Crop Production And Management


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Crop Production and Management:

Crop Production and Management

What is crop?:

What is crop? When plants of the same kind are grown and cultivated at one place on a large scale, it is called a crop . For example, crop of wheat means that all the plants grown in a field are that of wheat.

Cropping Pattern:

Cropping Pattern India is a vast country. The climatic conditions like temperature, humidity and rainfall vary from one region to another. Accordingly, there is a rich variety of crops grown in different parts of the country. Despite this diversity, two broad cropping patterns can be identified. These are: 1)Kharif Crops 2)Rabi Crops

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Kharif Crops The crops which are sown in the rainy season are called Kharif crops. The rainy season in India is generally from June to September. Paddy, maize, soya bean, groundnut, cotton, etc., are Kharif crops

Rabi Crops:

Rabi Crops The crops grown in the winter season are called rabi crops.Their time period is generally from October to March. Examples of rabi crops are wheat, gram, pea, mustard and linseed .

Other Varieties:

Other Varieties The pulses and vegetables are grown during summer at many places.

Agricultural Practices:

Agricultural Practices Cultivation of crops involves several activities undertaken by farmers over a period of time.These activities or tasks are referred to as Agricultural Practices. They are : (i) Preparation of soil (ii) Selecting and Sowing of Seeds (iii) Adding manure and fertilizers (iv) Irrigation (v) Protecting from weeds (vi) Harvesting (vii) Storage

Preparation of Soil:

Preparation of Soil The preparation of soil is the first step before growing a crop. One of the most important tasks in agriculture is to turn the soil and loosen it. This allows the roots to penetrate deep into the soil. The loose soil allows the roots to breathe easily even when they go deep into the soil. The loosened soil helps in the growth of earthworms and microbes present in the soil. These organisms are friends of the farmer since they further turn and loosen the soil and add humus to it. classes that soil contains minerals,water, air and some living organisms. In addition, dead plants and animals get decomposed by soil organisms. In this way, various nutrients held in the dead organisms are released back into the soil. These nutrients are again absorbed by plants. The process of loosening and turning of the soil is called tilling or ploughing.

Tilling or Ploughing:

Tilling or Ploughing The process of loosening and turning of the soil is called tilling or ploughing . This is done by using a plough. Ploughs are made of wood or iron. If the soil is very dry, it may need watering before ploughing. The ploughed field may have big pieces of soil called crumbs. It is necessary to break these crumbs with a plank. The field is leveled for sowing as well as for irrigation purposes. The levelling of soil is done with the help of a leveller. Sometimes, manure is added to the soil before tilling. This helps in proper mixing of manure with soil. The soil is watered before sowing.

Agricultural Implements:

Agricultural Implements Before sowing the seeds, it is necessary to break soil to the size of grains to get better yield. This is done with the help of various tools. The main tools used for this process are : i)Plough ii)Hoe iii)Cultivator


Plough Plough is being used since ancient times for tilling the soil, adding fertilisers to the crop, removing the weeds, scraping of soil, etc. This implement is made of wood and is drawn by a pair of bulls or other animals (horses, camels, etc.). It contains a strong triangular iron strip called ploughshare. The main part of the plough is a long log of wood which is called a ploughshaft. There is a handle at one end of the shaft. The other end is attached to a beam which is placed on the bulls’ necks. One pair of bulls and a man can easily operate the plough ..


Hoe It is a simple tool which is used for removing weeds and for loosening the soil. It has a long rod of wood or iron. A strong, broad and bent plate of iron is fixed to one of its ends and works like a blade. It is pulled by animals.


Cultivator Nowadays ploughing is done by tractor driven cultivator. The use of cultivator saves labour and time.

2) Selecting and Sowing of Seeds:

2) Selecting and Sowing of Seeds Sowing is the most important part of crop production. Before sowing, good quality seeds are selected. Good quality seeds are clean and healthy seeds of a good variety. Farmers prefer to use seeds which give a high yield. Seeds have to be sown at right depth and at right intervals There are two different methods foe sowing seeeds Brodcasting Seeed Drill

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Brodcasting The method in which thw seeds are scattered over a field by hand is called broadcasting. This method is not efficient because it cannot ensure proper spacing between seeds or help to sow them at the right depth Methods for Sowing of Seeds

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Nowadays the seed drill is used for sowing with the help of tractors. This tool sows the seeds uniformly at proper distances and depths. It ensures that seeds get covered by the soil after sowing. This prevents damage caused by birds. Sowing by using a seed drill saves time and labour. Method of sowing of seeds Sand Drill

3. Adding Manure and Fertilizers:

3. Adding Manure and Fertilizers The substances which are added to the soil in the form of nutrients for the healthy growth of plants are called manure and fertilizers. Fertilizers :Fertilizers are chemical substances which are rich in a particular nutrient. Fertilizers are produced in factories. Some examples of fertilizers are— urea, ammonium sulphate, super phosphate, potash, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium). Manure : It enhances the water holding capacity of the soil. It makes the soil porous due to which exchange of gases becomes easy.It increases the number of friendly microbes. It improves the texture of the soil.

4. Irrigation:

4. Irrigation The supply of water to crops at different intervals is called irrigation. The time and frequency of irrigation varies from crop to crop, soil to soil and season to season. Sources of irrigation are— wells, tubewells, ponds, lakes, rivers, dams and canals.

Traditional Methods of Irrigation:

Traditional Methods of Irrigation The water available in wells, lakes and canals is lifted up by different methods in different regions, for taking it to the fields. Cattle or human labour is used in these methods. So these methods are cheaper, but less efficient. The various traditional ways are: (i) moat (pulley-system) (ii) chain pump (iii) dhekli (iv) rahat (Lever system)

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Traditional Methods of Irrigation Moat {Pulley System} Chain Pump Dhekli Rahat {Lever System}

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Drip System : In this system, the water falls drop by drop just at the position of the roots. So it is called drip system. It is the best technique for watering fruit plants, gardens and trees. The system provides water to plants drop by drop.Water is not wasted at all. It is a boon in regions where availability of water is poor. Modern Methods of Irrigation Sprinkler System: This system is more useful on the uneven land where sufficient water is not available. The perpendicular pipes, having rotating nozzles on top, are joined to the main pipeline at regular intervals. When water is allowed to flow through the main pipe under pressure with the help of a pump, it escapes from the rotating nozzles. It gets sprinkled on the crop as if it is raining. Sprinkler is very useful for sandy soil..

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Drip System Sprinkler System Sprinkler System Drip System

5. Protection from Weeds:

5. Protection from Weeds In a field many other undesirable plants may grow naturally along with the crop. These undesirable plants are called weeds. The removal of weeds is called weeding. Weeding is necessary since weeds compete with the crop plants for water, nutrients, space and light. Thus, they affect the growth of the crop. Some weeds interfere even in harvesting and may be poisonous for animals and human beings. and seeds. The manual removal includes physical removal of weeds by uprooting or cutting them close to the ground, from time to time. This is done with the help of a khurpi . A seed drill is also used to uproot weeds. Weeds are also controlled by using certain chemicals, called weedicides, like 2,4-D. These are sprayed in fields to kill the weeds. They do damage the crops. The weedicides diluted with water to the extent required and sprayed in the fields with a sprayer.

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A farmer spraying a weedicide

6. Harvesting:

Harvesting of a crop is an important task. The cutting of crop after it is mature is called harvesting. In harvesting, crops are pulled out or cut close to the ground. It usually takes 3 to 4 months for a cereal crop to mature. Harvesting in our country is either done manually by sickle or by a machine called harvester. In the harvested crop, the grain seeds need to be separated from the chaff. This process is called threshing. This is carried out with the help of a machine called ‘combine’ which is in fact a combined harvester and thresher . 6. Harvesting

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Harvester Sickle Tools For Harvesting

Harvest Festivals:

Harvest Festivals After three or four months of hard work there comes the day of the harvest. The sight of golden fields of standing crop, laden with grain, fills the hearts of farmers with joy and a sense of well-being. The efforts of the past season have borne fruit and it is time to relax and enjoy a little. The period of harvest is, thus, of great joy and happiness in all parts of India. Men and women celebrate it with great enthusiasm. Special festivals associated with the harvest season are Pongal, Baisakhi, Holi, Diwali, Nabanya and Bihu.

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7)Storage Storage of produce is an important task.If the crop grains are to be kept for longer time, they should be safe from moisture, insects, rats and microorganisms. The fresh crop has more moisture. If freshly harvested grains (seeds) are stored without drying, they may get spoilt or attacked by organisms, losing their germination capacity. Hence, before storing them, the grains are properly dried in the sun to reduce the moisture in them. This prevents the attack by insect pests, bacteria and fungi. Farmers store grains in jute bags or metallic bins.However, large scale storage of grains is done in silos and granaries to protect them from pests like rats and insects.Dried neem leaves are used for storing food grains at home. For storing large quantities of grains in big godowns, specific chemical treatments are required to protect them from pests and microorganisms

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Silos for storage of grains Storage of grains in granaries

Food from Animals:

Food from Animals Animals also provide us with different kinds of food. Many people living in the coastal areas consume fish as a major part of their diet. Food is obtained from plants. We have just seen that the process of crop production involves a number of steps like selection of seeds, sowing, etc. Similarly, animals reared at home or in farms, have to be provided with proper food, shelter and care. When this is done on a large scale, it is called animal husbandry.

Domestic Animals:

Domestic Animals Cow Buffalo Goat

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Submitted To: Mr. Tej Prakash Teacher of Biology Submitted By Hibathur Rahman VIII F N.I.M.S Thank You THE END

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