solid waste management

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solid waste generation at Talegaon by hemant chandravanshi

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SOLIDWASTE MANAGEMENT PROPOSAL: The strategies are : Laws to be implemented Adoption of Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling) Rule, 2000 : Which states that any municipal solid waste generated in a city or town, should be managed & handled in accordance with the compliance criteria and the procedure laid down in Schedule-II of the rule. Adoption of Maharashtra Non-Biodegradable Garbage (Control) Act 2006 : Which states : No person, by himself or through another shall knowingly or otherwise throw / cause to thrown any non-biodegradable garbage, Construction debris or any biodegradable garbage in any drain, ventilation shaft, pipe & fittings, sewage lines, natural or manmade lake, wetlands; Which may likely to - injure the drainage & sewage system, interfere with the free flow or affect the treatment & disposal of drain & sewage contents, be dangerous or cause a nuisance or be prejudicial to public health and damage the lake, river water &wetland. No person shall knowingly or otherwise, place or permit to place any biodegradable or non-biodegradable garbage in any public place or open to public view . it shall be the duty of the owners and occupiers of every land and building to store and segregate the waste generated by them into a minimum of two receptacles one for biodegradable waste and one for non-biodegradable waste.

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Adoption of Maharashtra Plastic Carry Bags (Manufacture and Usage) Rules 2006 : To control plastic waste generation, manufacturing (and stocking, distributing or selling) plastic carry bags made of virgin or recycled plastic of thickness less than 50 micron and of the size 8 x 12 inches are banned in the State . Other strategies are: Source Segregation Doorstep collection Recovery of recyclables Transport of residue to closed containers Decentralized processing of organics Diversion of limited non recyclables to sanitary landfill Street sweeping should be done every day

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STEPS INVOLVED IN MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTE Reduction at source: Segregation: Collection: Transportation Disposal REDUCTION AT SOURCE : It is now well recognised that sustainable development can only be achieved if society in general, and industry in particular, produces ‘more with less’ i.e. more goods and services with less use of the world’s resources (raw materialsand energy ) and less pollution and waste. Production as well as product changes have been introduced in many countries, using internal recycling of materials or on-site energy recovery, as part of solid waste minimisation schemes.

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SEGREGATION : The first essential step in the process of recycling of waste is segregation.  Instead of separating the waste into different categories, after it is dumped in the waste containers, it is better to do it at the household point. Specifications for Bin System of Waste Storage at Source can be specified as:

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COLLECTION: Collection from Non point Source : This stage includes door-to-door collection of waste. The door to door collection locally known as ghantagari system is a very good process of collection of solid waste and the and people liked it very much so it will be improved within the municipal boundary. And for the surrounding areas also this system must be adopted. Collection from Non point Source : Waste collected from non point source is deposited to definite point sources namely communal bins. Vehicles collects large amount of waste from these point sources and then transport it to transfer stations and disposal sites. Dustbins will be placed in the city for primary collection of the waste at a distance 80/100 meters. People find this distance reasonable. Installation of ‘Community Storage Bins’ in areas where house to house collection could not be implemented Expanding the ‘Voluntary Garbage Disposal Scheme’ for more number of restaurants/hotels and commercial establishments and collecting user charges Placement of dumper containers of sufficient number in markets and ensuring that all the vendors place the waste in the containers Total 50 dustbins of 1100 liter capacity is required to cater the total planning area.

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Proposed Primary Collection System: Mode of collection Area of collection Primary Collection Vehicle Secondary storage Door to Door Residential colonies of High & middle income group Tricycle-with 6 of 40 lit capacity bins-4 for Biodegradable waste, 2 for recyclables 1. Bio-degradable in Skips/wheel containers 2. Non-biodegradable- Sell or hand over to waste collector Hotels/restaurants Closed vehicle to collect biodegradable Direct transport to Disposal site Combination of Kerb-side & bell system Mixed Residential, Commercial Areas Tri-cycle- with Six bins of 40 liter Bins emptied to skips kept for the waste. Large Community bin system Fruit & Vegetable Market/ transfer stations Carrying bins to transfer point Skip / Dumper Placer Small community bin system Slums/urban poor colonies Carrying bins to Transfer point Transfer contents of biodegradable to community bins

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Ward-wise required no of bins of 1100 liters : WARD NO POPULATION WASTE GENERATION REQUIRED NO OF DUSTBINS Ward 1 4124.96 1.649984 2 Ward 2 2340.5 0.9362 1 Ward 3 3004.582 1.2018328 1 Ward 4 1854.33 0.741732 1 Ward 5 5388.06 2.155224 2 Ward 6 11416.96 4.566784 5 Ward 7 1819.55 0.72782 1 Ward 8 2120.172 0.8480688 1 Ward 9 1827.06 0.730824 1 Ward 10 1758.12 0.703248 1 Ward 11 3233.4 1.29336 1 Ward 12 2483.36 0.993344 1 Ward 13 1727.36 0.690944 1 Ward 14 2187.13 0.874852 1 Ward 15 9506.92 3.802768 4 Ward 16 4501.832 1.8007328 2 Ward 17 2763.892 1.1055568 1 Ward 18 2073.058 0.8292232 1 Ward 19 5104.772 2.0419088 2 Ward 20 2231.598 0.8926392 1 Ward 21 1783.18 0.713272 1 Ward 22 1476.071 0.5904284 1 Ward 23 9173.2 3.66928 4

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Proposed locations of municipal waste bin : Other than the residential areas municipal bins will be provided to these areas: Near the commercial areas there will be bins for solid waste disposals. The locations are : Sunday market Formal vegetable market near station (mostly perishable waste) Co-operative market near Santhai City Centre, Talegaon Chakan Road Co-operative market near Ghorabari area Wholesale market near station Yashwant Nagar Mall New Mall in ward no 15 (mixed type of waste) Near the proposed floriculture park also there will be municipal bins from where the bio-degradable waste will be collected and send to the composting plant.

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TRANSPORTAION: Transportation work for waste has to be done every day. After collection from the household by ghantagari it will be dumped in the municipal waste bin of respective ward. Solid waste from point sources also dumped in the municipal dustbins. From there waste will be transported in the municipal vehicles to the respective sites of disposal, recycle and compost. In addition to this, private contractors have been engaged for this purpose .The waste is transported at various places for treatment. Door to door collection Community bins Collection from Community bins (Carried out once in 24 hrs ) requires manual & multiple handling of waste to dump into transportation vehicles. Transfer Station (TS) Disposal sites Disposal sites

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Mode of transport: Solid waste is being transferred from the household to the disposal point through a series of vehicles right from handcarts to mini lorries. Tricycles ( ghantagari ) are primarily used for collection of waste from the households and street corners and for disposal into dustbins and community collection centres . The other vehicles involved in the solid waste operations include tippers, tractors, hunters etc. These are involved in the transportation of waste from the community collection centres as well as the transit points and from other generation points like markets, f loriculture parks, trade establishments etc. The details of solid waste vehicles are. Details of Vehicles and Capacities Vehicle Type/ Model Capacity (tons) Trips per day Distance Traveled (km) Persons per vehicle Nature of Transfer Daily hrs of Operation Mini Trucks 1 1 20 Per trip 2 Secondary 8 Trucks 4 2 20 Per trip 2 Secondary 8 Tractors 2 2 20 Per trip 4 Primary 8 Loaders 3 2 20 Per trip 1 Primary 8 Tippers 3.5 2 20 Per trip 2 Primary 8

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DISPOSAL: Following methods have been adopted for solid waste disposal. Composting Incineration Dumping (Landfill) Composting : From total solid waste collection of the planning boundary an amount of 21.55 MT will be generated in every day which requires composting . An amount of 2.25cu.m./ha/day is the waste usually generated from floriculture activities. Estimating on these lines, Phase I of Talegaon floriculture will generate around 386.5cu.m./day and Phase II will generate 282cu.m./day which can be put to use for composting . Phase 3 will generate - 330.75 cu.m /day For these waste a composting ground is required. Already an area of 10000 sqm is dedicated for composting. We can propose a compost plant over there for proper composting of the waste. An additional area of 10000 sqm is also required to cater future waste generation. Incineration : Mainly required for hospital waste. With a view to provide a major facility for hospital waste management , the T MC should install a central incineration plant at its general hospital, namely MIMER. The objectives of the initiative are : a)  Segregation of hospital waste generated at the city's hospitals. b)  Disposal of hospital waste through the TMC incineration plant.

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DUMPING (LAND FILL) By 2026 Talegaon area will have a population of 153965 which will generate 61.59 matric tones daily. In which 30% of organic waste, 30% of paper waste, 30% f plastic, 30% of ceramics and glass, 30% of rags, 30% of metal and 100% of inert will go to the land fill site. For a time span of 25 years 1 hector land is required for landfilling. 70% of the organic waste will go for composting. Presently a compost plant is already there we just need increase its capacity. 70% of paper waste, 70% plastic, 70% of ceramics and glass, 70% of rags, 70% of metal waste will go for recycle. Calculation : Waste generated per head per day 400 gms Total future population :153965 Total waste generated : .4X153965= 61586 kg / 61.586 MT per day LET US ASSUME THE COMPOSITION OF SOLID WASTE AT TALEGAON WILL BE TYPE MT/per day % 1 ORGANIC 50 30.793 2 PAPER 10 6.1584 3 PLASTIC 15 9.2376 4 CERAMICS AND GLASS 3 1.84752 5 RAGS 1 0.61584 6 METAL 1 0.61584 7 INERT 20 12.3168 TOTAL 100 61.586

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SANITARY LAND FILL % TONNE METRIC TONNE ORGANIC 30 30.793 9.2379 PAPER 30 6.1584 1.84752 PLASTIC 30 9.2376 2.77128 CERAMICS AND GLASS 30 1.84752 0.554256 RAGS 30 0.61584 0.184752 METAL 30 0.61584 0.184752 INERT 100 12.3168 12.3168 TOTAL 27.09726 COMPOSTING % TONNE TONNE ORGANIC 70 30.793 21.5551 RECYCLING % TONNE TONNE PAPER 70 6.1584 4.31088 PLASTIC 70 9.2376 6.46632 CERAMICS AND GLASS 70 1.84752 1.293264 RAGS 70 0.61584 0.431088 METAL 70 0.61584 0.431088 TOTAL 12.93264 Calculation :

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Calculation : Let us take a density of solid waste .85 MT/cum Total volume of waste generated every day = 27.09726/.85 cum= 15.22 cum Total volume generated for 25 years =15.22X365X25=1388635.69 cum Which is 70% of the total volume generated for land fill. So total volume of the solid waste =180486.40 cum After compaction the volume will be =144389.12 cum Taking the height of land fill as 15 m , where 3 m is underground and 12m is heaped The area required for land fill site is =9615.96 sqm Taking around 400 sqm as buffer area. Total landfill site required = 1 hectare

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Site Selection Criteria for landfill and processing site for MSW 1. The distance from river (HFL) will be as per RRZ policy i.e. as under. A) A-I Above 3.0 Kmts. B) A-II Above 1.0 Kmts. C) A-III Above 0.5 Kmts. 1. Distance from other Water bodies (other than notified rivers) beyond 500 mtrs . avoiding up stream catchment area of the water bodies, location should preferably at the down stream of the water body. 2. The distance from National Monuments and historic places etc. as mentioned in the rules, duly certified by Archeological Department should be beyond 500 Mtrs . 3. A buffer zone - It should be 500 Mtrs from the periphery of new landfill site. 4. The distance from National and State Highway should be more than 200 mtrs. 5. In respect of CRZ, RRZ rules will be followed strictly. 6. Old queries & low lying areas within a city may be earmarked for filling only with construction waste, debris, road waste, road dust, sift from open drains and similar non-toxic inert material only. While deciding the location of land fill site the following norms of MPCB (Maharashtra Pollution Control Board) are considered:

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