is primarily composed of silica gel. By exposing the process air stream to the desiccant wheel, the silica gel desiccant’s low surface vapor pressure attracts the high vapor pressure of the air and entraps the moisture in the silica matrix. The desiccant is then exposed to a second scavenger airstream “Reactivation Air” (typically outside air) which has been preheated (lowering its vapor pressure) to drive the moisture back out of the desiccant.

Cont..:

Cont.. This is all accomplished continuously by the desiccant wheel “drive” motor which rotates the wheel through both streams. The desiccant wheel / rotor is primarily made of silica gel media and is secured in a perimeter band with radial spokes. The spokes are attached to a central hub with integral sealed ball bearings.

Humidating Indicating Cards Description :

Humidating Indicating Cards Description Desiccare,Inc manufacture a full line of Humidity Indicating (HI) cards which allows a low cost method of indicating humidity conditions for various types of barrier packaging. The 30%, 40%, 50% HI card complies with MS 20003-2 and 5%, 10%, 15%.Humidity Indicator Cards ( HIC ) are Printed with moisture sensitive spots which responds to various levels of humidity with a visible color change from blue to pink. HIC's are placed inside vacuum sealed ( dry packed ) moisture barrier bags to monitor the interior humidity complies completely with JDEC Standard 033.

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Advantages : Indicate Humidity conditions in various types of barrier packaging. Often used in conjunction with a desiccant. Allow instant visual verification of product integrity. Low Cost. Spots turn from Blue to Pink to indicate humidity levels.

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Available ranges of Humidity cards: 8% - Single Spot 10%, 20%, 30% - Three spots 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% - Four spots 5%, 10%, 15% - Three spots 20%, 30%, 40% - Three spots 30%, 40%, 50% - Three spots 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% - Six spots

Dust collector:

Dust collector A dust collector is a system used to enhance the quality of air released from industrial and commercial processes by collecting dust and other impurities from air or gas. Designed to handle high-volume dust loads, a dust collector system consists of a blower, dust filter, a filter-cleaning system, and a dust receptacle or dust removal system. It is distinguished from air cleaners , which use disposable filters to remove dust . Types of dust collectors Five principal types of industrial dust collectors are: Inertial separators Fabric filters Wet scrubbers Electrostatic precipitators Unit collectors

Inertial separators :

Inertial separators Inertial separators separate dust from gas streams using a combination of forces, such as centrifugal, gravitational, and inertial. These forces move the dust to an area where the forces exerted by the gas stream are minimal. The separated dust is moved by gravity into a hopper, where it is temporarily stored .

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Fabric filters Parts of Fabric Filters Commonly known as baghouses, fabric collectors use filtration to separate dust particulates from dusty gases. They are one of the most efficient and cost effective types of dust collectors available and can achieve a collection efficiency of more than 99% for very fine particulates. Dust-laden gases enter the baghouse and pass through fabric bags that act as filters. The bags can be of woven or felted cotton, synthetic, or glass-fiber material in either a tube or envelope shape.

Wet scrubber:

Wet scrubber Dust collectors that use liquid are known as wet scrubbers . In these systems, the scrubbing liquid (usually water) comes into contact with a gas stream containing dust particles. Greater contact of the gas and liquid streams yields higher dust removal efficiency. Three basic configuration are. Gas humidification Gas liquid contact Gas liquid seperation(mist eliminator).

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Types of scrubbers Spray-tower scrubber wet scrubbers may be categorized by pressure drop as follows: Low-energy scrubbers (0.5 to 2.5 inches water gauge - 124.4 to 621.9 Pa) Low- to medium-energy scrubbers (2.5 to 6 inches water gauge - 0.622 to 1.493 kPa) Medium- to high-energy scrubbers (6 to 15 inches water gauge - 1.493 to 3.731 kPa) High-energy scrubbers (greater than 15 inches water gauge - greater than 3.731 kPa)

Electrostatic precipitator:

Electrostatic precipitator Electrostatic precipitators use electrostatic forces to separate dust particles from exhaust gases. A number of high-voltage, direct-current discharge electrodes are placed between grounded collecting electrodes. The contaminated gases flow through the passage formed by the discharge and collecting electrodes. Electrostatic precipitators operate on the same principle as home "Ionic" air purifiers.

Cont.. :

Cont.. The airborne particles receive a negative charge as they pass through the ionized field between the electrodes. These charged particles are then attracted to a grounded or positively charged electrode and adhere to it. The collected material on the electrodes is removed by rapping or vibrating the collecting electrodes either continuously or at a predetermined interval. Cleaning a precipitator can usually be done without interrupting the airflow.

Cont..:

Cont.. The four main components of all electrostatic precipitators are- Power supply unit, to provide high-voltage DC power Ionizing section, to impart a charge to particulates in the gas stream A means of removing the collected particulates A housing to enclose the precipitator zone

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Types of precipitators There are two main types of precipitators: High-voltage, single-stage - Single-stage precipitators combine an ionization and a collection step. They are commonly referred to as Cottrell precipitators. Low-voltage, two-stage - Two-stage precipitators use a similar principle; however, the ionizing section is followed by collection plates.

Unit Collector:

Unit Collector Unit collectors control contamination at its source. They are small and self-contained, consisting of a fan and some form of dust collector. They are suitable for isolated, portable, or frequently moved dust-producing operations, such as bins or remote belt-conveyor transfer points. Advantages of unit collectors include small space requirements, the return of collected dust to main material flow, and low initial cost. However, their dust-holding and storage capacities, servicing facilities, and maintenance periods have been sacrificed.

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A number of designs are available, with capacities ranging from 200 to 2,000 ft³/min (90 to 900 L/s). There are two main types of unit collectors:Fabric collectors, with manual shaking or pulse-jet cleaning - normally used for fine dust. Cyclone collectors - normally used for coarse dust.

Air Filtration:

Air Filtration Membrane Membrane filter can be used to filter a compressed air to meet an appropriate high quality standard. It is used to produce a sterile compressed gas to conduct operation involving sterile material like component ,equipment for eg.autoclave airlines,lyophilizer vacuum break etc. Gas filter should be dry condensate on a glass filter cause blockage during use.

Cont..:

Cont.. Filter that supply sterile gas that can effect product be integrated tested upon installation. Integrity test failure should be investigated and filter should be replaced at defined interval. HEPA FILTER .(High efficency particulate air filter) HEPA filter integrity should be maintained to ensure aseptic condition. Leak testing should be performed at installation.Any aerosol used should meet specification for critical physicochemical attribute such as viscosity..

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Efficiency testing is carried out to determine the rating of filter .HEPA filter should be capable to retain at least 99.97% of particulate greater than 0.3micrometer in diameter. HEPA filter leak test alone is insufficient to monitor filter performance ,so it is imp to perform periodic monitoring of filter attribute. HEPA filter should be replaced when non uniformity of air velocity across an area of filter is detected or airflow patterns is adversely affected

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ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL : People Total body covering in critical area and partial covering in non critical area. Adequate personnel flow and restricted access to aseptic and critical environment. Barrier Adequate sterilization procedure. Barrier between low and high risk operation. Material - Adequate material control,adequate sterilization and filtration procedure. Air Adequate air filtration,cleanliness,and validation .

REFRENCE:

REFRENCE www.pharmaacess.net www. Pmtj.com www.pharmainfo.com www.enwikipedia.com www.pubmed.com

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THANKS EVERYONE ........................ for listening me thanks everyone

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