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Premium member Presentation Transcript Stored Food Pests: Stored Food Pests Modified from: urbanprinciples.ifas.ufl.edu/stored food pests.pptStored food pests : Stored food pests 80% of human food comes from grains 12% of harvest is lost to insects before harvest another 36% is lost after harvest to insects overall total food losses due to pests are about 50% destructionTwo Pest Categories : Two Pest Categories Primary – Cause initial injury Secondary – Take advantage of injury.Types of losses due to pests: Types of losses due to pests Direct IndirectDirect losses: Direct losses Actual consumption loss of weight, loss of nutrients, lower germination, reduced grade lower market value Contamination Damage to structures or containersIndirect losses: Indirect losses wet grain heating bacteria fungi alflatoxins parasites of humans control and application costs excessive pesticide residues loss of consumer confidenceFood contamination: Food contamination Insect infestation results in grain damage that cannot be repaired Food defect action levels set FDA standards for insect contamination Food exceeding those levels cannot be mixed with un-infested food to reduce levels of contamination Food processors can be fined or sent to jail for infestations found during inspectionsFood Defect Action Levels: Food Defect Action Levels Apple Butter Insect Filth: Ave. of 5 or more whole or equivalent insects (not counting mites, aphids, thrips, or scale insects) per 100 g of apple butter Rodent Filth: Ave. of 4 or more rodent hairs per 100 g sample Significance: AestheticFood Action Defect Levels: Food Action Defect Levels Cherries, fresh, canned or frozen Insect Filth Avg. of 4% or more pieces are rejects due to insects other than maggots Wheat Flour Insect Filth: Ave of 75 or more insect fragments per 50 gManagement of Stored Food Pests: Management of Stored Food Pests Monitor Pest Population Control through non-chemical means if possible Use Chemicals as a last resort (they can cause rejection too). Objective: Prevent contamination from causing rejectionInspection and monitoring: Inspection and monitoring Survey areas where insect pests can enter facility Windows and doors should be tight to prevent entry when closed Vegetation (fruit and nut trees) can cause pests to proliferate close to the building Weeds can provide harborageMonitoring: Monitoring Light traps— commonly used to trap flies, can be used to monitor flying stored product insects also Probe traps-- inserted into infested commodity to trap insects Flanders, KPheromone Trap: Pheromone TrapTrapping: Trapping Traps for all but flour beetles should be placed about 6 feet up. Flour beetle traps should be placed level on floor or shelves Place traps in grid pattern 25-50* feet apart Do not place close to windows and doors to prevent luring insects into facility*** Pinpoint problem areas, then visually inspect to find infestation Routinely service to replace attractants and clean or change sticky traps Lures are effective for two months after this they should be replaced with new ones.Information from Trapping: Information from Trapping Monitoring—new introductions, isolate current problems Looking at setae on back of a beetle, can determine food it was in.Other Rules of Thumb: Other Rules of Thumb A warehouse may be 1 million cubic feet Trap placement 1/30,000 ft 3 (“average”) 1/10,000 ft 3 (“critical”) 1/100,000 (“non-critical”)Monitoring: Monitoring Sex pheromone produced by Various Moths Anobiid beetles Dermestid beetles Sources: Insects Limited Trece Whitmire Moth – volatileMonitoring: Monitoring Aggregation pheromone produced by many flour beetles and grain beetles. Both males and females respond to the luresIndian meal moth pheromones: Indian meal moth pheromones adults up to 13 mm, bicolored wings, inner half light colored, outer half coppery feeds on almost any stored food but especially is found in stored nuts, grain, dried fruit, and pet food traps contain hangers, traps, lures, and sticky paperRed and confused flour beetle pheromone: Red and confused flour beetle pheromone adults up to 4.4 mm, dark reddish and somewhat flattened feed on flours, cereals, debris, cocoa, fruits, and vegetable products traps contain traps, oil dispensers, oil pads, and luresCigarette beetles: Cigarette beetles adults up to 5 mm, brown to reddish with the head tucked under pronotum attacks most stored food including tobacco hanging traps have hangers, traps, lures floor traps have stations and luresSawtoothed grain beetle: Sawtoothed grain beetle adults up to 3.25 mm, elongated and flattened, toothlike projections on side of pronotum enter many sealed containers same trap as flour beetle trap but with sawtoothed grain beetle attractantAngoumois grain moth: Angoumois grain moth adult wingspan up to 19 mm pale yellow forewings and gray pointed hindwings attacks whole grains hanging trap includes traps, hangers, and luresThe trick to traps . . .: The trick to traps . . . Where’s the plume? Things that influence the pheromone plume: Air handling system HVAC, positive pressure High use during summer and winter Sends pheromone up and out of building if hung too high But if you hang the trap too low, the distribution of the pheromone will be poor and affect trap catch /lancaster.unl.eduIPM: Management Tactics: IPM: Management Tactics Non-chemical control Sanitation— Physical— Cultural— Many of the non-chemical control methods are PREVENTATIVE Biological Control: ?IPM: Management Tactics: IPM: Management Tactics Judicious use of insecticides Examples of treatment plans, associated application equipment, formulations available and some productsCommon Facilities with Stored Product Pests: Common Facilities with Stored Product Pests Warehouses Stores Homes Bins will be covered in the labGeneral Principles for an IPM Program: General Principles for an IPM Program Inspect incoming material (prevention) is the first line of defense against most stored product insects.Inspect rail cars and trucks for spilled food and infestations: Inspect rail cars and trucks for spilled food and infestations www.bulkwest.comFlour in bags— examine seams of bags; check surface of bags, look under a few bags, look for holes in bags, check pallet: Flour in bags— examine seams of bags; check surface of bags, look under a few bags, look for holes in bags, check pallet http://www.fsa.usda.gov/daco/pdd/eob/bhous35.jpgInspection of incoming materials: Inspection of incoming materials Look for trails in dust to determine presence of insects Boxes of grain products— check surface of transportation vehicle and dust residues, remove inner pack, check box and bottom of box, check palletsPowerPoint Presentation: Inspect material before putting inside kitchen pantry Check cereal boxes, flour bags, or any grain containing food /www.artisanspecialties.comGeneral Principles for an IPM Program: General Principles for an IPM Program Inspect incoming material First in, first outFirst In, First Out: First In, First Out www.olsensgrain.comPet Stores: Pet Stores Bags of pet food are common sources of infestation. Pet Stores: Pet Stores Pig’s ear chew toy--dermestids www.dog-gonegoodies.comGrocery Stores: Grocery Stores SPP can start infestation in food products, but become a problem in paper goods (packaging) where they can pupate.General Principles for an IPM Program: General Principles for an IPM Program Inspect incoming material First in, first out SanitationSanitation: Sanitation Spilled food Flour dust Trash containers Broken packaging Equipment cleaningSanitation: Sanitation It’s one thing to clean out a kitchen pantry Discard infested items Vacuum Wipe shelves down with warm soapy water pages.ivillage.comSanitation?: Sanitation?Sanitation?: Sanitation? www.bulkwest.com http://www.worldgrain.com/graphic/bulk.gifNon-chemical controls: Non-chemical controls Cold Heat Packaging Mechanical destructionCold: Cold Low temperature of product can retard or kill stored product pests Grain storage silos usually have aeration equipment to pull cold air into grain in winter to kill or slow development of grain pests Storing susceptible materials in refrigerator will slow or kill pests Packages placed in refrigerator will kill most stored products pests if the cold penetrates to all areas of the package (4 days for a 5 lb bag of flour)Heat: Heat Processing plants are often heated to 120-150 o F for 24 hours Infested food can be placed in oven at 150 o F for 20 minutes Infrared and microwaves are often used to kill pests in processingPackaging: Packaging Packaging can keep products free of insects Newly hatched larvae can penetrate cracks 0.12 mm wide Waxed paper and cardboard can be penetrated by stored products pests 75% of infestation occurs at folds and corners of a carton Foil laminates can prevent most insect infestation Glass jars and metal drums are virtually insect proofMechanical destruction: Mechanical destruction High rpm (2,900 rpm) will kill insects and mites Milling and other processing equipment can mechanically destroy insect pestsEntoleter – Impact milling equipment: Entoleter – Impact milling equipment http://www.entoleter.com/Chemical control: Chemical control Much changed with loss of MeBr Contact treatments -- Ultralow volume (ULV) or Ultralow dosage (ULD) applications of pyrethrins or pyrethroids Fogs, mists, and aerosols cannot penetrate food to kill insects They kill exposed stages and can be used regularly to prevent infestations in the facility from attacking products Protectant insecticides Placed in cracks and crevices where insects rest.Protectants: Protectants Inorganic dusts (diatomaceous earth) sometimes used to protect seeds and grains from insects Malathion -- has been registered for application to all major grains and has been used since 1958. EPA tolerance is 8 ppm in recent years most of the common pest species have developed resistance to malathion Not widely usedProtectants: Protectants Chlorpyrifos-methyl (Reldan), Banned in 2003 Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic)-- expanded registrations for stored grain insects Not widely used Spinosad Registered for stored grain use in Jan. 2005. Effective against all major insect pests. Like Bt, it is a bacterial by-product so is considered “natural” and can thus be used on grain for any target market (including organic).Protectants: Protectants Hydroprene (Gentrol)-- can be fogged and sprayed for control of stored products pests Gentrol Point Source Methoprene (Diacon II, Wellmark and DeGesch) Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel)-- exempt from tolerance regulations. Can be applied as a surface treatment for control of lepidopteran pestsFumigants: Fumigants Used to kill insects in raw and packaged food Leave very little residueProFume is replacing Methyl Bromide: ProFume is replacing Methyl Bromide 2005 – MeBr production/importation banned ProFume major player now. Dow AgroSciences Sulfuryl Fluoride – old product, used for structural pest control for many years (Vikane) Disrupts the glycolosis and citric acid cycles, works in 24-48 h Cost similar to MeBrPhostoxin, Gastoxin, or Magtoxin: Phostoxin, Gastoxin, or Magtoxin Can be used to kill insects in all kinds of grain, including seeds because phosphine has no effect on germination At 68 o F, fumigation time is 3 days, at 40-53 o F recommended time of fumigation is 10 days; therefore treated areas must be very gastightFumigation procedure for stored products pests: Fumigation procedure for stored products pests Sealing similar to structural fumigation, but usually the infested product is placed on a concrete slab and covered with a tarp held in place with sand snakes or tape Plastic tarp and tape is minimum required Placards must be placed before start of fumigation and must contain name of fumigant, date of release, name and phone of applicator If area around the fumigation is occupied, monitoring within 10 ft of the fumigated area is required and levels recordedFumigation procedure for stored products pests: Fumigation procedure for stored products pests Release of the fumigant 2 person teams responsible for release of fumigant. Full face respirators with proper canisters or SCBA equipment must be available before release of fumigantFumigation procedure for stored products pests: Fumigation procedure for stored products pests Aeration A method of ventilation of the fumigated area must have been established before release of fumigant SCBA must be used in concentrations above 15 ppm full face respirators with yellow cannister with olive stripe are used for 0.3-15 ppm no protection is required below 0.3 ppm Anyone entering a fumigated area where concentrations are unknown must where SCBAFumigation procedure for stored products pests: Fumigation procedure for stored products pests Monitoring Usually Draeger tubes and a hand pump are used to monitor levels of fumigant. One pump will draw a specific amount of air through the tube Color change in the reactive material in the tube indicates air levels Cardinal Products You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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