lemon oil

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Lemon oil:

Lemon oil BY- Rathod Sachin S. M. Tech. Perfumery and Flavor Tech.)

Contents...:

Contents... About lemon oil…. Scientific classification For obtaining oil… Composition… Synthesis… Country parameters Physico-chemical properties Variation in quality Application… References…

About lemon oil….:

About lemon oil…. Definition: Lemon oil is the oil expressed from the outer part of the fresh pericarp of the ripe or nearly ripe fruit of Citrus lemon ( Rutaceae ). Oil should be obtained by suitable mechanical means, without the use of heat, from the fresh peel. Generally lemon oils treated with antioxidant. Pure oil Should be- clear, pale yellow to greenish yellow mobile liquid, concentrated, fresh and sweet odour.

Scientific classification…:

Scientific classification… Kingdom : Plantae Order : Sapindales Family : Rutaceae Genus : Citrus Species : C. sinensis Varieties of common lemons Eureka Lisbon Bush lemon tree ( australia ) Ponderosa Pink lemon Rough lemon Sanbokan lemon (Japan) Meyer lemon Verna ( spanish ) Yuzu (Japan & Korea)

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Expression Hand method or sponge process Machine process Distillation For obtaining lemon oil….

Composition...:

Composition... Lemon oil contains about 90% monoterpene hydrocarbons composed mainly of – Limonene (70-81%), with lesser amounts of α pinene-5%, β pinene-5%, γ- terpinene , sabinene , and myrcene . 2–6% aldehydes [mainly Citral , Neral and Geranial] 0.3-2% alcohols and esters (linalool, octanol , nonanol , decanol , terpinen-4-ol, α- terpineol , geraniol , neryl acetate, geranyl acetate, etc.) Small amounts of sesquiterpenes ( bisabolene , α- bergamotene , and caryophyllene ) waxes.

Odour profile of lemon oil Constituents...:

Odour profile of lemon oil Constituents... - Limonene Fresh and light sweet citrusy odour resembles lemon peel. Citral Powerful lemony fragrance.

Cont...:

Cont... Neral Sweet floral citral lemony floral. Linalool Light and refreshing floral.

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Lemon Oil S r No. Country California Italy Spain Brazil Parameters 1 Methods of Extraction Employed 1)Steam Distillation. 2)Cold Process. 3)Large scale Citrus juice & oil pressing equipment. 1)Hand Pressing(Sponge method). 2)Sfumatrici & Pellatrici machines. 1)Sponge Pressing. 2)Puncturing. 1)Steam Distillation. 2)Cold Process. 3)Large scale Citrus juice & oil pressing equipment. 2 Major producing Regions Eureka,Lisbon . Sicily,Near Calabria, Campania, Apulia,Liguria, Saradinia. Provinces of Murcia, Malaga, Alquerias , Alcantarialla,Mulina . Sao paulo , Limeira,Pitangueiras .

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Lemon Oil Sr No. Country California Italy Spain Brazil Physico Chemical Properties 1 Specific Gravity 0.8497 0.849 to0.855 0.851 to 0.852 0.851 2 Optical Rotation 62° 29' 57° 0' to 65° 36' 57° 23' to 62° 42' 63° 5' 3 Refrective Index 1.4743 1.4742 to 1.4755 1.4743 to 1.4748 1.4746 4 Aldehyde content, calculated as citral 2.80% 3.7 to 5% 3.2 to4.5% 2.00% 5 Evaporation Residue - 1.5 to 2.2 % 3.7 to 4.1 3.80%

Variation in Quality…:

Variation in Quality… Due to, Yearly variation- changes in physicochemical properties Seasonal variation- harvesting period Geographical variation- region of production Variation in extraction method

Applications of lemon oil…:

Applications of lemon oil… Aromatherapy- perfumes and flavours. first aid and medicine-Antibacterial, B.P, relief muscle pain. Household use... Used as Disinfectant, Energy, Insect Repellent etc...

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Application of lemon oil in various Products...

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1] B.M. Lawrence, perfum.flav . 14 ,41(1989) 2] W.L. Stanley and L. Jurd , J.Agric Food chem .,19, 1106 (1976). 3] M.S. Subba ., et al. J. Food Sci., 32 ,225 (1967) 4] Gulsen , O.; M. L. Roose (2001). "Lemons: Diversity and Relationships with Selected Citrus Genotypes as Measured with Nuclear Genome Markers". Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science , 126 :309–317 5] A.Di Guiacomo et al., Essenze Deriv Agrum ., 40, 143(1970) 6] F.J.C. Rose and W.E.H. Field, Food cosmat,Toxicol., 3, 311(1965) 7] G.L.K. Hunter and M.G. Moshonas J. Food sci. 31, 167(1966) REFERENCES...

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