RUSSIA

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RUSSIA :

RUSSIA NASSER HUSSYN BUKHARI HEAD DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY & GEOGRAPHY PAKISTAN EMBASSY COLLEGE , BEIJING

RUSSIA :

RUSSIA

OLD WOODEN CHURCH NEAR VELIKY NOVGOROD, RUSSIA:

OLD WOODEN CHURCH NEAR VELIKY NOVGOROD, RUSSIA

ENTRANCE GORKY PARK MOSCOW:

ENTRANCE GORKY PARK MOSCOW

PowerPoint Presentation:

STATE UNIVERSITY MOSCOW

PowerPoint Presentation:

WINTER FESTIVAL IN MOSCOW

PowerPoint Presentation:

WINTER FESTIVAL IN RUSSIA

PowerPoint Presentation:

WINTER FESTIVAL IN MOSCOW

PowerPoint Presentation:

WINTER IN RUSSIA

VOLVOGRAD/STALLIN GRAD:

VOLVOGRAD/STALLIN GRAD WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF THIS CITY IN HISTORY?

Introduction:

Introduction Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy, was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new Romanov Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The Communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened Communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize Communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics. Since then, Russia has shifted its post-Soviet democratic ambitions in favor of a centralized semi-authoritarian state in which the leadership seeks to legitimize its rule through managed national elections, populist appeals by former President PUTIN, and continued economic growth. Russia has severely disabled a Chechen rebel movement, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.

Geography:

Geography Northern Asia (the area west of the Urals is considered part of Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 100 00 E Map references: Asia Area: Total : 17,098,242 sq km country comparison to the world: 1 Land: 16,377,742 Sq Km Water: 720,500 sq km Area - comparative: approximately 1.8 times the size of the US

Land Boundaries :

Land Boundaries Countries Boundaries Countries Land Boundaries Azerbaijan 284 Km , Norway 196 km, Belarus 959 km Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 432 km, China (southeast) 3,605 km Ukraine 1,576 km China (south) 40 km Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Estonia 290 km Mongolia 3,441 km Finland 1,313 km,,, Kazakhstan 6,846 km Georgia 723 km North Korea 17.5 km Coastline 37,653 km Latvia 292 km,

Topography & Climate:

Topography & Climate Topography : Broad plain with low hills west of Urals; Vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia Uplands and mountains along southern border regions. Elevation extremes: Lowest Point: Caspian Sea -28 M Highest point : Gora El‘ brus 5,633 m Climate: Ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast.

Natural Resources:

Natural Resources Mineral: Wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, reserves of rare earth elements, timber Note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources. Land use: Arable Land: 7.17% Permanent Crops: 0.11% Other : 92.72% (2005) Irrigated land: 43,460 sq km (2008)

Natural Hazards:

Natural Hazards Permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia Volcanism : Russia experiences significant volcanic activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands; the peninsula alone is home to some 29 historically active volcanoes, with dozens more in the Kuril Islands; Kliuchevskoi (elev. 4,835 m), which erupted in 2007 and 2010, is Kamchatka's most active volcano; Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes, which pose a threat to the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, have been deemed "Decade Volcanoes" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Bezymianny, Chikurachki, Ebeko, Gorely, Grozny, Karymsky, Ketoi, Kronotsky, Ksudach, Medvezhia, Mutnovsky, Sarychev Peak, Shiveluch, Tiatia, Tolbachik, and Zheltovsky

People & Society:

People & Society Noun: Russian(s) Adjective: Russian Ethnic groups: Russian 79.8%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1%, other or unspecified 12.1% (2002 census) Languages: Russian (official), many minority languages Religions: Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.) note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule Population: 138,739,892 (July 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 9 Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.2% (male 10,818,203/female 10,256,611) 15-64 years: 71.8% (male 47,480,851/female 52,113,279) 65 years and over: 13% (male 5,456,639/female 12,614,309) (2011 est .) Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99.4% male: 99.7% female: 99.2% (2002 census)

ECONOMY:

ECONOMY GDP (2010 ): $1.477 trillion . Growth rate (2011): 4 %. Natural resources : Petroleum, natural gas, timber, furs, precious and nonferrous metals. Agriculture : Products - -Grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, meat, dairy products. Industry : Types - -Complete range of manufactures: automobiles, trucks, trains, agricultural equipment, advanced aircraft, aerospace, machine and equipment products; mining and extractive industry; medical and scientific instruments; construction equipment. Trade (2010 ) Exports- -$376.7 billion: petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, woods and wood products, metals, chemicals . Major markets - -EU, CIS, China, Japan Imports- -$191.8 billion: machinery and equipment, chemicals, consumer goods, medicines, meat, sugar, semi-finished metal products . Major partners - -EU, CIS, Japan, China, U.S. U.S. exports --$6.0 billion. Principal U.S. exports to Russia (2010)--oil/gas equipment, meat, motor vehicles and parts, aircraft, electrical machinery, automatic data processing machines and parts, medical equipment, plastics, cosmetics, and chemicals . U.S . imports --$25.7 billion. Principal U.S. imports from Russia (2010)--oil, chemicals (including fertilizer), radioactive materials, iron/steel, precious stones, nickel, aluminum, fish and crustaceans, alcoholic beverages, and base metals.

ECONOMY:

ECONOMY GDP purchasing power: $2.223 trillion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 7 $2.138 trillion (2009 est.) $2.319 trillion (2008 est.) note: data are in 2010 US dollars GDP (official exchange rate): $1.465 trillion (2010 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 99 -7.8% (2009 est.) 5.2% (2008 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $15,900 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 71 $ 15,300 (2009 est.) $16,500 (2008 est.) note: data are in 2010 US dollars

PowerPoint Presentation:

Agriculture: Products - -Grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, meat, dairy products

ECONOMY:

ECONOMY GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4% industry: 36.8% services: 59.1% (2010 est.) Labor force: 75.49 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 7 Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 10% industry: 31.9% services: 58.1% (2008) Unemployment rate: 7.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 78 8.4% (2009 est.) Population below poverty line: 13.1% (2009)

GOVERNMENT:

GOVERNMENT Country’s Name: conventional long form: Russian Federation conventional short form: Russia local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya local short form: Rossiya former: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Government type: federation Capital: name: Moscow geographic coordinates: 55 45 N, 37 35 E note : Russia is divided into 9 time zones Administrative divisions: 46 provinces (oblastey, singular - oblast), 21 republics (respublik, singular - respublika), 4 autonomous okrugs (avtonomnykh okrugov, singular - avtonomnyy okrug), 9 krays (krayev, singular - kray), 2 federal cities (goroda, singular - gorod), and 1 autonomous oblast (avtonomnaya oblast')

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