PowerPoint Presentation: HEROIN What is Heroin?: What is Heroin? Heroin is a synthetic opiate drug that is highly addictive. Heroin is processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seed pod of certain varieties of poppy plants. It is an illegal drug. Chemical Structure: Chemical Structure diacetylmorphine C21H23NO5 HEROIN’S DIFFERENT FORMS: : HEROIN’S DIFFERENT FORMS : Heroin comes in various forms, but pure heroin is a white powder with a bitter taste. Most illicit heroin comes in powder form in colours, ranging from white to dark brown. The colours are due to the impurities left from the manufacturing process or the presence of additives. “Black tar” is another form of heroin that resembles roofing tar or is hard like coal. Colour varies from dark brown to black. HISTORY: HISTORY Heroin is an opiate and was first manufactured back in 1874. Opiates are drugs manufactured from the opium poppy plant and others in this family include: Morphine Codeine Opium What Are Opioids/Heroin?: What Are Opioids /Heroin? Opioids are natural or synthetic substances that act on the brain’s opiate receptors. Opioids dull pain and relieve anxiety that comes from thinking about pain. People abuse opioids because they provide a feeling of euphoria (a “rush”). Opiates in the Human Body: Opiates in the Human Body Opiates stimulate a " pleasure system " in the brain. This system involves neurons in the midbrain that use the neurotransmitter called "dopamine." These midbrain dopamine neurons project to another structure called the nucleus accumbens which then projects to the cerebral cortex. This system is responsible for the pleasurable effects of heroin and for the addictive power of the drug. PowerPoint Presentation: Opiates elicit their powerful effects by activating opiate receptors that are widely distributed throughout the brain and body. Once an opiate reaches the brain, it quickly activates the opiate receptors that are found in many brain regions and produces an effect that correlates with the area of the brain involved. Two important effects produced by opiates, such as morphine , are pleasure (or reward) and pain relief. The brain itself also produces substances known as endorphins that activate the opiate receptors. Research indicates that endorphins are involved in many things, including respiration, nausea, vomiting, pain modulation, and hormonal regulation. Physical Effects of Opioids: Physical Effects of Opioids Taking opioids causes Constricted pupils Flushing of the skin Heavy feeling in the limbs The rush is followed by a confused, drowsy feeling that lasts several hours. Breathing and heart rate slow during this period . Heroin’s street Names: Heroin’s street Names Heroin has many street names including big H, blacktar , brown sugar, dope, horse, junk, mud, skag. The most common name for heroin is smack . After September 11th, heroin was even called Bin Laden, twin towers and WTC . Some other interesting street names are Bart Simpson, Aunt Hazel, birdie powder, Dr. Feelgood , dog food, Hong-yen, lemonade, Mexican mud, old Steve, Pangonadalot and witch hazel . Heroin: what are the effects? : Heroin: what are the effects? The immediate effects of heroin may last 3 to 5 hours. They are: Intense pleasure and a strong feeling of well-being. Confusion. Pain relief. Slowed breathing. Decreased blood pressure and heart rate. Constricted pupils. Dry mouth. Suppressed cough reflex. Reduced sexual urges. Drowsiness. Slurred and slow speech. Reduced co-ordination, nausea and vomiting. Most common method of use: Most common method of use smoking or inhaling the fumes (known as chasing) swallowing or snorting. The smoking of heroin has become more common. Injection(IV) is a very popular way that heroin is taken. By injecting the drug, rather than smoking or snorting it, the same effects are achieved with less heroin and faster. There is no safe way to use heroin. Research also shows that most people who start smoking heroin end up injecting it if they continue to use. The main reason people use heroin is for its euphoric effect - however people very quickly become dependent on it and getting off heroin is exceptionally difficult. Short-term effects: Short-term effects Faster Heartbeat/pulse rate Bloodshot eyes Dry mouth and Throat Impaired short term memory Altered sense of Time Reduced ability to do things requiring concentration, swift reactions and coordination Long term effects: Long term effects Collapsed Veins Infection of the heart lining and valves Liver Disease Pulmonary Complications dependence, constipation, menstrual irregularity and infertility in women, loss of sex drive in men, intense sadness and cognitive impairment. Overdose On Heroin: Overdose On Heroin Using a large quantity of heroin can cause death Shallow breathing Slow and difficult breathing Dry mouth Extremely small pupils, sometimes as small as the head of a pin ("pinpoint pupils") Tongue discoloration Low blood pressure Bluish-colored fingernails and lips Constipation Spasms of the stomach and intestinal tract Coma Delirium Disorientation Drowsiness Muscle Spasticity Weak pulse Dependency: Dependency The psychological dependency of heroin is very high. Effects include a sense of discomfort and loss of well being. The high number of relapse rates after withdrawal show that the psychological dependency is more of a problem than physical dependency. PowerPoint Presentation: Thanks for watching AND PLEASE REMEMBER : JUST SAY NO!!