Values of Biodiversity

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VALUES OF BIODIVERSITY Maragatham .M Subasri .V Anushiya .K

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Biodiversity or biological diversity , refers to the range of life forms on Earth. The biosphere comprises of a complex collection of innumerable organisms , known as the “Biodiversity” Which constitutes the vital life support for the survival of human race Includes millions of plants animals and micro organisms ,the genes they contain and the ecosystems of which they are a part.

Loss of Biodiversity:

Loss of Biodiversity Everyday around the globe species are being lost others are being pushed towards extinction. The Earth’s biodiversity is more threatened today than any other time in the past During last 200 million years ,100 to 1000 species became extinct in each century. But evolution also brought forth new life forms, replacing species that were lost. Today we are losing about 1500 species every two months.

Economic Terms:

Economic Terms Economically there are main two types of values of biodiversity They are Use value Direct values Indirect values Option values Non use value Bequest value Existence value

The Total Economic Value approach:

The Total Economic Value approach

Direct Values :

Direct Values Direct values are concerned with the enjoyment or satisfaction received directly by biological resources They can be relatively easily observed and measured ,often by assigning prices to them There are two types Consumptive use (non-market value) Productive use (commercial value)

Consumptive Value:

Consumptive Value The value of Nature’s Products that are consumed directly such as firewoods , fodder and meat. In other words the products which are consumed directly without passing through the market Consumptive use value seldom appear in National income accounts.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The most important point of consumptive use is that some rural communities closest to the forests or other natural areas can prosper through the sustainable harvesting of wildlife species. Hunting, direct-consumption (e.g. collection of berries, mushrooms, herbs, plants) are all “consumptive uses” Consumptive use Values:

Productive use:

Productive use Products that are commercially harvested for exchange in formal markets Each species is valuable to humans. The global collection of genes , species , habitats and ecosystems is a resource that provides for human needs now. It is also essential for human survival in the future. This is often the only value of biological resources that is reflected in the income accounts

Productive uses:

Productive uses Products such as animal skins,ivory, medicinal plants,honey,beewax,fibers, gums,ect…..,

Indirect values:

Indirect values It deals primarily with the functions or ecosystems Do not normally appear in national accounting systems , but they may outweigh direct values when they are computed Reflects the value of biological diversity to society locally or at large rather than to individuals or corporate entities. Direct values often derive from indirect values because harvested species of plants and animals are supported goods and services provided by their environment

Two types of indirect values :

Two types of indirect values Non consumptive use Social values Ethical values Aesthetic values Option values

Non - consumptive values :

Non - consumptive values These are the indirect values of ecosystem functions. Such as the watershed protection, photosynthesis,regulation or climate and production of soil Pollination , habitat for other species

social value:

social value Biodiversity in INDIA, particularly ,is important for its religious,spiritual and other cultural uses. Many plants and animals have ritual significance The entire ecosystem is utilized for cultural and spiritual purposes.

Some examples:

Some examples Among auspicious flowers offered in temples are HIBISCUS offered to the goddess Kali Datura flowers to siva Gujarat Sami (Prosopis spicigera)is used in sacrificial fires Sacred value was attached to patches of forest believed to be the abode of gods and ancestors, and utilized only for prayer and related rituals. A network of such sacred groves is still in evidence in some parts of India

Ethical values:

Ethical values Although economic arguments can be advanced to justify the protection of biological diversity, there are also strong ethical arguments for doing so. Protecting biological diversity can be justified on ethical grounds as well as on economic grounds. Ethical arguments assert that humans have a duty to protect species based on their intrinsic value, unrelated to human needs

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People do not have the rights to destroy species and should take action to prevent their extinction The loss of one species have far-reaching consequences to biological community and human society. People must learn to live within the ecological constraints of the planet. Must learn to minimize the environmental damage and take responsibility for their action People also have responsibility to future generations of humans to keep the Earth in good condition.

aesthetic values:

aesthetic values Regardless of our own material self-interest , we should treat nature respectfully. Enlightened self interest, arguing that preserving biodiversity and developing our knowledge of it will make us better and happier people. Nearly everyone enjoys wildlife and joy makes our lives good lives. A loss of biodiversity could very well limit the creative energies of people in the future and thus restrict the development.

Some examples:

Some examples The beauty of wildflowers in Glacier National Park . Hiking , canoeing and mountain climbing are physically intellectually and emotionally satisfying. People spend tens of billons of dollars annually in these pursuits, proof enough of their value.

Option value:

Option value The intangible Values of biodiversity . That is keeping options for the future and simply knowing that certain species exist . A species potential to provide an economic benefit to human society at some point in the future is its option value. As the needs of the society change , so must the methods of satisfying those needs. The option value of species could be only recently utilized by human beings

Some examples:

Some examples Health agencies and pharmaceutical companies are making a major effort to collect and screen species for compounds that have the ability to fight cancer. In some cases well known species have been found to have exactly those properties needed to deal with a significant human problem

Valuing Non-Use values:

Valuing Non-Use values Non-use values – including Bequest and Existence values, are usually always measured using some form of CVM (contingent valuation). Cultural values may be very important in non-use values (e.g. Lake Sevan in Armenia) Values may be small per person (a few dollars), but large when aggregated (as in Armenia) Note: Non-use values are usually harder to “sell” to decision makers, but For some types of biodiversity (e.g. the panda, the blue whale) non-use values account for almost ALL of the economic value measured in a TEV calculation.

Economic values :

Economic values Assessing benefits and costs of protecting biological resources provides a basis for determining the total value of any protected area or other system of biological resources The value of conserving biological resources can be considerable , conservation should be seen as a form of economic development. Biological resources have economic values, investments in conservation should be judged in economic terms. Valuation is easiest for Direct-use values, quite difficult for Indirect-use values, and very difficult for Non-use values

The value of a tree:

The value of a tree The tree that lives for 50 years generates Rs 5.3 lakhs worth of oxygen , recycles Rs 6.4 lakhs worth of fertility , facilitates Rs.6.4 lakhs worth of soil erosion control , creates Rs 10.5 lakhs worth of air pollution control , and provides Rs 5.3 lakhs worth of shelter for birds and animals . Besides , it provides flowers , fruits and timber .So when one tree falls or is felled something worth more than Rs.33.9 lakhs is lost

Think before cutting a tree:

Think before cutting a tree

The Total Economic Value (TEV) Approach and Biodiversity:

The Total Economic Value (TEV) Approach and Biodiversity The TEV is the sum of all of these values but in the case of biodiversity, much of the value may lie in the Indirect Use or Non-use portion Includes both Use Values and Non-Use Values Use values include direct use (both consumptive and non-consumptive), indirect use, and option values Non-use values include bequest values and existence values

Economic Values are People-dependent!:

Economic Values are People-dependent! Remember, there are few or no economic values that are NOT directly linked to human uses or desires, and People often do not understand what the real question is. Therefore, market-values may be poor reflections of ecosystem values or pure biological uniqueness! But… Markets and prices often drive government and private actions!

“valuing” the non-measurable:

“valuing” the non-measurable Some uses or values associated with biodiversity are impossible to measure. These may include the following: Unknown genetic material Global life support services (an infinite value) Cultural or religious values (e.g. in Hawaii, the native Hawaiians “value” the sea and the “aina”, the land, very highly)

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Google .com Environmental studies book (Bharathidasan University) wikipedia REFERENCE

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