PowerPoint Presentation: The Renaissance French pronunciation: [ ʁənɛsɑ ̃ːs] , French : Renaissance , Italian : Rinascimento , from rinascere "to be reborn")  was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. Though the invention of printing sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe. As a cultural movement, it encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch , the development of linear perspective and other techniques of rendering a more natural reality in painting, and gradual but widespread educational reform. In politics the Renaissance contributed the development of the conventions of diplomacy , and in science an increased reliance on observation that would flower later in the Scientific Revolution beginning in the 17th century. Traditionally, this intellectual transformation has resulted in the Renaissance being viewed as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern era . Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo , who inspired the term " Renaissance man ".   There is a consensus that the Renaissance began in Florence , Tuscany in the 14th century.  Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time; its political structure; the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici ;   and the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople at the hands of the Ottoman Turks .    The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography , and in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations , there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual culture heroes as " Renaissance men ", questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation.  The art historian Erwin Panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of Renaissance It is perhaps no accident that the factuality of the Italian Renaissance has been most vigorously questioned by those who are not obliged to take a professional interest in the aesthetic aspects of civilization— historians of economic and social developments, political and religious situations, and, most particularly, natural science— but only exceptionally by students of literature and hardly ever by historians of Art .  PowerPoint Presentation: The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period . Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature , philosophy , art , music , politics , science , religion , and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art.  Renaissance humanists like Poggio Bracciolini sought out in Europe's monastic libraries the Latin literary, historical, and oratorical texts of Antiquity , while the Fall of Constantinople (1453) generated a wave of émigré Greek scholars bringing precious manuscripts in ancient Greek , many of which had fallen into obscurity in the West. It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century , who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences, philosophy and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. In the revival of neo-Platonism Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity; quite the contrary, many of the Renaissance's greatest works were devoted to it, and the Church patronized many works of Renaissance art. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion that was reflected in many other areas of cultural life.  In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were brought back from Byzantium to Western Europe and engaged Western scholars for the first time since late antiquity. This new engagement with Greek Christian works, and particularly the return to the original Greek of the New Testament promoted by humanists Lorenzo Valla and Erasmus , would help pave the way for the Protestant Reformation . PowerPoint Presentation: Overview In the traditional view, the Renaissance is understood as an historical age that was preceded by the Middle Ages and followed by the Reformation. According to the usual description, the Italian Renaissance of the 15th century, spreading through the rest of Europe, represented a reconnection of the west with classical antiquity, the absorption of knowledge, particularly mathematics, from Arabic, the return of experimentalism, the focus on the importance of living well in the present (e.g. humanism), an explosion of the dissemination of knowledge brought on by printing and the creation of new techniques in art, poetry and architecture which led to a radical change in the style, and substance of the arts and letters. This period, in this view, represents Europe emerging from a long period as a backwater, and the rise of commerce and exploration. The Italian Renaissance is often labeled as the beginning of the "modern" epoch. The Renaissance period began with the end of the Hundred Years' War and the fall of the Byzantine Empire. The Hundred Years' War is the name modern historians have given to what was actually a series of related conflicts, fought over a 116-year period, between England and France, and later Burgundy; beginning in 1337, and ending in 1453. Europe enjoyed a short respite from political turmoil, but England quickly became embroiled in the Wars of the Roses in 1455. The Wars of the Roses is the name given to the intermittent civil war fought over the throne of England between adherents of the House of Lancaster and the House of York. Both houses were branches of the Plantagenet royal house, tracing their descent from King Edward III. The Wars were fought largely by the landed aristocracy and armies of feudal retainers. The Wars of the Roses, with their heavy casualties among the nobility, ushered in a period of great social upheaval in feudal England and ironically lead to the fall of the Plantagenet dynasty. The period saw the decline of English influence on the Continent, a weakening of the feudal power of the nobles and by default, a strengthening of the merchant classes, and the growth of a strong, centralized monarchy under the Tudors. Meanwhile, the marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella of Castile in 1479 brought the unification of Spain under a powerful monarchy. In order to dominate the nobility and complete conquest of the Moslem Moors in the Southern part of the nation, King Ferdinand strengthened his alliance with the Catholic Church. Spanish nationalism and Catholicism became intimately interwoven, and the result was the Spanish crusade for Sangre Limpia ("pure blood", or white Christian blood). The monarchy, under the leadership of Tomas de Torquemada, launched the Holy Inquisition in 1481 as an effort to ban all religions other than Roman Catholicism and secure political control. Torquemada, known as the "Grand Inquisitor" primarily targeted Jews and Conversos (Jewish converts to Christianity), condemning many to torture and ritual burning at the stake. The Spanish Inquisition peaked with the expulsion of all Jews from Spain in 1492. PowerPoint Presentation: The Renaissance Period started about 1450 CE in Italy and ended about 1600 CE. Hale(1993 ) notes that it was the first age that the word "European" was used and understood. Hale(1965 ) observed that the word Renaissance came from the Italian word " renascrere " meaning to be re-born. Many would say it was the age in which intellectual and creative energy was re-born. Wilcox (1948) stated that the Renaissance came to Italy a good 100 years before it even reached north of the Alps. When French Kings Charles VII and Louis XII invaded Italy they were astounded at the elegance they found there. The Renaissance Period was the first era that realized it was a new age in human history. Lesley (1968) stated that it was marked primary by its civilization, not by political organization. Hale (1993) observed that in the 15th century fashion was re-born and beauty of the human body was discovered once again. The dark, simple fashions of the Middle Ages were replaced with elaborate, detailed dresses as the Renaissance period went on. Bucknell and Hill (1967) stated that much of the fashions of the Renaissance were based on Spanish styles, such as black on white embroidery. As the period went on men's garments became more pleated while women's necklines became lower and lower. Many can look at the fashions of the Renaissance and categorize them with the rulers of the time. Historians can look at a Renaissance dress and label it from the periods of Richard III, Henry VII, or another rulers of the period. Renaissance dress makers considered the human form in two parts-- hips and shoulders. The clothing was made to fit the wearer, yet on the outside it was padded to show the body in a completely different form than the natural one. Lesley (1968) stated that a person's wealth was shown in the jewels sewn in the cloth, fabric, and layers of clothing. Until the Renaissance period, lace was almost never used in dresses. Toward the Later Renaissance, fashion began to reflect mannerism. Sumptuary laws decreed that commoners only to wear clothing of one color. Eubank and Tortora (1989) stated that to circumvent the sumptuary laws, men and women cut open the outer surfaces of their clothes to expose the contrasting color beneath, which was called slashing. PowerPoint Presentation: The picture at the left is the typical woman's dress of the Renaissance Period. The picture on the right is a typical woman's shoe of the Renaissance Period. Medieval Clothing & Renaissance Clothing Medieval Collectibles is your source for high quality, hand-crafted Renaissance, Medieval, and Fantasy clothing appropriate for SCA, LARP, Weddings, Renaissance Festivals, Theater and more! Whether you are strolling around the Faire, planning a Medieval wedding, or dancing around the fires at Pennsic War, we create apparel that will take you back through the ages with timeless grace and beauty. In our medieval and renaissance clothing category you will find men and women clothing that has everything from jerkins, tunics and surcoats to bodices, chemises and medieval dresses. We have medieval and renaissance shirts and hats that come in a variety of styles, shapes, sizes and colors. To keep you warm during that cold medieval faire we have medieval cloaks, capes and robes. Finally we have period footwear like leather boots, suede boots and dress shoes to keep your feet warm and to add the final touches to your medieval outfit. PowerPoint Presentation: Medieval Collectibles has done the work for you, just pick your favorite colors and correct size for a complete Medieval outfit for a woman. We have put together many different outfit combinations, and when you buy the whole set, you will also save some money. If you are looking for complete Medieval, Renaissance, Pirate and Wench style outfits you are in the right place. Our Women's Complete Medieval Outfits are great for Medieval Fairs, Bridal Parties, Medieval Themed Weddings, Halloween or any other occassion that calls for fun. PowerPoint Presentation: Your Dressmaker has been handcrafting Renaissance dresses and Renaissance gowns since 2004 although our experience tailoring custom epoch garments goes back many years. We craft Medieval clothes, Renaissance outfits, Victorian styles, and ritual robes for men, women, and boys and girls. We can offer entire outfits including peasant costumes, knight costumes, and medieval wedding gowns. We also supply garments for film and theatre productions as well as ritual robes. Our designs are all original including our best-selling hoop skirts, petticoats, and panniers. Next time you are looking for a renaissance dress or gown or any epoch garment, let us know what you need. We will custom tailor to your measurements and we can modify fabrics and colors on any of our garments. Anything you see could also be made in alternate fabrics or colors and we can customize trim and ornamentation to your liking. We can even combine patterns from different styles to create a new design for you. Whether you need an outfit for a renaissance wedding, a renaissance faire, a theatre or film production, LARP, a ritual, or any other use, Your Dressmaker can fulfill your request. If you don't see something, let us know and we'll do our best to handcraft something just for you. PowerPoint Presentation: Rococo (less commonly roccoco ; pronounced / rəˈkoʊkoʊ / , / roʊkəˈkoʊ / ), also referred to as "Late Baroque", is an 18th-century artistic movement and style, which affected several aspects of the arts including painting , sculpture , architecture , interior design , decoration , literature , music and theatre . The Rococo developed in the early part of the 18th century in Paris , France as a reaction against the grandeur, symmetry and strict regulations of the Baroque , especially that of the Palace of Versailles .  In such a way, Rococo artists opted for a more jocular, florid and graceful approach to Baroque art and architecture. Rococo art and architecture in such a way was ornate and made strong usage of creamy, pastel-like colours , asymmetrical designs, curves and gold. Unlike the more politically-focused Baroque, the Rococo had more playful and often witty artistic themes. With regards to interior decoration, Rococo rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. The Rococo additionally played an important role in theatre. In the book The Rococo , it is written that there was no other culture which "has produced a wittier, more elegant, and teasing dialogue full of elusive and camouflaging language and gestures, refined feelings and subtle criticism" than Rococo theatre, especially that of France.