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Chapter Two:

Chapter Two Improving Personal and Organizational Communications

Chapter Preview: Improving Personal & Organizational Communication:

2- 2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Chapter Preview: Improving Personal & Organizational Communication Impact of advanced technology Impersonal versus interpersonal communication Communication process and filters that affect it Ways to improve communication skills Communication flow in organizations and methods for improvement Communicating effectively using technology

Advanced Technology's Impact on Communication:

2- 3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Advanced Technology's Impact on Communication Information age is characterized by: rapid advances in technology-based communication communication across language and cultural barriers due to increase in global business increase in volume and speed of messages less face to face communication

Advanced Technology's Impact on Communication:

2- 4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Advanced Technology's Impact on Communication E-commerce: ability to instantly buy and sell products or services via the World Wide Web requires efficient and effective communication skills utilizing the latest technology advances

Advanced Technology's Impact on Communication:

2- 5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Advanced Technology's Impact on Communication Need to balance technology with human touch Technology can enhance and create a barrier to effective communication Too much information can lead to frustration and breakdown in communication

The Communication Process:

2- 6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. The Communication Process Basic communication process is always the same Differences in: people cultures, countries, lifestyles methods technology, face to face individual interpretation

The Communication Process :

2- 7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. The Communication Process All organizational communication is on a continuum Impersonal Interpersonal

Impersonal Communication:

2- 8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Impersonal Communication One-way information giving process Transmit or transfer of information Used to give basic information: company policies instructions facts Methods include: memos letters e-mail voice mail manuals bulletin boards

Impersonal Communication:

2- 9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Impersonal Communication Advantage: Easy ways to get the word out Limitation: Limited feedback from receiver Understanding of message not know Timing of message not controlled

Interpersonal Communication:

2- 10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Interpersonal Communication Two-way communication Verbal exchange of thoughts or information between two or more people Descriptions include: share discuss argue interact Formats include: meetings interviews phone calls classes Response from receiver necessary for effectiveness

Interpersonal Communication:

2- 11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Interpersonal Communication Advantages: Builds stronger, more personal relationships Sender can be sure the message was understood Limitations: Takes time Often not feasible

Total Person Insight:

2- 12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Total Person Insight Many skills are valuable at work, but one skill is essential: the ability to communicate. Whether you are presenting your ideas at a committee meeting, dashing off fifteen e-mails in a row, chatting with a coworker at a copy machine, evaluating an employee, or closing a deal over the phone, what you are doing is communicating. These exchanges are the backbone and the life blood of every organization and every relationship. Eric Maisel Author, 20 Communication Tips @ Work

Effective Communication:

2- 13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Effective Communication Composed of three basic elements: A sender A receiver An understood message

PowerPoint Presentation:

2- 14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Figure 2.1 Figure 2.1 Diagram of Simple Communication Process

Complex Communication:

2- 15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Complex Communication Most communications are more complicated Messages travel through filters which can alter the way your message is understood Need to be aware of possible distortions so miscommunication can be interpreted

PowerPoint Presentation:

2- 16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Figure 2.2 Diagram of More Complex Communication Process

Communication Filters:

2- 17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Communication Filters Semantics Emotions Attitudes Role expectations Gender bias Nonverbal messages

Semantics:

2- 18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Semantics Study of relationship between words and their meaning(s) Words are not things, they are labels Assumptions about meaning can be dangerous Abstract terms are subject to more interpretations of meaning

Language and Cultural Barriers:

2- 19 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Language and Cultural Barriers Language English has been the dominant language Considerations when using English with non-native speakers speak slowly, clearly avoid slang Multilingual transactions more common with growth of transnational companies

Language and Cultural Barriers:

2- 20 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Language and Cultural Barriers Culture An accumulation of values, forms of expression, beliefs, and language Shapes one's interpretations of what events mean communication problems can be caused by conflicting cultural assumptions

Language and Cultural Barriers:

2- 21 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Language and Cultural Barriers Cultures have different standards for how fast you should talk how much you should talk how long you should pause between ideas how long you should wait after someone finishes talking before you say something

Language and Cultural Barriers:

2- 22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Language and Cultural Barriers Culture is getting more attention because of globalization rapid increases in immigrant groups growing support for cultural diversity by employers

Language and Cultural Barriers:

2- 23 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Language and Cultural Barriers Remember: Your words and gestures may influence how the other person is interpreting your message Avoid making judgments about others' messages if they are coming from a culture different from your own

Emotions:

2- 24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Emotions Powerful communication filter Receivers may think with their emotions Strong emotions can prevent reception, or distort the strength of a message May shift attention from the message content to feelings

Attitudes:

2- 25 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Attitudes Can be a barrier to effective communication like emotions Negative and positive attitudes can create resistance or bias to a message Attitude may be based on: voice accent gesture dress delivery mannerisms speaker’s topic

Role Expectations:

2- 26 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Role Expectations Influences how people expect themselves, and others, to act Two ways they can distort communication People may identify others too closely with their roles People use their roles to alter the way they relate to others or “position power”

Gender-Specific Focus:

2- 27 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Gender-Specific Focus Learned gender roles can influence the way men and women communicate Genders conditioned to approach communication in different ways Boys: take charge Girls: facilitative and cooperative Most recent research contents genders more alike than different

Nonverbal Messages:

2- 28 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Nonverbal Messages Messages without words or silent messages Not spoken or written Include: posture facial expressions voice tone gestures appearances eye contact

Nonverbal Messages:

2- 29 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Nonverbal Messages More impact than verbal message Being more conscious of nonverbal messages improves communication Make sure verbal and nonverbal messages are consistent: message clarity builds trust

PowerPoint Presentation:

2- 30 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Figure 2.3 The Impact of Nonverbal Messages Source: Silent Messages by Albert Mehrabian (Wadsworth: 1981).

Eye Contact:

2- 31 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Eye Contact Transmit more information than any other part of the body Western standard in business setting: meet other person’s eyes 60 - 70%

Facial Expressions:

2- 32 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Facial Expressions Identifies inner feelings and emotions of person Most observations are accurate “Wearing your emotions on your sleeve”

Gestures:

2- 33 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Gestures Messages indicating reaction to situation Should command respect Meanings vary across cultures

Personal Space:

2- 34 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Personal Space Used to define relationships Edward Hall identified “zones” of comfortable distances Distances vary across cultures

Comfort Zones:

2- 35 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Comfort Zones Intimate Distance Touching to 18 inches Personal Distance From 18 inches to 4 feet Social Distance From 4 feet to 12 feet Public Distance From 12 feet to 15 feet

Responsibility for Effective Communication:

2- 36 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Responsibility for Effective Communication Senders and the receivers share equal responsibility Senders for sending a clear and concise message Receivers for receiving the message that the sender intended Use of feedback to ensure accurate message

Steps to Improve Communication:

2- 37 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Steps to Improve Communication Send clear messages Develop active listening skills

Send Clear Messages:

2- 38 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Send Clear Messages Use simple, clear and concise words Use repetition Use appropriate timing Consider the receiver’s preferences

Develop Listening Skills:

2- 39 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Develop Listening Skills Listening is a learned behavior Studies show poor listening habits People listen at a 25 percent efficiency rate About 75 percent of the messages are missed Listening should be “active or generous” not passive

Active or Generous Listening:

2- 40 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Active or Generous Listening Intense involvement and concentration on what one is hearing Opportunity to: Gain stronger relationships Learn new information Make fewer mistakes

Develop Active Listening Skills:

2- 41 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Develop Active Listening Skills Develop a listening attitude Give the speaker your full attention Clarify by asking questions Feed back your understanding of the speaker’s message Add depth and dimension with critical and empathic listening skills

Total Person Insight:

2- 42 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Total Person Insight Listening well is at the heart of intimacy and connection. When we are able to listen to another person with attention and care, that person feels validated and enhanced. Harriet Lerner Author, The Dance of Connection

Critical Listening:

2- 43 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Critical Listening Organized cognitive process to carefully examine the thinking of others Attempt to see topic from speakers point of view Especially important when emotions are involved Important during impersonal and interpersonal communication

Empathic Listening:

2- 44 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Empathic Listening Listening with the intent to understand how the person feels One often has need to talk without expectation of advice or guidance Listening with “ears, eyes and heart” Rare in Western culture

Develop Empathic Listening Skills:

2- 45 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Develop Empathic Listening Skills Adopt three practices: Avoid being judgmental Accept what is said Be patient

Communication Channels in Organizations :

2- 46 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Communication Channels in Organizations Organizations depend on teamwork Good communication builds teamwork by permitting two-way communication unifying group behavior Use both formal and information channels

Formal Channels:

2- 47 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Formal Channels Formal channels used for official information Two types Vertical Horizontal

Formal Channels:

2- 48 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Formal Channels Vertical channels between top and lowest levels often via impersonal methods less opportunity for feedback Horizontal channels people on the same level often via interpersonal methods

Informal Channels:

2- 49 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Informal Channels Also known as the “grapevine” Exists in all organizations Can be both positive and negative Information passes quickly Can clarify message from formal channels Provides for employees’ social needs Messages can be distorted, abbreviated, exaggerated, or completely inaccurate

Improving Organizational Communication:

2- 50 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Improving Organizational Communication Develop an effective listening environment Encourage upward communication employees sharing feelings and ideas with management Remove barriers that prevent open communication builds trust among all employees, regardless of position

Communicating via Technology:

2- 51 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Communicating via Technology Traditional memos letters phone calls face-to-face conversations High-tech virtual office telecommuting e-mail cellular phone fax modem electronic documents voice mail

Communicating via Technology:

2- 52 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Communicating via Technology Advantages Time efficiency Cost effectiveness Disadvantages Receiver’s impressions Frustration and stress Must be used with care to avoid miscommunication

Voice Mail:

2- 53 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Voice Mail Voice mail tag exchange of several voice mails without successful transmission of the message Avoid counterproductive exercise in frustration

Voice Mail:

2- 54 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Voice Mail For incoming calls: Keep your recorded message updated daily Practice your greeting before recording it Include your first and last names, and the date Include when you will be retrieving your messages Explain how to reach ‘live’ person for urgent calls

Voice Mail:

2- 55 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Voice Mail When retrieving your voice mail: Keep a notepad beside your phone Write down the essential information you need for calls you want to return; then delete them Return calls promptly

Voice Mail:

2- 56 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Voice Mail When leaving a voice mail message: Be courteous Speak clearly and slowly Keep message short and simple Establish why you are calling Give name and contact number Let receiver know when you will be available or set a time when you will call again

E-Mail:

2- 57 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. E-Mail Advantages Fast Alternative if not comfortable with face to face Great equalizer Can eliminate gender or racial biases Disadvantages Can take longer than other methods Careful planning and writing skills required

Guidelines for E-Mail:

2- 58 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Guidelines for E-Mail Know your company’s e-mail policy Create an appropriate e-mail address and signature Use the Subject: line Watch your language Avoid forwarding junk mail

E-mail Tips:

2- 59 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. E-mail Tips Do not send when angry or exhausted Do not substitute for face-to-face meetings Scan subject lines Always try to have error-free messages Do not use to share rumors, innuendos, or sensitive information Avoid unprofessional abbreviations

Summary:

2- 60 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Summary Age of information has generated rapid advances in communications technology But technology needs people to make it work

Summary:

2- 61 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Summary No longer a need to communicate more; instead, learn to communicate more effectively Need to understand the communication process

Summary:

2- 62 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Summary Two types of communication Impersonal one-way method used to share basic facts, policies, and instructions that require no feedback from a receiver Interpersonal two-way exchange in which the receiver understands the message in the same way as the sender intended it

Summary:

2- 63 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Summary Communication is often filtered through semantics emotions attitudes role expectations gender bias nonverbal messages

Summary:

2- 64 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Summary Nonverbal body language conveys thoughts and feelings through eye contact facial expressions gestures use of personal space

Summary:

2- 65 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Summary Individuals can improve communication by: making their messages clearer using repetition and good timing

Summary:

2- 66 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Summary Organizational communication builds team work unifies group behavior Two channels Formal vertical or horizontal Informal grapevine Improve by creating channels for upward communication

Summary:

2- 67 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Summary Communications superhighway has created tremendous opportunities Global marketplace has prompted companies to train employees in cross-cultural communication