Art History:Egypt

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Egyptian Art: art history:

Egyptian Art: art history

Early Dynastic Egypt:

Early Dynastic Egypt 8000 BC this culture was sedentary and relied on abundant wild resources (fish, animals and plants) 5500 BC they adopted a more agriculturally based culture, but due to continued drying conditions of North Africa they began to develop ways to control the flow of the Nile in order to ensure adequate water supply This jar is decorated in a abstract visual shorthand to represent an important scene. The zigzag lines around the mouth of the jar represent the waters of the Nile upon which coast a banana shaped boat with figures and palm fronds. The vertical lines beneath could represent oars. The figures are standing together one with arms outstretched. Perhaps it is a funeral barge. Jar with River Scene, from Hierakonpolis Predynastic c.3500-3400 BC Painted Clay 7”x 8¼”

The Egyptian Dynasty:

The Egyptian Dynasty Until 3100 BC Egypt was divided into Upper and Lower Egypt These were united and resulted in the First Dynasty The Old Kingdom is from 2700 to 2160 BC, the end of the Sixth Dynasty Egyptian Historic time is described by dynasties which shows the emphasis of the pharaoh as king and god. It is believe that they were able to receive this divine status by there ability to mold the Nile Valley to the First Cataract Falls at Assan to the Delta into one state and increase its fertility by controlling the Nile through dams and canals Tombs and Religion Early Egyptian civilization is understood by the tombs and contents that they left behind Egyptians viewed life on earth as a journey to the grave that they had to provide for eternally Group of mastabas. 4 th Dynasty

Sculpture:

Sculpture The Palette of King Namar (one of the Kings that united Egypt) The oldest historical work of art Earliest surviving personage identified by name Celebrates a Victory over Lower Egypt, however it must have been ceremonial due to the fact that Upper and Lower Egypt were already united. Palette of King Namar c.3150–3125 B.C. Slate height 25 in.

King Djoser:

King Djoser Best know examples of the 3 rd Dynasty These are not individual structures but part of a vast funerary district Stepped Pyramid (six-stepped mastaba) of Djoser, Saqqara. Limestone. Height 204 feet Wall of the North Palace, with engaged columns in the form of papyrus blossoms, Funerary complex of Djoser, Saqqara

4th Dynasty:

4 th Dynasty The pyramids of Giza The first architecturally true with square bottom and four slanting sides that are said to be rays of the sun that deceased kings climb to reach Ra the god of the sun. Great Pyramids, Giza. Dynasty 4. c.2613-2494 BC. Granite and Limestone. Height of Khufu 450 feet The pyramids of Giza Built by Khufu, Khafra and Menkaura Model of the Giza plateau. Prepared for and exhibition at Harvard Semitic Museum

The Builders of Giza:

The Builders of Giza Sculpture Portraits of the king were made to perpetuate his memory for all time Seated Khafra wears the traditional royal costume: pleated skirt, linen headdress with the cobra symbol of Ra on a lion throne. The figure conveys a strong sense of dignity. The statue was carved from an unusual stone from Nubia called Northosite gneiss. It glows deep blue in sunlight the celestial color of Horus. Permanence of dignity are clearly described in the double portrait of Khafra’s son and Queen. The single figures are tied together in one stone as well as in the gesture of the Queens embrace. Menkaura and a Queen, Dynasty 4, c.2500 B.C. Graywacke with traces of red and black paint, Height 54½ in. Museum of Fine Art Boston Khafra, from Giza, Dynasty 4. c.2500 B.C. Northosite gneiss. Height 5’6 1/8 in

Dynasty 5 Tomb Decoration:

Dynasty 5 Tomb Decoration A government official who gain enough wealth to commission his tomb painting relief Depicting the scene from above, you can denote the wavy lines the make the boats with creatures in the river below Egyptian relief painting only used red, white, black, yellow, blue and green. First plaster is applied, then the area is broken down into a grid and drawn out. Ti watching a Hippotomus Hunt. From the tomb of Ti, Dynasty 5. c.2494-2345 B.C. Painted Limestone Relief, Height approx. 45 in Unfinished Dynasty 18 tomb of Horemheb, The Valley of the Kings.

Rosetta Stone:

Rosetta Stone This stone fragment is from as stone stele that was dated 196 BC It was named after the area that Napoleon’s men found it on 1799 AD Its provides us with the means to translate Egyptian languages based on our knowledge of Greek Three Tiers of Writing: Hieroglyphic, Demotic, and Greek. The British Museum London.

New Kingdom:

New Kingdom During this Second Intermediate Period Egypt was invaded by an eastern Mediterranean people named Hykos. Finally during Dynasty 18, the early rulers of the new kingdom regained control and one of the most dynamic kings of this dynasty Thutmose III extended Egypt's rule along the coast as far as Syria. He was the first ruler to refer to himself as “pharaoh” By 14 th century BC Near Eastern Kings acknowledged Egyptian kings as equals Great Temple Complexes were raised throughout the New Kingdom A major complex was the Temple of Amun near Egypt’s capital city of Thebes Pylon of Rameses II, with oblesik in foreground. Temple of Amun, Mut and Khons, Luxor. c.1279-1213 B.C. Dynasty 19. National Museum , Copenhagen

Akhenaten and the Art of the Amarna:

Akhenaten and the Art of the Amarna The most unusual ruler of Egypt was Amenhotep IV. In seventeen years he magically transformed the culture: politically, spiritually and everyday life. By creating a new religion with the one god Aten and changing his name as well Akhenaten which means (One who is Effective on the behalf of Aten) and saw him as Aten’s son He moved this civilization farther north and abandoned Thebes Nefertiti was his queen and high preistess. Nefertiti, from Akhenaten, Dynasty 18. c.1352-1336 B.C. Painted Limestone. Height 20 in. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Agyptisches Museum

Iron Age Europe:

Iron Age Europe Inner Coffin of Tutankhamun’s sarcophagus, from the tomb of Tutankhamun , Valley of the Kings, near Deir el-Bahri. Dynasty 18 c.1336-1327 B.C. Height 6 feet 7/8 inch. Egyptian Museum, Cairo

PowerPoint Presentation:

By: Cameron Russ Photography: Art History Volume II 4 th Edition. Stokstad, Marilyn/Cothren, Michael

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