PowerPoint Presentation: Presented by R.Manoranjani S.Deepiga S.Fathimadevi CLIMATE CHANGE CLIMATE CHANGE What is the Climate Change?: Changes in the global weather conditions specially increase in the temperature and storm activity determine the climate changes over a period of time. What is the Climate Change? Why climate is changing?: As human emits more carbondioxide and other green houses gases into the atmosphere the green house affect becomes stronger causing the earth’s climate to change . Why climate is changing? Effects of climate change: Sea Level Is Rising During the 20 th century sea level rose about 15 cm (6 inches) d ue to melting , glacier ice and expansion of warmer sea water. Models predict that sea level may rise as much as 59 cm (29 inches) during 21 st century, threatening coastal communities, wetlands and coral reefs. Effects of climate change Effects of climate change: Artic Sea Ice Is Melting The summer thickness of sea ice is about half of what it was in 1950. Melting ice may lead to changes in ocean circulation. Plus melting sea ice is speeding up warming in the Artic . Effects of climate change Effects of climate change: Heavier Rainfall Cause Flooding In Many Regions Warmer temperatures have led to more intense rainfall events in some areas. This can cause flooding. Effects of climate change Effects of climate change: Crops Are Withering Increased temperatures and extreme drought are causing a decline in crop productivity around the world. Decreased crop productivity can mean food shortages which have many social implications. Effects of climate change Effects of climate change: Ecosystems Are Changing As temperature warm species may either more to a cooler habitat or die. Species that are particularly vulnerable include endangered species, coral reefs and polar animals. Warming has also caused changes in the timing of spring events and the length of the growing season . Effects of climate change Effects of climate change: Warmer Temperatures Affects Human Health There have been more deaths due to heat waves and more allergy attacks as the pollen season grows longer. Effects of climate change Effects of climate change: Sea Water Is Becoming More Acidic Carbon dioxide dissolving into the ocean, is making sea water more acidic. There could be impacts of coral reefs and other marine life. Effects of climate change Ecological Impacts: Ecological Impacts Living things are intimately connected to their physical surroundings. Ecosystems are affected by changes in: temperature rainfall/moisture pH salinity (saltiness) activities & distribution of other species …many other factors Range Shifts: Range Shifts Species are relocating to areas with more tolerable climate conditions. Range shifts particularly threaten species that: cannot move fast enough depend on conditions that are becoming more rare (like sea ice) Timing of Biological Activity: Some seasonal biological activities are happening 15-20 days earlier than several decades ago: Trees blooming earlier Migrating birds arriving earlier Butterflies emerging earlier Changes in timing differ from species to species, so ecological interactions are disrupted. Timing of Biological Activity Impacts in the Pacific Coastline: Impacts in the Pacific Coastline Shifting Ranges of Checkerspot Butterflies Edith’s checkerspot: range has shifted northward and to higher elevations over 40+ years Quino checkerspot: first endangered species for which climate change is officially listed as a threat and as a factor in the plan for its recovery Impacts in Alaska and the Arctic: Impacts in Alaska and the Arctic Effects on Ice-Dependent Animals Year-round sea ice shrinking: walruses and other animals challenged to find platforms for nursing and resting Polar bears facing difficult hunting conditions: seals now surfacing in open ocean instead of holes in ice Impacts in Western Mountains: Impacts in Western Mountains Wildfire, Drought, and Insects: Complex Interactions Climate change increases the risk of fire in areas where decades of total fire suppression have resulted in buildup of dead fuels. Wildfire increasing in frequency, size, season length: Longer, more intense summer droughts stressing trees Stressed trees are more susceptible to attacking beetles, which leave standing dead fuels in their wake A wildfire in Bitterroot National Forest, Montana. : Impacts in Southwestern Deserts The Pi ñ on Pine: Past a Tipping Point Drought in 2000-2003 stressed a large swath of pi ñ ons, leaving them susceptible to infestation by pine bark beetles This example shows how a stressful event can trigger dramatic ecological change when an ecosystem is subject to many interacting stresses 2002 2004 Impacts in the Central U.S.: Impacts in the Central U.S. Agricultural Impacts Difficult to pinpoint climate impacts: climate change occurring along with improvements in farming techniques In general, plants may: Grow faster (increasing yields unless it becomes too warm or crops mature too early) Be affected by carbon dioxide levels (increased growth for some plants, not for others) Good information about changes and adaptive practices is essential for farmers Impacts in the Southeast: Impacts in the Southeast Sea-level Rise Fragments barrier islands, reconfigures shorelines May leave certain ecosystems struggling to adapt—in particular those adapted to the conditions between land and sea Landward movement of mangroves and marshes may be inhibited by human development Impacts in the Southeast: Impacts in the Southeast Coral Reefs: Multiple Changes Climate change is compounding other factors affecting reefs (coastal development, pollution, overfishing) Heat stress causes coral bleaching: corals expel symbiotic algae, leaving white “bones” behind (deadly to coral if long-lasting) Ocean acidification affects marine organisms’ ability to build shells and skeletons: likely to slow or stop the growth of coral by 2100 Impacts in the Southeast: Impacts in the Southeast Northward Movement of Tropical Species Bird and butterfly watchers across the Southeast looking out for new species; some former seasonal migrants now staying year-round PowerPoint Presentation: The Role of Human Beings Causes of Climate Change It is very likely that most of the climate change in the current era is the result of human activities. Human activities have increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These gases trap heat and cause the Earth to warm. The Role of Human Beings: The Role of Human Beings Rate of Climate Change Climate change in the current era is expected to be extremely rapid compared to transitions in and out of past ice ages. Ecosystems are more vulnerable to changes that happen rapidly. A scientist holding an ice core—a sample taken from polar ice caps or mountain glaciers. Ice cores reveal clues about climate changes in Earth’s past. The Role of Human Beings: The Role of Human Beings Compounding Factors Human activities have many other effects on ecosystems. These effects compound the effects of climate change, making it more difficult for ecosystems to adapt. Pollution Habitat fragmentation Invasive species The Role of Human Beings: The Role of Human Beings Improving the Outlook Changes in activities at the personal, community, and national levels can affect the rate of future climate change and species’ abilities to adapt. Some of the areas where changes in human activities could help species adapt include: Approaches to agriculture Water management practices Energy sources and use Transportation Pollution remediation Biological conservation …and much more Facts Of Climate Change: Climate change is strongly supported by hard science. Our climate is changing rapidly and at a rate faster than what we have experienced in all of human history. Carbon dioxide acts like a blanket, trapping the sun’s heat around the planet. Facts Of Climate Change Facts Of Climate Change: By burning fossil fuels for electricity and other industries we are releasing billions of tons of carbon dioxide and changing the climate. We can stop our carbon dioxide emission and slow the rate of change Facts Of Climate Change Easy Green Tips To Reduce The Climate Change: Eat less meat and eat more vegetables. Purchases recycled products like recycled papers and recycled plastic toys. Use a more energy efficient vehicle to reduce emission and oil use. CFL bulbs (Compact Fluorescent lamp) to reduce electricity usage. They save you money, save the environment and even glow brighter. Easy Green Tips To Reduce The Climate Change PowerPoint Presentation: Use a zero VOC paint (Volatile Organic Compounds ), when painting a room in your home. The VOCs found in traditional paints can be hazardous for you and the ozone. Support clean energy to reduce climate change as well as other renewable sources like wind energy and geothermal. Turn off your computers, cell phones and other electronics at night to cut back on electricity. PowerPoint Presentation: Buy sustainable wood, repurposed wood, or a used wood product for furniture purchases. Encourage and become involved in reforestation to slow the climate change. Most importantly, educate others about climate change. PowerPoint Presentation: The climate challenge is large and complex. But it is very likely that many people, working from many angles, can help address climate change and its ecological consequences.