soil pollution

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A powerpoint presentation on spoil pollution

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Soil pollution A.Elakkiya, T.Sujithra, K.Ragavi, R.sivaranjani.

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SOIL POLLUTION Definition: Soil pollution is defined as the build-up in soils of persistent toxic compounds, chemicals, salts,radioactive materials, or disease causing agents, which have adverse effects on plant growth and animal health. Soil is the thin layer of organic and inorganic materials that covers the Earth's rocky surface. The organic portion, which is derived from the decayed remains of plants and animals, is concentrated in the dark uppermost topsoil .

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The inorganic portion made up of rock fragments, was formed over thousands of years by physical and chemical weathering of bedrock. Productive soils are necessary for agriculture to supply the world with sufficient food. There are many different ways that soil can become polluted, such as: • Seepage from a landfill • Discharge of industrial waste into the soil • Percolation of contaminated water into the soil • Rupture of underground storage tanks • Excess application of pesticides, herbicides or fertilizer • Solid waste seepage

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Types of Soil Pollution • Agricultural Soil Pollution i) pollution of surface soil ii) pollution of underground soil • Soil pollution by industrial effluents and solid wastes i) pollution of surface soil ii) disturbances in soil profile • Pollution due to urban activities i) pollution of surface soil ii) pollution of underground soil Causes of Soil Pollution Soil pollution is caused by the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. This type of contamination typically arises from the rupture of underground storage links, application of pesticides, percolation of contaminated surface water to subsurface strata, oil and fuel dumping, leaching of wastes from landfills or direct discharge of industrial wastes to the soil.

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The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead and other heavy metals. This occurrence of this phenomenon is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensities of chemical usage. Pollution in soil is associated with • Indiscriminate use of fertilizers • insecticides and herbicides • Dumping of large quantities of solid waste • Deforestation and soil erosion Indiscriminate use of fertilizers

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Farmers generally use fertilizers to correct soil deficiencies. Fertilizers contaminate the soil with impurities, which come from the raw materials used for their manufacture. Mixed fertilizers often contain ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), phosphorus as P2O5, and potassium as K2O. For instance, As, Pb and Cd present in traces in rock phosphate mineral get transferred to super phosphate fertilizer. The over use of NPK fertilizers reduce quantity of vegetables and crops grown on soil over the years. It also reduces the protein content of wheat, maize, grams, etc., grown on that soil. The vegetables and fruits grown on overfertilized soil are more prone to attacks by insects and disease .

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Indiscriminate use of pesticides, insecticides and herbicides Plants on which we depend for food are under attack from insects, fungi, bacteria, viruses,rodents and other animals, and must compete with weeds for nutrients. To kill unwanted populations living in or on their crops, farmers use pesticides. The first widespread insecticide use began at the end of World War II and included DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and gammaxene.

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Pesticides not only bring toxic effect on human and animals but also decrease the fertility of the soil. Some of the pesticides are quite stable and their bio- degradation may take weeks and even months. Pesticide problems such as resistance, resurgence, and heath effects have caused scientists to seek alternatives. Pheromones and hormones to attract or repel insects and using natural enemies or sterilization by radiation have been suggested. Dumping of solid wastes In general, solid waste includes garbage, domestic refuse and discarded solid materials such asthose from commercial, industrial and agricultural operations.

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They contain increasing amounts of paper, cardboards, plastics, glass, old construction material, packaging material and toxic or otherwise hazardous substances. Since a significant amount of urban solid waste tends to be paper and food waste, the majority is recyclable or biodegradable in landfills. Similarly, most agricultural waste isrecycled and mining waste is left on site. The portion of solid waste that is hazardous such as oils, battery metals, heavy metals from smelting industries and organic solvents are the ones we have to pay particular attention to. They also contaminate drinking water aquifer sources. More than 90% of hazardous waste is produced by chemical, petroleum and metal-related industries and small businesses such as dry cleaners and gas stations contribute as well.

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Deforestation Soil Erosion occurs when the weathered soil particles are dislodged and carried away by wind or water. Deforestation, agricultural development, temperature extremes, precipitation including acid rain, and human activities contribute to this erosion. Humans speed up this process by construction,mining, cutting of timber, over cropping and overgrazing. It results in floods and cause soil erosion. Many scientists believe that a wealth of medicinal substances including a cure for cancer and aids, lie in these forests. Deforestation is slowly destroying the most productive flora and fauna areas in the world, which also form vast tracts of a very valuable sink for CO2.

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Pollution Due to Urbanisation

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Pollution of surface soils Urban activities generate large quantities of city wastes including several Biodegradable materials (like vegetables, animal wastes, papers, wooden pieces, carcasses, plant twigs, leaves, cloth wastes as well as sweepings) and many non-biodegradable materials (such as plastic bags, plastic bottles, plastic wastes, glass bottles, glass pieces, stone / cement pieces). On a rough estimate Indian cities are producing solid city wastes to the tune of 50,000 - 80,000 metric tons every day. If left uncollected and decomposed, they are a cause of several problems such as: • Clogging of drains : Causing serious drainage problems including the burst / leakage of drainage lines leading to health problems. • Foul smell : Generated by dumping the wastes at a place.

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Pollution of Underground Soil Underground soil in cities is likely to be polluted by • Chemicals released by Industrial wastes and industrial wastes. • Decomposed and partially decomposed materials of sanitary wastes. Many dangerous chemicals like cadmium, chromium, lead, arsenic, selenium products are likely to be deposited in underground soil. Similarly underground soil polluted by sanitary wastes generate many harmful chemicals. These can damage the normal activities and ecological balance in the underground soil.

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Causes in brief: • Polluted water discharged from factories • Runoff from pollutants (paint, chemicals, rotting organic material) leaching out of landfill • Oil and petroleum leaks from vehicles washed off the road by the rain into the surrounding habitat • Chemical fertilizer runoff from farms and crops • Acid rain (fumes from factories mixing with rain) • Over application of pesticides and fertilizers • Purposeful injection into groundwater as a disposal method • Interconnections between aquifers during drilling (poor technique) • Septic tank seepage • Lagoon seepage • Sanitary/hazardous landfill seepage • Cemeteries • Scrap yards (waste oil and chemical drainage) • Leaks from sanitary sewers

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Effects of Soil Pollution Agricultural • Reduced soil fertility • Reduced nitrogen fixation • Increased erodibility • Larger loss of soil and nutrients • Deposition of silt in tanks and reservoirs • Reduced crop yield • Imbalance in soil fauna and flora Industrial • Dangerous chemicals entering underground water • Ecological imbalance • Release of pollutant gases • Release of radioactive rays causing health problems • Increased salinity • Reduced vegetation

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Urban • Clogging of drains • Inundation of areas • Public health problems • Pollution of drinking water sources • Foul smell and release of gases • Waste management problems Control of soil pollution The following steps have been suggested to control soil pollution. To help prevent soil erosion, we can limit construction in sensitive area. In general we would need less fertilizer and fewer pesticides if we could all adopt the three R's: Reduce,Reuse, and Recycle . This would give us less solid waste.

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Reducing chemical fertilizer and pesticide use Reusing of materials Recycling and recovery of materials Reforesting Solid waste treatment

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Conclusion: Thus we have analyzed about what are the causes of soil pollution and effects of soil pollution.Since we have to realise the importance of soil prevention and steps to be taken to reduce soil pollution. MAKE SOIL HEALTH AND WEALTH….

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Thank you