TIPS ON SELF DEVELOPMENT: TIPS ON SELF DEVELOPMENT HAJAH SITI ALUYAH MOHD ALI COUNSELOR INTEC Email: email@example.com Hp: 013-3921334 AND YOU : AND YOU Personality: Personality Know yourself to improve yourself. Example melancholic. Know your strength helps you to maximize your potential. Know your weakness helps you to contemplate and improve yourself. Motivation: Motivation Some lessons from psychology offer tips for getting motivated. Introduce new or novel elements to keep your interest high. Vary the sequence to help stave off boredom. Learn new things that build on your existing knowledge. Set clear goals that are directly related to the task. Reward yourself for a job well done. Health: Health From ways to encourage exercise and better nutrition to new treatments for depression. Research has demonstrated that exercise can be an effective treatment for depression as well as other mental disorders. Studies have found that helping people understand the risks of unhealthy behaviours can lead to healthier choices. Stress: Stress A state of psychological tension or strain Stressor: trigger stress Learn psychology we know how to cope with stress and can apply it in our daily life. Example: exercise, diet, reach out, calm down, religion, controlled & uncontrolled event. Learning: Learning Classical conditioning: Association Example: Helps you to trained your cat to use the bathroom. Operant Conditioning: Consequences/ reinforcement/ punisher Example: Positive reinforcement rewarding yourself for your success and negative reinforcement is to subtract something unpleasant. Learning Style: Learning Style Get Better Grades : Get Better Grades Study found that repeated test-taking may be a better memory aid than studying (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006). Students who were tested repeatedly were able to recall 61 percent of the material while those in the study group recalled only 40 percent. How can you apply these findings to your own life? When trying to learn new information, self-test frequently in order to cement what you have learned into your memory. Improve Your Memory: Improve Your Memory Have you ever wondered why you can remember exact details from childhood events yet forget the name of the new person you met yesterday? Research on how we form new memories and why we forget has led to a number of findings that can be applied directly in your daily life. What are some ways that can increase your memory power? Focus on the information. Cont…: Cont… Rehearse what you have learned Chunking Eliminate distractions Primacy effect: More likely to remember words toward the beginning than words in the middle Recency effect: People tend to recall items that were at the end of a list rather than items that were in the middle of a list Attention: Attention Attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things. Attention has also been referred to as the allocation of processing resources. Cont…: Cont… Focused attention is a short-term response to a stimulus that attracts attention. that may be as short as 8 seconds. Sustained attention is the level of attention that produces the consistent results on a task over time. Most healthy teenagers and adults are unable to sustain attention on one thing for more than about 20 minutes at a time, although they can choose repeatedly to re-focus on the same thing. Improve Your Leadership Skills : Improve Your Leadership Skills One of the most famous studies on this topic looked at three distinct leadership style. Based on the findings of a study: Offer clear guidance, but allow group members to voice opinions. Cont…: Cont… Talk about possible solutions to problems with members of the group. Focus on stimulating ideas and be willing to reward creativity. Assertive and not aggressive. Become a Better Communicator : Become a Better Communicator Communication involves much more than how you speak or write. Research suggests that nonverbal signals make up a huge portion of our interpersonal communications. In order to communicate your message effectively, you need to learn how to express yourself nonverbally and to read the nonverbal cues of those around you. Cont…: Cont… A few key strategies include the following: Use good eye contact. Start noticing nonverbal signals in others. Learn to use your tone of voice to reinforce your message. Learn to Better Understand Others :
Learn to Better Understand Others The term
refers to your ability to understand both your own emotions as well as those of other people. According to psychologist Daniel Goleman, your EQ may actually be more important than your IQ (1995).
Cont…: Cont… Self Awareness: recognize your emotions and understand your tendencies to response to others Why you behave, feel and think the way you do Self Management: choose what you say and do Choose your response. It is our response that hurts us. Cont…: Cont… Social Awareness: recognize and understand the emotions and perspectives of others. Understand where other is coming from. Whether you agree with it or not. Relationship Management: using awareness of your emotions and others to manage interaction successfully. Emotions are contagious. Spread the good feelings. Make More Accurate Decisions : Make More Accurate Decisions The next time you need to make a big decision, try using some of the following techniques: Try using the “six thinking hats”. Consider the potential costs and benefits of a decision. Employ a grid analysis technique that gives a score for how a particular decision will satisfy specific requirements you may have Cont.. : Cont.. White hat – Facts & Information Red hat – Feelings & Emotions Black hat – Being Cautious Yellow hat – Being Positive and Optimistic Green hat – New Ideas Blue hat – The Big Picture Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Neuro -Linguistic Programming For personal excellence & relationship building Matching & Mirroring “people who are comfortable with each other tend to mirror themselves” Cont…: Cont… Basic body language Gestures Personality Culture Hobby Language Volume Words SOCIAL: SOCIAL Social: Social Influenced by other people Attitude: Beliefs, feelings and behavior tendencies directed toward something or someone Stereotype: A set of characteristics presumed to be shared by all members of a social category Cont..: Cont.. Prejudice: An intolerant, unfavorable, and rigid attitude toward a group of people Discrimination: An act or series of acts that denies opportunities and social esteem to an entire group of people or individual members of that group Cont…: Cont… Share same qualities Examples: Catholics & Protestans is America view themselves as American rather than separate competing groups (as in Northern Ireland). Controlled processing: Train our self to be mindful of people who differ Example: Students who is taught to see the handicapped people as having strength & weakness show less prejudice. Tolerance can be taught. Cont…: Cont… Improving contact between groups This works when: 1. Group member must have equal status 2. People need to have one on one contact with members of another group 3. Groups come together to cooperate rather than compete 4. Social norms should encourage contact-parents Social Action:Helping Behaviour : Social Action:Helping Behaviour Altruistic behavior: helping people without personal gain Bystander effects: bystander increase leads to someone who will help decrease. Individualistic cultures: people feel less obligated to help other Collectivism: felt obligated to help others. Persuasion: Persuasion Persuasion is a form of social influence. It is the process of guiding oneself or another toward the adoption of an idea, attitude, or action by rational and symbolic (though not always logical) means. Cont…: Cont… Mirroring : Mirroring is the practice of mimicking the movements and body language of the person you are trying to persuade. Reciprocation : When someone does something for us, we feel compelled to return the favour. Congruence : We all try, subconsciously, to be consistent with previous actions. Timing : People are more likely to be agreeable and submissive when they're mentally fatigued. Conclusion: Conclusion Everything relates to psychology Evaluate and consider the context in which you live by incorporating what you learn in classroom The social sciences are about individual and society, thus examining the outside world is one accessible and inexpensive alternative that represents applying the university experience to everyday experience