Emulsion 1

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What is a Emulsion : 

What is a Emulsion A emulsion is a meta stable disperse system of two liquids, which are not soluble in each other. The emulsions can be divided up into two groups 1.Oil in water (O/W) emulsions and 2. Water in Oil (W/O) emulsions. Beside these two mayor groups of emulsions alsomore complex emulsion systems are possible (W/O/W and O/W/O).

O/W emulsion : 

O/W emulsion By dispersion of oil into water the oil drops are the inner, dispersed phase. Water is the outer, continuous phase. Cosmetic / pharma applications --> removable by water oil drop water phase

W/O Emulsion : 

W/O Emulsion Water Oil By dispersion of water into oil the water drops are the inner, dispersed phase. Oil is the outer, continuous phase. Cosmetic / pharma applications --> water resistant

How can the emulsion be stabilized? : 

How can the emulsion be stabilized? Reduction of the surface tension is the key to avoid the coagulation of the emulsion. Substances which reduce the surface tension are called surfactants. The number of surfactants (emulsifiers) is enormous and they are divided up into several groups according to their properties. Beside O/W or W/O emulsifier surfactants are also used as anti foaming agent, wetting agent, dispersing agent and solubilisator.

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Emulsifier is solved in the outer phase How does a emulsifier look like?

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How does a emulsifier look like? oil water oil water Lipophil chain Lipophil chain

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Emulsions: Different ways of production Hot/Hot Process Both, fat- and water-phase are heat up separately to a certain temp. (70 – 85 °C). The hot oil phase and the hot water phase were combined under vacuum at the high temperature and emulsified. Emulsification is done by the rotor stator system. Subsequently the product is cooled down. Hot/Cold Process The fat phase is heat up to a temp. (app. 10 °C above the highest melting point of the ingredients). The hot fat phase and the cold water phase were combined under vacuum and emulsified at the mixing temperature. Subsequently the product is cooled down. Advantage: shorter cooling times, saving of energy

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