Eco-Cement and Eco-Concrete

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ECO-CEMENT AND ECO-CONCRETE ENVIRONMENTALLY COMPATIBLE CEMENT AND CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY RAJESH:

ECO-CEMENT AND ECO-CONCRETE ENVIRONMENTALLY COMPATIBLE CEMENT AND CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY RAJESH

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ECO-CONCRETE A GREEN BUILDING MATERIAL The most popular buzzword in construction today has also pervaded almost every other aspect of modern life: green . Whether it is applied to building, living, or eating, everyone is attempting to reshape their habits in an environmentally-friendly manner.

HOW ECO CONCRETE IS MADE?:

HOW ECO CONCRETE IS MADE? Limestone is crushed to create cement powder. Also, since limestone is so common around the world, it can generally be harvested and processed locally, which reduces the amount of resources needed to transport the cement from the plant to the construction site.  In addition, cement can be made or partially comprised from waste products from various production processes such as fly ash, silica or slag

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How Concrete Reduces the Carbon Footprint Concrete acts as a natural insulator, or better said, helps to adjust to environmental conditions. Concrete retains heat, which can significantly help with homeowner's heating and cooling needs. It can absorb warmth from the sun in the winter months and retain the heat inside, while keeping in the cool air in the summer.

HOW CONCRETE REDUCES THE CARBON FOOTPRINT  :

HOW CONCRETE REDUCES THE CARBON FOOTPRINT One of the most popular features of concrete is its durability, which is also one of the main factors in its being a green building material. Sustainable building and living emphasizes long-term solutions and products over cheap, short-term products that will be thrown away and add to the waste management issues that already exist. Concrete can last for many times longer than conventional building materials, such as wood or drywall. It is very resistant to common causes of deterioration in homes such as insect activity, rot, rust and even fire. Overall, concrete can offer many homeowners the sustainable option they want, while giving them the cost effectiveness and structural strength they require. Contractors, meanwhile, may find that they are already employing more green business practices than they had ever imagined.

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The rising trend to build more efficiently with less impact on the environment has spurred a lot of interest in the unique qualities of concrete. Green building includes reducing waste from products used, finding non-toxic product alternatives, and using recycled and local materials. These environmentally-conscious choices are readily available when designing and building with concrete. Below are details of the eco-friendly strategies concrete offers for sustainable and environmentally friendly living Green concrete floors Green concrete countertops Green concrete homes ECO-FRIENDLY CONCRETE BENEFITS

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Top Reasons to Go Green with Concrete Floor s Design Versatility Energy Efficiency Easier Breathing Economy Durability and Resource Conservation

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Green Concrete Countertops Because of its low impact on the environment, concrete is one of the greenest countertop materials you can use.

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Green Concrete Homes The Healthy House Institute reports that indoor air pollution is the cause of about 50% of illnesses. Common sources of this pollution include outgassing from toxic paints and finishes, carpeting, manufactured wood products containing glues high in formaldehyde, dust mites, mold spores, mildew, and some cleaning products. Concrete floors, stained with nontoxic pigments, are a healthier alternative to carpeting because they do not emit harmful VOCs and are easy to sweep clean. In fact, VOC emissions from concrete building products are much lower than those for most other building materials, according to PCA. The use of natural lime-cement plaster wall finishes and concrete countertops can also significantly reduce total VOC concentrations inside a home.

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Key Technology in Eco-cement Incinerator ash generally also contains a high concentration of chlorides and a small amount of heavy metals. Therefore, decomposition, removal, or enclosure of these substances is the key to the success of this project. The metals vaporize in the form of chlorides through the burning process and are caught as kiln dust in the bag filter. The heavy metals are then extracted from the dust through the metal recovery process and delivered to a smelter for refining. This makes the eco-cement process a complete recycling system for municipal and industrial wastes.

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The targets in development of eco-cement As much as 50% of the raw materials have to be replaced by incinerator ash or other waste materials such as sewage sludge. The cement has to have general wide use. Both the manufacturing process and the products have to be environmentally-friendly. The entire process has to be a complete recycling system.

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Raw mix and incinerator ash Incinerator ash composition Major components(%) ig.loss Sio2 AL2O3 Fe2O3 Cao Mgo So3 Na2O K2O Cl 11.0 22.9 19.7 5.6 30.4 4.8 2.1 3.3 2.6 8.5 Minor components (%, ppm) Tio2 P2O5 Zno Cuo Cr As Cd Hg Pb F Cn Pcb 0.9 1.8 0.6 0.6 438ppm 55 11 3.5 311 120 Nd Nd

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Typical Mix Design of Raw Meal (%) Type of cement Incinerator Limestone Clay Ferro M. Alumina Portland cement type 58.2 40 1.3 0.5 - Rapid-hardening 52.2 45 2.2 0.3 0.3 Chemical composition(%) Composition of eco-cement Type of cement ig.loss Sio3 Al203 Fe2O3 Cao Mgo SO3 Na20 K20 Cl Portland cement type 0.6 19.1 8.1 4.5 62.7 1.4 3.7 0.05 0.00 0.04 Rapid-hardening type 0.8 15.5 11.0 1.9 58.5 1.4 8.8 0.60 0.00 1.00 NPC 0.6 22.2 5.1 3.0 63.8 1.4 2.0 0.30 0.20 0.00

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Mineral composition(%) Type of cement C3S C2S C3A C11A7.Cacl2 C4AF Caso4 Portland cement type 49 12 14 - 13 7.7 Rapid-hardening type 44 11 - 17 8 15.0 NPC 56 19 9 - 9 3.4

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Project of eco-cement 1991 Starting the eco-cement project 1994 50ton/day Test Plant Operation 2001.4 350ton/day (95,000ton/year) 1stCommercial Eco-cement plant 90,000ton/year of incinarotor ash from 2,500,000 people can be treated in Ichihara Plant (Chiba Prefecture) 2004 800ton/day (200,000ton/year) 2ndCommercial Eco-cement plant started to construction 2006 2ndPlant will start to operation.

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cement industry has the potential to make the best use of waste and to purify the environment. This eco-cement and concrete technology is divided into four specific objectives. i)Utilizing waste materials as alternative fuel and raw materials (AFR). An example includes “ eco-cement ” developed by Taiheiyo Cement Corporation in Japan. ii) Purifying the environment with concrete photocatalyst road , whereby TiO2 decomposes NOx with ultraviolet rays. iii) Encouraging natural flora and fauna, with bio-sowed Concrete technology. iv) Reducing the heat island phenomenon in urban areas through sowed concrete technology .

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1.Waste Material (AFR) Use in Cement Industry AFR A lternative F uels and R aw Materials

IMPACT OF CO2ISSUE FOR CEMENT INDUSTRIES :

IMPACT OF CO2ISSUE FOR CEMENT INDUSTRIES % fuel CO2 by sector cement in cl process CO2 ENERGY=40 TRANSPORT=20 PRODUCTION=17 RESIDENTIAL=15 CEMENT=5 World cement average: 0.8 to 1.0 ton CO2/t- cement Global cement industry:5% of global CO2 emission Cement industry =largest source of manufacturing industry

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Air pollution of NOx by cars has become a seriomolecules on the surface when the ultraviolet rays light (sun light) the TiO2photocatalyst. Rapidly NOx in the air is oxidized into nitric acid by active oxygen molecules. us problem. The TiO2 photocatalyst creates active oxygen 2.Purifying the environment with concrete photocatalyst road, whereby TiO2 decomposes NOx with ultraviolet rays

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Application of photocatalyst TiO2 on wall Application of photocatalyst TiO2 on road

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3.Encouraging natural flora and fauna, with bio-sowed concrete technology Background Ministry of construction of Japan changed a law concerning to management of river for the benefit of amenity of the river landscape in 1997. The ministry is focusing on the improvement and maintenance of the river environment for natural flora and fauna in additionto previous mandates of flood control and forestry conservation.

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4.Reducing the heat island phenomenon in urban areas through concrete technology sowed

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Field of Porous Concrete Application • Sowed concrete • Permeable concrete • Insulation block • Humidity control block • Photocatalyst pavement • Crab libable sea wall • Fish bank, Sea grass bed

PERVIOUS CONCRETE :

PERVIOUS CONCRETE Essentially, pervious concrete is a structural concrete pavement with a large volume (15 to 35 percent) of interconnected voids. Like conventional concrete, its made from a mixture of cement, coarse aggregates, and water. However, it contains little or no sand, which results in a porous open-cell structure that water passes through readily

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How Pervious Concrete Works When pervious concrete is used for paving, it can take in storm water at a rapid rate of 3 to 5 gallons per minute per square foot of surface area, which exceeds the flow rate needed to prevent runoff in most rain events. The rainwater may be stored in a coarse gravel layer underneath the pavement or allowed to percolate into the underlying soil. Because the pavement itself acts as a retention area, it helps to prevent much of the polluted runoff that normally occurs with impervious pavements. The filtration process also helps to purify the water. As the water percolates through the open cells of the pavement, aerobic bacteria in the voids help to break down harmful pollutants and chemicals

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Role of Cement and Concrete The20th century has been the century of concrete. Throughout the 20th century, concrete has contributed to human society as the basic construction material. Now, towards the 21st century , the cement industry will become a greater contributor to society by taking on a second role as an environmental system manager . The cement and concrete industry will also provide a solution to municipal and industrial waste problems and to manage sound environment.

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