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Premium member Presentation Transcript ECOCRITCISM FOR INTEGRATED SCIENCES: ECOCRITCISM FOR INTEGRATED SCIENCESCONTENTS: CONTENTS Introduction Definition Properties of noise Source of noise Effects of noise in human beings Causes of noise pollution Control of noise pollution General measures to control noise pollutionINTRODUTION: INTRODUTION The rapid growth of industrialisation , urbanisation , communication, and transport has led to noise pollution in big cities, affecting the common man in office, institutions and houses. Noise pollution is proportionately related to developmental and growth–oriented activities. It may also be caused due to unmindful activities of man.DEFINITIONS: DEFINITIONS The presence of unwanted sound or activities in the prevailing environmental is known as noise pollution. The unit of measurement of noise is decibel (dB) which is a logarithmic unit with base ( deci means 10 and bel has been taken from the name of the scientist Graham Bell )PowerPoint Presentation: In simple words, noise can be defined as a wrong sound , at a wrong place and at a wrong time . In other words, noise may be defined as an ‘ unwanted’ or ‘ undesirable’ sound dumped into the atmosphere without any regard to its adverse affects.PROPERTIES OF NOISE: PROPERTIES OF NOISE There are two properties of noise: Loudness or intensity and 2.Frequency1.Loudness of noise : 1.Loudness of noise It depends upon the amplitude of vibration which initiate the noise. The unit of measurement of intensity of sound is called ”decibel” abbreviated as DB. The zero on a scale is at the threshold of hearing the lowest sound pressure that can be heard. On this scale, 60 DB is considered a normal conservation intensity and 140 DB is the level at which sound becomes physically painful.2.Frequency: 2.Frequency The frequency refers to the rate of vibrations of sound and is measured in hertz (HZ). The frequency of sound is determined by the number of times the vibrating waves undulate per second. The slower the cycle, the lower the pitch. The pitch becomes higher as the cycle increases in number. Human ear can hear frequencies from 20 HZ to 20,000 HZ .NOISE LEVEL OF ACTIVITIES PERFORMED AROUND US IS AS FOLLOWS:: NOISE LEVEL OF ACTIVITIES PERFORMED AROUND US IS AS FOLLOWS: Activities Noise level Breathing 10 dB Wind in the tree 20 dB Loud conversion 60 dB Office noise 60dB Children playing 60-80 dB Radio music 50-60 dB Traffic noise 60-80 dB Heavy traffic 90-100 dB Motor cycle 105dB Thunderstorm 110dB Aircraft noise 90-120 dB Jet take-off 120-160 dB Space vehicle launch 140-170 dB Class room 30-40 dB Ordinary conversation 30 -60 dBDECIBEL LEVELS OF COMMON SOUNDS: DECIBEL LEVELS OF COMMON SOUNDS ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION DB Threshold of hearing 0 Rustle of leaves 10 Broadcasting studio 20 Bedroom at night 30 Library 40 Quiet office 50 Conversational speech(1m) 60 Average radio 70 Light traffic noise 74 Subway train 90 Symphony orchestra 100 Rock band 110 Aircraft takeoff 120 Threshold of pain 146Permitted noise levels: Permitted noise levels Ambient Noise Levels DB zone day-time night-time Silent zone 50 40 Residential zone 55 45 Commercial zone 65 55 Industrial zone 70 70PowerPoint Presentation: The population explosion has given a significant rise to noise level. Intensified noise affects our nervous system. Available records indicate noise pollution to be one of the major problems of modern life and the main negative factor affecting the quality of life. Noise is a stress which may be intense , repetitive and prolonged. In most developed countries , like the united states and Japan , noise is considered as a major source of pollution.SOURE OF NOISE POLLUTION: SOURE OF NOISE POLLUTION Noise pollution is not only the result of human activities , but sound from various source like construction sites, radios, microphones, automobiles, airplanes , railways, irrigation pumps ,etc…,also affect the environment. There are numerous sources of noise pollution but it can be broadly classified into two classes. Industrial sources Non- industrial source1.Industrial source of pollution: 1.Industrial source of pollution Such noise pollution is caused due to operation of industries set up around cities, particularly a large number of small works commonly found in residential area. Noise pollution is also caused by the manufacturing process in industries. In addition , vehicular movements such as cars, motors ,trucks , trains ,motor cycles, aircrafts rockets , defence equipments , explosions , etc…., are also major sources of noise pollution.2.Non -industrial sources of pollution: 2.Non -industrial sources of pollution Non- industrial sources of noise pollution include street noise due to hawkers and modern household gadgets , such as mixer-cum-grinder , vacuum cleaner , washing machines , coolers , air conditioners , etc., They enhance the levels sound and are potentially dangerous to health. The use of loud speakers and demonstrations , thunder , etc…, disturb the peace of the locality. Similarly , loudly played radios, stereos , televisions are some of other major sources of noise pollution.EFFECTS OF NOISE IN HUMAN BEINGS : EFFECTS OF NOISE IN HUMAN BEINGS Noise is generally harmful and , therefore, has direct physically effects upon humans. Noise damages a 1.Hearing loss. 2.Interferes on sleep. (effects) 3.Annoyance. 4.physiological effects.1.Hearing loss: 1.Hearing loss The most important effect of noise on man is loss of hearing. Our hearing declines due to age and exposure to noise. Hearing loss with age is called presbycusis and hearing loss from anthropogenic noise is called sociocusis . Long ago , occupational deafness was associated with working in a noisy environment. Ageing people in a quiet environment lose half as munch hearing as those in a noisy urban environment. Depending upon the noise level and the duration of exposure , an individual’s hearing can either be impaired or be lost completely and permanently.2.Effects on sleep: 2.Effects on sleep Noise affects sleep in many ways. It may prevent man from falling asleep as soon as derived , keep him from sleeping at all , wake him up in the night or alter the quality of sleep. The kind of noise , its intensity , duration and frequency affect sleep. In general ,each type of noise has a different threshold for awakening , Example : parents might be awakened by their baby crying ,but not by a siren. Several studies have revealed that 40 db sounds awaken light sleepers and that 60 db sounds awakens heavy sleepers. Regular and frequent sounds such as those due to traffic, are less likely to awaken a sleeper than intermittent sounds such as explosion.3.Annoyance: 3.Annoyance Noise is annoying and the annoyance produced by it is often related to the information it conveys or the emotion it arouses , rather than to its actual intensity. A sound of small intensity ,such as that from a dripping tap may becomes unbearable simply by repetition. Thus, whether sound is noisy, may depend upon many factors which are independent of its physical qualities. Unwanted noise creates communication disruption, frustration and indignities. people in noisy environments easily get tried and are irritable. It has been established by many studies that the number of accidents in noisy factories are higher than those in quiet ones. Many social conflicts and even lack of cooperation have been attributed to unwanted noise, which keeps individuals irritated , upset, imbalanced and fearful.4.Physiological Effects : 4.Physiological Effects Noise also produces physiological effects on circulation, respiration, digestion and even on the nervous system. Loud noise causes peptic ulcers, gastro-intestinal problems, allergy, nervousness, etc… Noise causes neurological reactions in children that make them irritable and hyperactive. This slows down the process of development of the child’s mental faculties. It has also been established that there is an increased incidence of birth defects, still births and unusually low weight among children born to mothers living near airports. Also , foetal development is affected if the expectant mother is subject to continuous noise stress during pregnancy. Loud and continuous noise causes rapid heart beating , raises the cholesterol level , resulting in the permanent constriction of blood vessels. This leads to high blood pressure and problems of circulation and even cardiac disturbances.CAUSES OF NOISE POLLUTION: CAUSES OF NOISE POLLUTION The causes of noise pollution can be divided into two categories. Natural Manmade1.NATURAL CAUSES OF NOISE POLLUTION: 1.NATURAL CAUSES OF NOISE POLLUTION Natural causes of noise pollution are air noise ,volcanoes , seas ,rivers , exchanging voices of living organs including man and mammals.2.MANMADE CAUSES OF NOISE POLLUTION: 2.MANMADE CAUSES OF NOISE POLLUTION The main causes of manmade noise pollution are caused by machine and modern equipment of various types , automobiles, trains , aero planes , religious, and social celebrations, construction works , speeches, loudspeakers, resounding buildings and structures .CONTROL OF NOISE POLLUTION: CONTROL OF NOISE POLLUTION Noise pollution is a serious threat to the life of man , wildlife and non-living things. Noise pollution has become a major problem not only in advanced countries but also in developing countries. There is a need to prevent and control the increasing noise pollution because its effects have far reaching consequences in destroying the eco-system and deteriorating the qualities of environment. Though , it is impossible to control such pollution completely at this stage , but with certain measures and strict actions, we can reduce noise pollution to its minimum. The ways and means to check and control noise pollution may be general as well as specificGeneral measures of control: General measures of control The following general measures can be adopted to control and prevent the occurrence of noise pollution: General awareness : This among the masses is an important step to control noise pollution . The people must be educated through films , newspapers , radio , tv , and other suitable media about the hazards of noise pollution . the user of loudspeakers and other sources of entertainment must realise the common feelings of the common feelings of the public in general to avoid hinderances due to noise. Noise reduction at source : The haphazard layouts of plants and machinery in factories unnecessarily produce a lot of noise. Such noise can be reduced throughout proper planning and methods of layout . machines should not be put into operation when there is no work . The noise level can also be decreased if repair and maintenance is made a regular feature.PowerPoint Presentation: 3.Screen the noise source : Noise pollution can be reduced if the noise source is screened by thick walls and other absorbing materials. For example : if the machinery has been installed in the open and unit is located near residential areas , same can be moved to the other side of the factory or machine can be operated in a covered shed. Similarly , other rubberised material and anti-vibration pads , etc…, can reduce noise level considerably. 4.Remove main source : The noise level can aslo be reduced if the source is removed to areas where the noise created is less likely to affect the surroundings . For example : Aerodromes should not be near populated area ,but outside the city. Similarly , if factory is situated near a locality , it can be shifted to another area.PowerPoint Presentation: 5 . Reduce traffic pollution : The Noise created by transport vehicles can be reduced by banning honking and streamlining a traffic flow besides ensuring good body and silencer designs. Restriction on heavy vehicles to ply on certain routes during the peak traffic hours will also reduce the effects of pollution. 6.Noise-free zones: Noise-free zones , if created alongside residential areas and certain institution , will reduce noise pollution to a large extend. such zones should be free of frequent movement of vehicles , construction works , use of loudspeaker, etc. nobody should be permitted to create noise in silent zones. Noise-free zones can easily be development around educational institution ,health institutions and places of worship .PowerPoint Presentation: 7.plantation: Plants are efficient absorbers of noise . In metropolitan cities and industrial towns , the development of green belts(vegetation)can have a great value in minimising sound and thus reducing noise level. 8.Engineering approach: a). Use of silencers, improvement in design, better installation for those motor vehicles and industrial, which create noise pollution above the low limit. b). Utilisation of loudspeakers of low frequency. c). Construction of walls in highly noise-polluted area. d). Plantation of trees and shrubs along the roads and railway lines , and around industrial complexes.PowerPoint Presentation: 9. Legislative approach: a). Coordination of the noise research and control efforts of all concerned department. b). Establishment of the criteria for concern about noise, efforts of noise on health and welfare. c). Identification of major sources of noise. d). Need for understanding, cooperation with political , social , administrative and religious leaders. e). separate noise pollution control act where standards for noise emission should be enforced.PowerPoint Presentation: References: WIKIPIEDIA MANAGING INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION Author : S C BHATIAPowerPoint Presentation: Presented by K.Mahalakshmi M.Anbazhagai G.JayagodiPowerPoint Presentation: THANK Q You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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