Abraham Lincoln: The Agriculturist

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Abraham Lincoln & Agriculture : 

Abraham Lincoln & Agriculture Taylorville High School Ag. Business Class

Lincoln’s Life : 

Lincoln’s Life Born February 12, 1809 near Hodgenville, Kentucky to Thomas and Nancy Lincoln in a log cabin on the family farm. Moved to Penny County, Indiana in 1816. Lincoln and his father built their log cabin that they lived in. In 1830 the Lincoln family moved to public land in Macon County, Illinois.

Lincoln’s Childhood Farms : 

Lincoln’s Childhood Farms Kentucky Farm Named Sinking Spring Farm. Lived on 30 acres, only 14 could be cultivated. Indiana Farm 160 acres of marshy land After 7 years, 10 acres were corn, 5 of wheat, and 2 of oats.

Lincoln on his own : 

Lincoln on his own In 1831, his father moved the family to Coles County. At 22 Lincoln set down the Sangamon river in a canoe on his own to New Salem, Illinois. Lincoln was hired to take goods from New Salem to New Orleans on flatboats by river. Lincoln only received 18 months of formal education, but was an avid reader. Married in 1842 to Mary Todd. Abraham & Mary had 4 children Only one lived to be an adult.

Early Jobs : 

Early Jobs After arriving to Illinois Lincoln worked in a store and managed a mill. Lincoln was chosen as a captain for a volunteer company for the Blackhawk war in 1832, but never saw battle. When he returned to New Salem, the store he had part owned failed, leaving him with the burden of debt. Lincoln then became a surveyor and a postmaster. Worked to improve education and study law during this time.

Early Politics : 

Early Politics In 1832 held an unsuccessful campaign for Illinois General Assembly. Won a seat into the State Legislature in 1834. Lincoln taught himself law and was admitted to the bar in 1837. At this time he moved to Springfield to practice law with John T. Stuart. Lincoln became a successful lawyer, with a reputation as a adversary during cross examination and during his closing arguments. Began to practice law with William Herndon in 1841.

Politics : 

Politics Elected to U.S. House of Representatives in 1846 for one term. Returned to Springfield at the conclusion of his term. Began to make a living traveling on horseback from county to county working on the bar. Practiced law until 1854 when he returned to politics. Chosen as nominee for the Republican party in the 1860 election. Won presidential election in 1860, then re-elected in 1864.

Lincoln The Agriculturist : 

Lincoln The Agriculturist

September 30, 1859Speech to Wisconsin State Agricultural Society : 

September 30, 1859Speech to Wisconsin State Agricultural Society

Purpose of Speech : 

Purpose of Speech His only speech devoted to Agriculture Pointed out the importance of Ag Education Acknowledged that agriculture fairs bring people together.

Quotes from Speech : 

Quotes from Speech “ Agricultural fairs are becoming an institution of the country. They are use for in more ways than one. They bring us together, and thereby make us better acquainted and better friends than we other wise would be”

Quotes from Speech : 

Quotes from Speech “ But the chief use of agriculture fairs is to aid in improving the great calling of agriculture in all its departments and minute divisions; to make mutual exchange of agricultural discovery, information, and knowledge; so that, at the end, all may know everything which may have been know to but one or but few, at the beginning; to bring together especially all which is supposed to be not generally known because of recent discovery or invention.”

Quotes from Speech : 

Quotes from Speech “ Men, with their families – wives, sons and daughters – work for themselves on their farms, in their houses and in their shops, taking the whole product to themselves, and asking no favors of capital on the one hand, nor of hirelings or slaves on the other.”

Quotes from Speech : 

Quotes from Speech “But now, especially in these free States, nearly all are educated -- quite too nearly all, to leave the labor of the uneducated, in any wise adequate to the support of the whole. It follows from this that henceforth educated people must labor.” “Otherwise, education itself would become a positive and intolerable evil. No country can sustain, in idleness, more than a small percentage of its numbers. The great majority must labor at something productive. From these premises the problem springs, "How can labor and education be the most satisfactory combined?”

May 15, 1862 Establishment of Dept. of Agriculture“ Agriculture Act” : 

May 15, 1862 Establishment of Dept. of Agriculture“ Agriculture Act”

United States Department of Agriculture : 

United States Department of Agriculture Established an independent department, headed by a Commissioner, without Cabinet status. Called the “peoples department” by Lincoln USDA is the department responsible for developing and executing policy on farming, agriculture, and food. Tries to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade, work toward food safety, protect natural resources, aid rural communities, and end hunger everywhere.

USDA Today : 

USDA Today As of June of 2007, 105,778 were employed by the USDA. This years budget is set for $95 billion.

May 20, 1862Homestead Act : 

May 20, 1862Homestead Act

Homestead Act Specifications : 

Homestead Act Specifications Established a three-fold homestead acquisition process. Any U.S. citizen, or intended citizen, that had never borne arms against the government could file an application and lay claim to 160 acres of surveyed Government land. Homesteader had to live on land and improve it by building a 12 by 14 dwelling and growing crops for 5 years. After the 5 years homesteader could file for deed of title by submitting proof of residency and the required improvements to local land office.

Homestead Process : 

Homestead Process Filing an application Improving the land Filing for deed of title

Claiming Land : 

Claiming Land On January 1, 1863 418 citizens filed claims for land . Many more pioneers followed, populating the land, building towns and schools, creating new states from the territories. The schools became the focal point for community life, serving as churches, polling places and social gathering locations. By 1934, 72 years after the act was established, over 1.6 million applications were process, and more than 270 million acres were passed into the hands of individuals. That is 10% of all U.S. lands.

Application For Land : 

Application For Land

Proof of Improvements : 

Proof of Improvements

Certificate of Eligibility : 

Certificate of Eligibility

Repeal of Homestead Act : 

Repeal of Homestead Act Passage of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 repealed the Homestead Act in the 48 contiguous sates, but granted a 10 year extension on claims in Alaska.

July 1, 1862 Pacific Railway Act of 1862 : 

July 1, 1862 Pacific Railway Act of 1862 “AN ACT to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes."

Purpose of Act : 

Purpose of Act To aid construction of a rail road and telegraph line from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean To secure the Government use of the railway for Postal and Military purposes.

Pacific Railway Act of 1862 : 

Pacific Railway Act of 1862 Authorized both the making of extensive land grants in the Western United States, and the issuance of 30-year, 6% U.S. Government Bonds, to the Union Pacific Railroad and Central Pacific Railroad (later the Southern Pacific Railroad) companies in order to construct a transcontinental railroad. Granted 10 square miles of public land on each side of the tracks, every other section (square mile), for every mile laid except where railroads ran through cities and crossed rivers.

Pacific Railway Act of 1862 : 

Pacific Railway Act of 1862 The Bonds were authorized by Sec. 5 to be issued at the rate of $16,000 per mile of tracked grade completed West of the designated base of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (CPRR) and East of the designated base of the Rocky Mountains (UPRR). It also provided in Sec. 11 that the issuance of bonds "shall be treble the number per mile" (to $48,000) for tracked grade completed over and within the two mountain ranges (but limited to a total of three hundred miles at this rate), and doubled (to $32,000) per mile of completed grade laid between the two mountain ranges.

Effect on Area : 

Effect on Area Railroad expansion provided new avenues of migration into the American interior. The railroads sold portions of their land to arriving settlers at a handsome profit. Lands closest to the tracks drew the highest prices, because farmers and ranchers wanted to locate near railway stations.

July 2,1862Morrill Land Grant College Act : 

July 2,1862Morrill Land Grant College Act “Donating public lands to the several States and Territories which may provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts.” Justin S. Morrill

Purpose of grant… : 

Purpose of grant… “without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactic, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the States may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life”

Morrill Land Grant College Act : 

Morrill Land Grant College Act Introduced by Senator Justin S. Morrill of Vermont Each eligible state received a total of 30,00 acres of federal land for each member of congress the state had. The land or proceeds from it’s sale were to be used for establishing and funding educational institutions teach military tactics, as well as engineering and agriculture. Some states chose to give the land to existing institutions. If a state was scare on land, they could choose a site from another state to fund the land. New York sold timber land in Wisconsin to fund Cornell University.

Results of Act : 

Results of Act 17,400,000 acres of land were given. Yielded a collective endowment of $7.55 million. Nearly all Land-Grant collages are public.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign : 

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Founded under the Morrill Land Grant College Act Originally named Illinois Industrial University in 1867. Now holds 286 buildings on 1,468 acres.

Slide 36: 

Our hats are off to Abraham Lincoln for all he did for Agriculture.

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