CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF POLLUTIONS : CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF POLLUTIONS Slide 2: PRESENTED BY
A.AFFRIN NISHA What is pollution ? : Pollution is defined as an unwanted change in the environment which involves the physical, biological and chemical changes involving air,water and land which affects the human life in one way or the other.
It also affects the natural resources, living conditions and the cultural aspects of the humans. It can be natural or manmade.
The amount of pollution has increased due to the increase in population and decrease in the natural resources. What is pollution ? CONTENTS : SOIL POLLUTION
WATER POLLUTION CONTENTS SOIL POLLUTION : SOIL POLLUTION WHAT IS SOIL POLLUTION ? : Soil pollution, or soil contamination, is the accumulation of man-made toxic substances in soil that has a negative effect of plant and animal life.
Common pollutants include herbicides and pesticides; litter and waste.
Soil pollution is usually caused by mistreatment of the soil through poor cultivation or farming practices, industrial waste dumping and mineral utilization. WHAT IS SOIL POLLUTION ? CAUSES : There are various causes of soil pollution including the leakage of gas, chemicals and petrol during the transportation of tanks carrying gas, chemicals and petrol.
Indiscriminate use of irrigation can also increase soil pollution. Imbalance use of fertilizers and poor drainage cause salinity which also causes soil pollution.
Heavy metals, petroleum products and toxic chemicals create soil problems around the world. CAUSES Slide 9: Agricultural activities in rural regions are the main
cause for pollution.
Use of inorganic manures and pesticides destroys the
fertility of soil and makes it useless.
Plants retain the toxins in fertilisers and pesticides.
When plants die and decompose the toxic contents remain in the soil making it unusable for agriculture. REMEDIES: : 1.sewage treatment before dumping wastes.
2.spraying of pesticides must be reduced.
3.using of compost instead of fertilizers.
4.reduce combustion of fuels as the fumes result in acid rain when combined with rain that pollute the soil.
5.reduce use of plastic.
6.do not litter.
7.use dustbin. REMEDIES: PHYTOREMEDIATION : Phytoremediation consists of mitigating pollutant concentrations in contaminated soils, water, or air, with plants able to contain, degrade, or eliminate metals, pesticides, solvents, explosives, crude oil and its derivatives, and various other contaminants from the media that contain them. PHYTOREMEDIATION ADVANTAGES OF PHYTOREMEDIATION : the cost of the phytoremediation is lower than that of traditional processes both in situ and ex situ
the plants can be easily monitored
the possibility of the recovery and re-use of valuable metals (by companies specializing in “phyto mining”)
it is potentially the least harmful method because it uses naturally occurring organisms and preserves the environment in a more natural state. ADVANTAGES OF PHYTOREMEDIATION AIR POLLUTION : AIR POLLUTION WHAT IS AIR POLLUTION? : Air pollution contains all contaminants that can be found in the environment, especially the atmosphere.
These hazardous substances can be either in the form of gases or particles. Furthermore, air pollution is a discharge into the atmosphere of any substances like chemicals or airborne particles, which are destructive both to human and animal health as well as the well-being of the larger environment. WHAT IS AIR POLLUTION? MAIN CAUSES: : GLOBALISATION
AIR POLLUTANTS MAIN CAUSES: GLOBALISATION : GLOBALISATION Slide 18: Globalization has, in a way, become a catalyst of air pollution because of its aim of improving the industry and economy. Big industry takes advantage of lenient and careless environmental regulations in developing nations and moves its manufacturing facilities to such “pollution havens” from where air pollution passes through around the world, without any repercussions for the company itself. Slide 19: POPULATION Slide 20: The constant growth of population increases the demand for food and other goods, which results in expanded production and utilization of more natural resources.
This then leads to higher levels of atmospheric pollution. Population growth is the ultimate pollution root cause.
This demand is met by expanded production and use of natural resources, which leads to higher levels of ecological pollution in general, and air pollution in particular. Slide 21: INDUSTRALISATION Slide 23: These are some of the air pollutants.
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), which is a colorless gas with a pungent, suffocating odour. It is very corrosive to organic materials. SO2 irritates the eyes, nose and lungs, and therefore it is quite an unsafe air pollutant.
Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) is created by the combustion of all fossil fuels together with coal and gas-fired power stations and motor vehicles.
Carbon Monoxide is an extremely lethal or toxic gas which has no color, odor or taste. Fossil fuel combustion generally produces carbon dioxide (CO2), but at times, when such combustion is curtailed, it also becomes a source of carbon monoxide. REMEDIES: : Alternative Energies:
Adopting alternative energy sources can drastically improve outdoor air quality.
Replacing fossil fuel combustion with cleaner technologies would decrease the production of carbon dioxide.
If people reduce the burning of sulphur-rich coal and gas, they can lower the levels of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, two major air pollutants. REMEDIES: Slide 25: Keep green plants indoors - they keep the air clean and are aesthetically appealing.
Ventilation through windows should be sufficient. Even in air-conditioned offices, care should be taken to allow free flow of fresh air for a few hours every day.
Exhaust fans are important especially in kitchens at homes. Do not allow smoke to stay inside.
Usage of good building material is a must. Emulsion paint on the walls enhances the finish, but has ill effects on the air inside a room. Slide 26: Remove dust & dirt from every corner.
Dispose of waste hygienically.
Use biodegradable eco-friendly products instead of plastics.
Grow trees if you have a garden. Potted plants can be put in small spaces. In over crowded areas air-purifiers could be installed.
Pure clean air is a need of the hour. Lets spread awareness & ensure that the air around us is clean. NOISE POLLUTION : NOISE POLLUTION WHAT IS NOISE POLLUTION? : The noise pollution is defined as the unwanted sound which is released into the environment.
It disturbs the human being and cause an adverse effect on the mental and psychological well being.
It is measured in the units of decibels and is denoted by the dB.
The noise which is more than 115 dB is tolerant.
The industrial limit of sound in the industries must be 75 dB according to the world health organization. WHAT IS NOISE POLLUTION? CAUSES OF NOISE POLLUTION: : Traffic:
It is the biggest source of noise pollution in today's times, especially in urban areas. In the past few years the number of automobile vehicles has increased manifold. Thus, traffic problems created by these vehicles is an important source of noise pollution. The sound produced by the exhaust systems of trucks, autos, buses, motorcycles, etc. cause a lot of noise.Railway Stations:
Locomotive engines of trains are an important source of noise pollution. Besides, the shunting and switching operations in rail yards too cause noise pollution to a great extent. CAUSES OF NOISE POLLUTION: Slide 32: Industrial Noise:
The various machines used in industries are also a major cause of noise pollution. The different machines which are responsible for creating noise include the compressors, motors and other machinery. It is therefore recommended to grow trees in the premises of industries, which act as absorbents of noise.
The different types of machines and equipment used in construction of roads and buildings is also an important cause behind noise pollution. The machinery used for the purpose of construction includes pneumatic hammers, bulldozers, air compressors, dump trucks, loaders, sidewalk breakers, etc. is also responsible for noise pollution to a great extent. REMEDIES: : Automobile Servicing:
Automobiles account to the highest production of noise. Regular servicing of the vehicles is an effectual measure to lower the intensity of sound produced by them. If all the automobile owners take up this step, then there will be significant reduction in noise pollution.
Planting bushes and trees in and around sound generating sources is another effective solution for noise pollution. Dense shrubs and trees block sound passage, thus avoiding disturbance to the surrounding areas. You can also plant trees around your residential area to live peacefully. REMEDIES: : Soundproof Homes:
Soundproof doors and windows can be installed to block unwanted noise from outside. You can also opt for walls with sound control material. These soundproofing options are of utmost importance for complete relaxation, especially if you are staying in a crowded city area.
Industrial noise pollution is not different from other pollution types in causing health hazards on humans and animals. Thus, factories and industries should be located in far off places from the residential areas. Installation of sound detectors will help in analyzing the sound frequencies on a regular basis. Slide 35: White Noise Machine:
The latest technology for overcoming the effects of noise pollution is using white noise machine. It is a device meant for converting unbearable noise into pleasant sound. A white noise machine is placed between the source of noise and the receptor. It produces soft sound like that of a waterfall, fan and soft music. Slide 36: You can avoid noise pollution yourself too:
Do not use car horns unnecessarily. Areas like hospitals and campuses are silence zones and honking is prohibited there.
Avoid loud music, which hurts your ears and others' ears.
Firecrackers are extremely loud. So don't try and burn them unnecessarily.
Motors, machines and vehicles also produce loud noises when not maintained properly. Proper maintenance should be carried out for better performance.
If you are working in an area where there are loud noises, you must wear earplugs to prevent loss of hearing. Slide 37: When going to theme parks and such, avoid riding on the rides which produce a lot of noise. One example is the ATV, which is like a huge motorbike.
Turn off the engine of your car or motorbike when you are not using it. It stops the annoying hum, and reduces air pollution!
Better off, walk or cycle to school! It does wonders to the environment, reduces the amount of air pollution and noise, and makes you fit! WATER POLLUTION : WATER POLLUTION What is water pollution ? : Water is essential for life. without water there would be no life.
Water pollution can be defined in many ways. Usually, it means one or more substances have built up in water to such an extent that they cause problems for animals or people. Oceans, lakes, rivers, and other inland waters can naturally clean up a certain amount of pollution by dispersing it harmlessly. What is water pollution ? CAUSES : : Pathogens :
The most serious water pollutants are the disease causing agents are called pathogens. pathogens include bacteria and other organisms that enter water from domestic sewage and animal excreta.
Human excreta contains bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis which cause gastrointestinal diseases. CAUSES : ORGANIC WASTES: : The other major water pollutant is organic matter such as leaves, grass, trash, etc.,
They pollute water as a consequence of run off.
Excessive phytoplankton growth within water is also a cause of pollution.
These waste are biodegradable.
BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD). ORGANIC WASTES: Slide 44: EUTROPHICATION :
The process by which a body of water acquires a high concentration of nutrients, especially phosphates and nitrates.
These typically promote excessive growth of algae.
As the algae die and decompose, high levels of organic matter and the decomposing organisms deplete the water of available oxygen, causing the death of other organisms.
Eutrophication is a natural, slow-aging process for a water body, but human activity greatly speeds up the process. EUTROPHICATION : EUTROPHICATION INDIA’S GANGES RIVER: : Religious beliefs, cultural traditions, poverty, and a large population interact to cause severe pollution of the Ganges River in India.
Very little of the sewage is treated.
Hindu believe in cremating the dead to free the soul and throwing the ashes in the holy Ganges.
Some are too poor to afford the wood to fully cremate.
Decomposing bodies promote disease and depletes DO. INDIA’S GANGES RIVER: REMEDIES : : REMEDIES : Stabilization of eco systems – by reduction in waste input, harvesting and removal of biomass, trapping of nutrients, and aeration.
Reutilisation and recycling of waste – including industrial effluents, sewage and thermal pollutants can be recycled to beneficial use viz., to generate cheaper fuel gas and electricity.
Removal of pollutants – Various pollutants ( radio active,chemical,biological)can be removed by appropriated methods like absorption, electro dialysis, ion exchange, reverse osmosis. WHAT CAN WE DO? : 1) Donot throw industrial,farm or other waste and sewage into rivers.
2) Oil spills should be prevented.3) Dead bodies should not thrown in water bodies.4) Trees should be planted along the rivers. WHAT CAN WE DO? : Slide 51: THANK YOU