Supermagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

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Supermagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

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Supermagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs): development, surface modification and application in chemotherapy sajad sarvari :

Supermagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs): development, surface modification and application in chemotherapy sajad sarvari

Outline:

Outline Introduction Synthesis Characteristic of SPIONs Application in drug delivery

Introduction:

Introduction Nanoparticles consist of iron oxide core Special features Supermagnetism High field irreversibility High saturation field Application in (magnetic resonance imaging),targeted drug delivery

Synthesis:

Synthesis Almost Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) Maghemite ( γ -Fe 2 O 3 ) Hematite (-Fe 2 O 3 ) Rarely mixed oxides of iron and other transition metal ions. 3 most important routes to synthesis

PowerPoint Presentation:

A comparison of published work (up to date) on the synthesis of SPIONs by three different routes.

Synthesis:

Synthesis Sugimoto’s method(Co-precipitation): Preparation by using ferrous salt in the presence of potassium hydroxide and potassium nitrate Sol-gel method The most common method reported by massart : addition of base to an aqueous solution of ferrous and ferric ions in a 1:2 stoichiometry and production of a black precipitate of spherical magnetite NPs of uniform sizes in an oxygen free environment.

Massart’s method VS sugimoto’s method:

Massart’s method VS sugimoto’s method Production of larger particles (30 to 200 nm) of rhombic (stirred condition) and spherical (static condition) morphologies in sugimoto’s method

Synthesis:

Synthesis Microemulsion :using water droplets as nanoreactor in a continuous phase(oil) in the presence of surfactant molecules. sonochemical routes: formation, growth of nuclei by high energy ultrasonication In temperature of 5000 K. Lacks of large scale synthesis

Synthesis:

Synthesis Electrochemical deposition under oxidised conditions(EDOC):oxidizing of anode to metal ion species in the solution. Lacks of large scale synthesis Hydrothermal method: synthesis of magnetite by heating of iron precursors in aqueous medium.

Synthesis:

Synthesis Biomimetic synthesis by magnetotactic bacteria.

Characteristics of SPIONs (Colloidal stability) :

Characteristics of SPIONs ( Colloidal stability) SPIONs tend to aggregate! Controlled by three principle forces Hydrophobic-hydrophilic magnetic(internal) Van derwaals Stabilization in suspension by modifying their surfaces applied drug delivery

Characteristics of SPIONs:

Characteristics of SPIONs

Characteristics of SPIONs (shape , size and size distribution):

Characteristics of SPIONs ( shape , size and size distribution) Important in biological application Mahmoudi employed multiphysics finite element model to study the effects of an applied magnetic field on SPIONs with various sizes in a simulated blood vessel. .M. Mahmo udi , M.A. Shokrgozar , A. Simchi , M. Imani , A.S. Milani , P. Stroeve , H. Vali , U.O. Hafeli , S. Bonakdar , Multiphysics flow modeling and in vitro toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with poly(vinyl alcohol), Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113 (6) (2009) 2322 –2331.

Characteristics of SPIONs (shape , size and size distribution):

Characteristics of SPIONs ( shape , size and size distribution) 2-D geometry and finite element mesh model of a blood vessel under a permanent (static) magnetic field for drug delivery.

Characteristics of SPIONs (shape , size and size distribution):

Characteristics of SPIONs ( shape , size and size distribution) The (B) x and (C) y velocities of the ferrofluid containing SPIONs with various sizes. Results are presented for the observation point shown in (A). Samples are herein referred to as S (x ) M( x ), where S is the stirring rate and M is the NaOH molarity . For instance, S (3600) M(1.2) indicates a sample prepared with a stirring rate of 3600 rpm and a molarity of 1.2.

Characteristics of SPIONs (shape , size and size distribution):

Characteristics of SPIONs ( shape , size and size distribution) Discussion: Simulation results suggest that both the strength of the applied magnetic field and the magnetic properties of SPIONs (which obtained by their various size and shapes) affect the velocity field fluctuations ( flow turbulence) and amplitude (peak velocity).

Characteristics of SPIONs (shape , size and size distribution):

Characteristics of SPIONs ( shape , size and size distribution) Conclusion: The velocity field with less fluctuation and higher amplitude, especially in the direction normal to tissue, is believed to be preferable to facilitate drug delivery.

Characteristics of SPIONs (toxicity of SPIONs):

Characteristics of SPIONs (toxicity of SPIONs) Despite potential application of SPIONs, very few experiments report their toxicity. Composition toxicity: PVA-coated SPIONs toxicity in all forms, small oxidative DNA lesions, the effect of SPIONs on the cell cycle confirmed the arrest in the G0G1 cell-life gap. Mahmoudi observed the existence of gas vesicles in SPIONs-treated cells.

(toxicity of SPIONs):

(toxicity of SPIONs)

Characteristics of SPIONs (toxicity of SPIONs):

Characteristics of SPIONs (toxicity of SPIONs) Protein-nanoparticles interactions: Key issue for defining the toxicity of NPs Cedervall has studied the specific binding rates and affinities of different plasma proteins to NPs. Three methods were proposed to study these interactions: size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) surface plasmon resonance (SPR) isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) ITC and SEC allow studying the affinity and stoichiometry of protein bonded to particles, SPR gives the rates of protein association and dissociation.

Protein-nanoparticles interactions:

Protein-nanoparticles interactions

Characteristics of SPIONs (protein and peptide functionalized SPIONs):

Characteristics of SPIONs ( protein and peptide functionalized SPIONs) In order to increase the targeting capability of NPs, their surfaces can be conjugated by targeting species including low-molecular weight ligands (folic acid, thiamine, and sugars), peptides (RGD, LHRD), proteins ( transferrin , antibodies, and lectins ), polysaccharides ( hyaluronic acid)

Characteristics of SPIONs (protein and peptide functionalized SPIONs):

Characteristics of SPIONs ( protein and peptide functionalized SPIONs)

SPIONs in drug delivery:

SPIONs in drug delivery

SPIONs in drug delivery:

SPIONs in drug delivery

conclusion:

conclusion A comprehensive understanding of the various interactions of SPIONs with biomolecules in the body system (i.e. protein– nanoparticle interactions) would lead to novel SPIONs overcoming the problem of “rejection of magnetic NPs by the human body” “biocompatibility” and “toxicity” in the near future will be more experimental.

conclusion:

conclusion The finding of a trace of SPIONs in mitochondria leads to great hope among researchers in the field for the possibility to treat in the n ear future mitochondrial disorders and cardiac dysfunctions by using drug-loaded particles. It is possible that one day some “intelligent SPIONs ” could be designed to control the aging process.

PowerPoint Presentation:

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