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HISTORY computer is making a great impact on every day activity of mankind and plays an important role in day-to-day working of industrialized societies. In early days Large computers were designed to solve complex scientific and engineering problems and handle records of large corporations and government agencies. Only large institutions and organisations were able to purchase digital computers. A trend started in the middle of 1960’s to design smaller computers for smaller organisations. In the late 1960’s minicomputers were available for use in an office, small college, medium-sized business organizations, small factory and laboratory.


INTRODUCTION With the advent of Semiconductor technology, it became possible to fabricate the whole CPU of a digital Computer on a single chip using VLSI technology. A VLSI-IC contains more than 10,000 transistors. A CPU built into a single IC called a microprocessor. A digital Computer whose CPU is a microprocessor is called a microcomputer. A microprocessor combined with memory and Input / Output devices form a microcomputer.


EVOLUTION OF MICROPROCESSORS In 1971 Intel Corporation, U.S.A introduced the first microprocessor the Intel 4004, which was a 4-bit microprocessor. In 1972 Intel introduced the first 8-bit microprocessor, the Intel 8008. In 1973 second generation 8-bit microprocessors evolved. They were Intel 8080/8085, Fair Child, F-8, and Motorola 6800. After 1978, the third generation microprocessors were introduced. These Processors are 16-bit wide and include typical processors such as Intel 8086/8088/80186/80286, Motorola 68000/68010. During 1981 to 89 fourth generation microprocessors were introduced. These processors had 32-bit wide and included processors such as intel 432,80386,80486 motorola 68020,68030.later intel has introduced 64-bit microprocessor intel 80586( pentium ).


MICROPROCESSOR OPERATION The CPU microprocessor was digital circuits for data handling and computation under program control. That is microprocessor is a data processing unit. Data processing is the microprocessors main function. Data processing includes both computation and data handling. Microprocessors operates in following steps 1.Fetching the instruction 2.Decoding the instruction 3.Executing the insruction


POWER OF MICROPROCESSORS Power of microprocessor depends on the number of bits that processor can address and the speed with which it executes an instruction. Today the most common bit lengths are 4bits, 8bits, 10bits and 32 bits and 64 bit microprocessors. Speed is determined by the time it takes the microprocessor to complete the fetch execute cycle for one program step. It depends on clock frequency of oscillatory circuit .depending on the frequency it takes some micro to nano seconds to execute an instruction.


NUMBER SYSTEM The microprocessor is built with digital logic and therefore manipulates binary data. We often ask the microprocessor to perform arithmetic functions,often we want output and input information in the familiar decimal numbers. Therefore to use microprocessor number system plays an important role. Different number systems are Binary Decimal Octal Hexadecimal It is possible to convert from one system to any another system.


MICROPROCESSORS ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPTS Different microprocessors have different architectures. The major architectural differences between microprocessors are: The length of the microprocessor's data word. The size of the memory, which the microprocessors can directly address. The speed which the microprocessor can execute instructions.

Other features of microprocessors:

Other features of microprocessors Some other microprocessor architectural techniques being used to increase speed included are: Parallel processing Co processing Pipelining techniques Wider buses.


applications We will frequently find the 4-bit microprocessors are in Toys: robots, remote-controlled cars Calculators: financial, scientific, database. Power toll controllers: speed controls, sequencers, and measurement devices. Computer peripherals: keyboard scanners, simple printers, and clocks. 8-bit microprocessors are used in programmable robots, video displays, light-speed printers, modems, plotters, disk controller etc. The 16-bit, 32-bit and 64-bit microprocessors are used in CAD (computer aided design) and CAM (computer aided manufacturing)


conclusion Microprocessor is the outcome of the trend towards computer era. Now a days they play an important role in many systems. They are used in many computer-based systems and also in many homes need goods. The microprocessors are available with both high and low speeds. Some systems require less speed and some others require high-speed microprocessors. Thus microprocessor plays important role in applications. Assembly language plays an important role for some applications. The applications that require execution in less time are developed using Assembly language .

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