Altered Consciousness

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Altered Consciousness : 

Altered Consciousness Lecture 11 3/03/04

Sleep : 


Are you morning person (lark) or an evening person (owl)? : 

Are you morning person (lark) or an evening person (owl)?

People perform better during “preferred” time : 

People perform better during “preferred” time Larks > owls take morning classes and… Memory tests at 9am, 2pm, & 8pm… larks suffered Older people tend to be high in ‘morningness’; younger in ‘eveningness’ Your internal clock is individually set Circadian rhythm= cycle occurs every 24hrs BP, temp, K+, hormones, pulse, etc.

Is it endogenous or light dependent? : 

Is it endogenous or light dependent? Stefania Follini, Italian Interior designer Volunteered, 1989 for 4 months 20 x 12 ft windowless room, cave, NM Monitored by hidden cameras & microphones Days = 25 to 40hrs; sleep = 14-22hrs Stopped menstruating, ate less, lost 17lbs 131 days = 2 months

“Free-Running Environments” : 

“Free-Running Environments” Most people tend toward 25hr cycles More common source of disruption… Preventing jet lag Shining lights on back of knees, shifts clock to regulate sleep-wake cycle Interplay between environment & hypothalamus

Sleep : 

Sleep Microsleeps 56% long haul truck drivers ~ 200,000 traffic accidents a year are sleep related Simulated car experiment Drive 1 hour; break 30 mins. Brief naps & coffee

How to Stay Awake When Driving : 

How to Stay Awake When Driving

Sleep Sorority: alpha, theta, delta : 

Sleep Sorority: alpha, theta, delta Presleep Stages 1-4 You’re getting drowsy… Hypnagogic state- flashes of color, light, “fall” Slower HR, Eye movement, muscles, breath… Tone register– 95% awake, 47% stage 1, 3% stage 2 Stage 3 &4 = “out like a light” Bed-wetting & sleep walking 1: 10min; 2: 20min; 3 & 4: 30 mins

After an hour… : 

After an hour… Rather than maintain your deep sleep, cycle back to 3, then 2, then… REM High frequency beta waves, activity, bloodflow, breath, pulse, genital arousal Complete paralysis Internally active, externally immobile Dreaming of a ping-pong match?

Stages of Sleep : 

Stages of Sleep

A Typical Night’s Sleep : 

A Typical Night’s Sleep

Dreaming : 

Dreaming When awakened in NREM, dreaming 50% of time; REM- 80% More visual, vivid, detailed, story-like Adaptive: 50% newborn; 30% 6mos.; 25% 2yrs As night wares, more time spent in REM Why we feel need to finish dreams when alarm sounds Rebound effect when deprived

Need = powerful & irresistibleWHY? : 

Need = powerful & irresistibleWHY?

Slide 15: 

DJ Tripp 200 hours on-air fundraising Day 5: slurred speech, hallucinations, paranoia 13 hours, recovered Randy Gardner 264 hours (11 days) Thinking fragmented, speech slurred, concentration & memory lapses, hallucinations

“Mind over matter” : 

“Mind over matter” Restoration Theory Recharging Battery for cognitive, physical, emotional demands Rats after 2-3 weeks Metabolism, temp, food intake, weight loss, immune system… Evolutionary Conserve energy, minimize exposure to predators We couldn’t search for food well at night or protect ourselves form nocturnal predators

Evolutionary Theory : 

Evolutionary Theory Cross-species Comparisons of Daily Hours of Sleep

Dreams are adaptive : 

Dreams are adaptive Everyone dreams, WITHOUT exception, several times a night Electrochemical events (Brainstem & Cortex) Longer REM, more words used to describe dream & more elaborate story What do we dream about?

Dream Content : 

Dream Content Falling Being chased or attacked Repeatedly trying, but failing to do something Also: flying, unprepared or late for big event, rejected, and… being naked in public 64% sadness, anger, fear 18% happy or exciting 29% in color

Other fun facts… : 

Other fun facts… 68% report having a recurring dream 28% report dying in a dream 45% dream of celebrities Westerners assume, when analyzed, tell us something about past, present, future…

Dreams reflect cultural Beliefs : 

Dreams reflect cultural Beliefs Messages sent from evil spirits Messages sent by the Gods One’s soul leaves body, enters another world Kurds & Zulus: dreaming of adulterous affair is an offense If gift received, must compensate when awake

What are the influences : 

What are the influences Everyday concerns Finances, new relationships, exam anxiety, etc. External stimuli Ever incorporated alarm in your dream? Slumber parties- “pinky trick” Dement, 1992: 42% waterfalls, rain, leaking roofs, swimming, etc. Yourself (Lucid Dreaming) ‘Half in, half out’, aware while dreaming

What do they tell us? : 

What do they tell us? Freud: The Interpretation of Dreams, 1900 Unconsciously motivated to satisfy sexual and aggressive urges Too threatening to express or recognize Psychological defense mechanism BUT, during sleep, defense is down! Would be shattering to come face-to-face w/ deepest, darkest urges… We construct dreams that express fulfillment in ways too confusing to recognize

Activation-Synthesis Theory : 

Activation-Synthesis Theory Random neural signals firing in brainstem spread to cortex Drawing on past experiences, brain creates images and stories to make sense of randomness Sensory neurons = color, clarity, brightness, etc. Motor neurons = flying, climbing, falling, etc Why they make no sense: Limbic, not frontal!

Sleep disturbances : 

Sleep disturbances 30% population complains of insomnia People can’t pinpoint the “moment of sleep” Try this tonight: Spoon in hand over plate

Tips to Avoid Insomnia : 

Tips to Avoid Insomnia Do not nap during the day. Avoid alcohol, caffeine, and cigarettes within five hours of bedtime. Avoid exercise within two hours of bedtime. Keep a rigid schedule. If awake and anxious, leave bed and return when sleepy.

Hypersomnia : 

Hypersomnia 5% complain of sleeping too much E.g. Narcolepsy Sudden, irresistible attack of drowsiness, w/out warning playing b-ball, eating, conversing, having sex Lasts 5-30 mins Right to REM

Parasomnia : 

Parasomnia Sleep apnea affects 4% of Americans Fall asleep normally… Can occur up to 400 times per night Nightmares Only dangerous for RBD! Skeletal muscles aren’t paralyzed Have mobility to act on nightmares 75% have injured selves; 44% partners

Clearly brain is active during sleep : 

Clearly brain is active during sleep Night Terrors B/C NREM, don’t know source of bloodcurling scream Sleepwalking Not acting out dreams, occurs during deep, slow- wave sleep; seldom recall travels Sometimes… “sleepsex”

Can we control what’s in spotlight of consciousness? : 

Can we control what’s in spotlight of consciousness? Lucid dreamers can sometimes control dreams… Meditators thought could discipline the mind… But, mind often wanders, we daydream, distracted when trying to concentrate Sometimes the harder you try to control your own thoughts… Disregard inadmissible testimony, chocolate cake in fridge, trying not to laugh, noticing how long it takes to fall asleep…

For the next 2 minutes…Try not to think of a white bear : 

For the next 2 minutes…Try not to think of a white bear

Consciousness and Control : 

Consciousness and Control Ironic Processes The harder ones tries to control a thought or behavior, the less likely one is to succeed, especially if distracted, tired, or under stress.

For the next 2 minutes…Go ahead and think of a white bear : 

For the next 2 minutes…Go ahead and think of a white bear

Rebound Effect : 

Rebound Effect Phase 1: 5min Verbalization. Phase 2: Don’t think of White Bear (experimental only) Phase 3: Think about White Bear

Trying to control our minds : 

Trying to control our minds Don’t think of a white bear Don’t swing the pendulum on the forbidden axis Don’t eat chocolate "They mentioned a white bear about once a minute," “Then, if I asked them to think about anything at all, they would mention white bears more often than if I had initially asked them to think about white bears on purpose.“ Irony: Easy to change our mind, get new ideas, see new perspective, but when we try NOT to think about something…

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