basic entomology of plant

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basic entomology

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PLANT AND PESTS:

PLANT AND PESTS PRESENTED BY UINTAH AG DEPARTMENT DAVID WILSON

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE:

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE After completion of this unit, students will be able to identify and classify plant pests (vertebrates, invertebrates, and weeds). Students will also identify symptoms and describe control methods. This knowledge will be demonstrated by completing the unit test and various assignments with a minimum score of 90% accuracy.

PEREFORMANCE ENABLER:

PEREFORMANCE ENABLER 1- Define terms associated with plant pests. 2- Name three ways insects cause loses to crops. 3- Select beneficial effects of insects. 4- Describe ways how to detect or recognize an insect. 5- Identify the different ways insects develop. 6- Name three types of feeding habits for insects and examples in each category. 7- Define and provide one example for cultural, biological, chemical insect control.

PERFORMANCE ENABLER CONTINUE:

PERFORMANCE ENABLER CONTINUE 8- Identify harmful and beneficial insects in the area. Make a chart to assist in damages caused and controlling these insects with either cultural, biological or chemical insect control. 9- Collect and mount 12 or more insects, including 6 beneficial insects. 10- Name five losses caused by weeds. 11- Select ways that weeds spread.

PERFORMANCE ENABLER CONTINUED:

PERFORMANCE ENABLER CONTINUED 12- Define and provide one example for cultural, mechanical, and biological control for weeds. 13- Collect, press and identify fifteen weeds common in your area. 14- Explain the difference of a weed and a noxious weeds and give three examples in each category. 15- Name five ways plant diseases cause losses in plants.

PERFORMANCE ENABLER CONTINUED:

PERFORMANCE ENABLER CONTINUED 16- List the five groups of biological pathogens and describe them in detail give examples in each area. 17- List five methods by which pathogens spread. 18- Select four practices used to control plant diseases. 19- Identify and describe proper procedures for integrated pest management systems. (weeds, insects, soil and organisms) 20- Identify the role of vertebrates as plant pests in our environment.

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS:

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS ENTOMOLOGY : A branch of science that deals with the study of insects. PLANT DISEASE : An abnormal plant condition caused by a pathogen, improper environmental condition or a nutritional deficiency. PLANT PATHOLOGIST : A person who studies plant diseases and works to diagnose and control them.

HARMFUL EFFECTS AND ECONOMIC LOSSES OF INSECTS:

HARMFUL EFFECTS AND ECONOMIC LOSSES OF INSECTS A- Damage and destroy agricultural crops. 1- Reduce crop yield 2- Reduce quality of the crop. 3- Cost of control practices. B- Aid in the spread of diseases in man, animals, and plants. C- Annoy man and animals. D- Destroy homes, timber resources, and other goods.

BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF INSECTS:

BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF INSECTS 1- POLLINATION ACTIVITIES make possible the increase yields of many agricultural crops. 2- PROVIDE us with useful PRODUCTS such as silk, honey, beeswax, shellac, and permanent inks and dyes. 3- SERVE as FOOD for fish, birds, and other wildlife.

BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF INSECTS:

BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF INSECTS 4- PERFORM valuable services as SCAVENGERS. 5- HELP TO CONTROL harmful animals (especially other insect pests) and plants. 6- Have MEDICINAL VALUE.

LIST OF BENEFICIAL AND HARMFUL INSECTS:

LIST OF BENEFICIAL AND HARMFUL INSECTS Beneficial Insects Silkworm moth Honey bees Scale and gall insects Fig wasp Wasps Beetles Lacewings Useful Product,Service Silk Honey,beeswax,pollination Pigments and dye Pollinate figs Parasites, predators Predators, natural control of weeds Predators

Harmful Insects Types of Damage:

Harmful Insects Types of Damage * Caterpillars * Beetles * Grasshoppers * Twig bores * Leaf miners Chewing on leaves Chewing on leaves, boring,feed on fruit Chewing on leaves,stem and fruit Boring into leaves stem and fruit Sucking plant juices

Harmful Insects Type of Damage:

Harmful Insects Type of Damage Aphids Mites Leafhoppers Termites Scale insects Fruit flies Flies House flies Mosquitoes Fleas Transmitting diseases Transmitting diseases Transmitting diseases Feed on structural timber Shellac Used in scientific study Parasites, predators Spread disease Bite humans,spread disease Bite humans and animals

INSECTS:

INSECTS Three distinct parts–Head,Thorax,Abdomen Three pairs of jointed legs used for jumping,running,digging,attacking, swimming One pair of antennae (feelers) Eyes are usually compound, but can be simple (Ocelli) Adults insects have two pairs of wings.

INSECTS:

INSECTS

Insects Develop in Different Ways:

Insects Develop in Different Ways

Insect Classification By Feeding Habits:

Insect Classification By Feeding Habits CHEWING : Insects with chewing mouthparts have toothed jaws that bite and tear the food. Examples: grasshopper, armyworm, potato beetle, blister beetle SUCKING : Insects with a piercing-sucking mouthparts have tube-like beaks which they force into a plant to suck out fluids.Examples: aphid, leafhopper, thrips, hessian fly,greenbug

Insects Classification By Feeding Habits:

Insects Classification By Feeding Habits INTERNAL : Borders and miners-includes most chewing insects that enter the plant and feed from within. Examples: European corn borer, cotton boll weevil larva, wheat stem sawfly SUBTERRANEAN : Includes chewing and sucking insects which enter the plant below the soil surface. Examples: Corn rootworm, wireworm structural , pest-termites

CULTURAL, BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL INSECT CONTROL:

CULTURAL, BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL INSECT CONTROL Cultural Control Practices for Insects : a- Crop rotation b- Trap crops c- Tillage d- Residue management e- Timing of operation f- Resistant varieties

CULTURAL, BIOLOGICAL and CHEMICAL INSECT CONTROL CONT.:

CULTURAL, BIOLOGICAL and CHEMICAL INSECT CONTROL CONT. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL PRACTICES FOR INSECTS: 1- Natural enemies used to control a pest.

CULTURAL, BIOLOGICAL and CHEMICAL INSECT CONTROL CONT..:

CULTURAL, BIOLOGICAL and CHEMICAL INSECT CONTROL CONT.. CHEMICAL CONTROL PRACTICES FOR INSECTS: 1- Chemicals may be applied to seeds, growing plants or soil. 2- Poison the insect. 3- Repel the insects from specific areas. 4- Attract insects to a place where they can be killed.

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Reduce Crop Yields Increase Cost of Production Reduce Quality of Crop and Livestock Products Cause Irritation and Hay Fever Poisonous To Man,Livestock and Wildlife Spoil The Beauty Of The Turf and Landscape Plants Compete With Crop Plants WEEDS

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WIND FLOWING WATER ANIMALS AND MANURE IMPURE SEED FARM MACHINERY, CARS, PICKUPS, AND TRUCKS EARTH MOVING EQUIPMENT HUMAN MOVEMENT OR TRAFFIC Weeds Spread By:

METHODS OF CULTURAL, MECHANICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEED CONTROL :

METHODS OF CULTURAL, MECHANICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEED CONTROL Methods of Cultural Control: A- Weed-free crop seed B- smoother crops. C- Crop rotation.

METHOD OF CULTURAL, MECHANICAL and BIOLOGICAL WEED CONTROL cont..:

METHOD OF CULTURAL, MECHANICAL and BIOLOGICAL WEED CONTROL cont.. METHODS OF MECHANICAL CONTROL: 1- Hoeing 2- Hand Pulling 3- Mowing 4- Cultivation 5- Mulching 6- Burning

METHODS OF CULTURAL, MECHANICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEED CONTROL cont..:

METHODS OF CULTURAL, MECHANICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEED CONTROL cont.. METHODS OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL: 1- Involves the introduction of a natural enemy to weaken or destroy a particular weed species. Example: Leaf cutting beetles to control St. Johnswort and Klamath weed beetle to control the Klamath weed.

COMMON WEEDS IN UTAH:

COMMON WEEDS IN UTAH Bull Thistle Burdock Mallow Musk Thistle Canada Thistle Cocklebur Curley Dock Field Bindweed Foxtail Barley Hounds Tongue Kochia Lambs quarter Prickly Lettuce Quack grass Red Root ( Rough Pigweed ) Russian Thistle Shepard's Purse Teasel Water Hemlock Yarrow

NOXIOUS WEED ACT:

NOXIOUS WEED ACT Noxious weeds standing, being, or growing shall be controlled and the spread prevented by cutting, tillage, cropping, pasturing, chemicals, or other effective methods, as often as required to prevent the weed from blooming, maturing seeds, or spreading by root or other means.

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Canada Thistle Diffuse Knapweed Dyers Woad Field Bindweed Hoary Cress Leafy Spurge Musk Thistle Per.Pepperweed Russian Knapweed Scotch Thistle Squarrose Knapweed Yellow Star thistle Spotted Knapweed Purple Loostrife BROADLEAF

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1- BURMUDAGRASS 2- JOHNSONGRASS 3- MEDUSAHEAD 4- QUACKGRASS GRASS

UTAH SEED ACT- NO PERSON IN THIS STATE SHALL OFFER OR EXPOSE ANY AGRICULTURAL SEED FOR SALE OR SOWING UNLESS IT IS : 1- FREE OF NOXIOUS WEED SEED, SUBJECT TO ANY TOLERANCE ALLOWED FOR RESTRICTED NOXIOUS WEEDS, AND 2- TESTED AND TRUTHFULLY LABELED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THIS ACT.:

UTAH SEED ACT- NO PERSON IN THIS STATE SHALL OFFER OR EXPOSE ANY AGRICULTURAL SEED FOR SALE OR SOWING UNLESS IT IS : 1- FREE OF NOXIOUS WEED SEED , SUBJECT TO ANY TOLERANCE ALLOWED FOR RESTRICTED NOXIOUS WEEDS, AND 2- TESTED AND TRUTHFULLY LABELED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THIS ACT. UTAH SEED ACT

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Canada Thistle Diffuse Knapweed Dyers Woad Field Bindweed Hoary Cress Leafy Spurge Musk Thistle Per. Pepper weed Russian Knapweed Scotch Thistle Spotted Knapweed Squarrose Knapweed Yellow Star thistle Bermuda grass Medusahead Perennial Sorghum Quack grass Prohibited In the state of UTAH

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DODDER HALOGETON JOINTED GOATGRASS POVERTY WEED WILD OATS RESTRICTED in the state of UTAH

Invading Weeds- Weeds that are of concern of the federal, state, and country agencies that might invade and establish themselves in an area. Invading weeds might become noxious and damaging in states and counties.:

Invading Weeds - Weeds that are of concern of the federal, state, and country agencies that might invade and establish themselves in an area. Invading weeds might become noxious and damaging in states and counties. Broadleaf 1- Black Henbane 2- Dalmation Toadflax 3- Goats rue 4- Poison Hemlock 5- Water Hemlock 6- Silver leaf Nightshade 7- Velvetleaf Grasses 1- Jointed Goats grass 2- Wild Proso Millet Sedge 1- Yellow Nut sedge

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Suppress the chlorophyll content Reduce the leaf area Curb the movement of solutes and water through the stems Reduce the water-absorbing capacity of the roots Suppress the translocation of photosynthesis Losses Caused by Plant Disease

Losses caused by Plant Diseases cont.:

Losses caused by Plant Diseases cont. Promote wasteful use of the products of photosynthesis as in the formation of galls Reduce the yield and quality of crop Spoilage in storage and transportation Render food unfit for use Increase the cost of control activities

PowerPoint Presentation:

Groups of Biological Pathogens Bacteria Fungi Viruses Nematodes Mycloplasmas

PowerPoint Presentation:

Methods How Pathogens Spread Wind Rain Insects,Mites,&Nematodes Machinery Seeds,Plant Material Birds,Animals,People

PowerPoint Presentation:

Control Methods of Plant Diseases CULTURAL PRACTICES: 1- Eradication of alternate host plants 2- Treatment of soils 3- Rotation of crops 4- Destruction of plant residue

PowerPoint Presentation:

CONTROL THROUGH DISEASE RESISTANCE 1-Use of resistance varieties 2-Use of disease-free seed

PowerPoint Presentation:

CHEMICAL CONTROL: 1- Application of fungicides

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Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Integrated pest management uses an array of cultual, mechanical, biological, and chemical methods to keep pest damage below economic levels, while keeping the balance of our ecosystem in mind.

PowerPoint Presentation:

IPM programs are directed at preventing and suppressing pests.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Pest suppression methods are used to reduce populations in order to limit competition and damage to the crop. These methods do not always eliminate the pest, but reduce their population.

PowerPoint Presentation:

CULTURAL PRACTICES: frequent cultivation,fallow, crop rotation, water management and solarization

PowerPoint Presentation:

MECHANICAL PRACTICES: use of barriers (net, Screens) raising and lowering temperatures in greenhouses, uses of shredders, rollers, vacuums, and sterilization of soil

PowerPoint Presentation:

BIOLOGICAL PRACTICES: INTODUCTION OF EXOTIC SPECIES, CONSERVATION OF NATIVE PARASITE AND PREDATORS, AND AUGUMENTATION OF PARASITES, PREDATORS AND PATHOGENS

PowerPoint Presentation:

CHEMICAL PRACTICES: use of pesticides

PowerPoint Presentation:

That's all folks!

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