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US-Russian Scientific Conference: “MEAT PRODUCTS SAFETY - FROM FARM TO TABLE” The V.M.Gorbatov All-Russian Meat Research Institute, Moscow, April 18-20, 2006 г.:

US-Russian Scientific Conference : “MEAT PRODUCTS SAFETY - FROM FARM TO TABLE” The V.M.Gorbatov All-Russian Meat Research Institute , Moscow , April 18-20 , 2006 г. John Unruh, Kansas State University, USA Meat Product Quality Improvements in the Last Twenty Years

What is Meat Quality?:

What is Meat Quality? -a degree of excellence -a distinguishing feature -an improvement in value

PowerPoint Presentation:

Sensory Physical Processing Other Product Traits Production/Management Value Food Safety Quality

Sensory :

Sensory Tenderness Flavor and aroma Juiciness Texture Color

Physical Processing:

Physical Processing Color Marbling (IMF) Firmness pH Water-Holding Capacity Composition Shear force Freedom of Defects Yield Composition Water-holding capacity Storage/Shelf-life

Expanded Quality:

Expanded Quality Taste Convenience Value Health/Nutrition Food Safety Wholesomeness Consistency Preparation Recipe-friendly Portion control Brands/Source Packaging Animal Welfare Production Traits Management Conditions Verification

Meat Quality Related Presentations at Reciprocal Meat Conferences (AMSA, 1983-1989):

Meat Quality Related Presentations at Reciprocal Meat Conferences (AMSA, 1983-1989) Consumer Demand for Meat - Declining per capita consumption - Excess fat - Diet/Health - Convenience (Microwave cookery, Pre-cooked meats)

Meat Quality Related Presentations at Reciprocal Meat Conferences (AMSA, 1983-1989):

Meat Quality Related Presentations at Reciprocal Meat Conferences (AMSA, 1983-1989) Lean Meat Production - Genetic (Breed) selection for lean beef - Value-based Marketing Pork Value Program, Branded Beef Growth Modifiers Beta-Agonists, Somatotropin - Fat Reduction and Meat Quality

Meat Quality Related Presentations at Reciprocal Meat Conferences (AMSA, 1983-1989):

Meat Quality Related Presentations at Reciprocal Meat Conferences (AMSA, 1983-1989) Muscle Properties and Meat Tenderness - Skeletal Muscle Proteins - Collagen Properties - Muscle pH and temperature - Endogenous Proteases (Calpain, Calpastatin)

Meat Quality Related Presentations at Reciprocal Meat Conferences (AMSA, 1983-1989):

Meat Quality Related Presentations at Reciprocal Meat Conferences (AMSA, 1983-1989) Meat Processing - Vacuum package technology - Modified Atmosphere Packaging - Mechanically separated meat - Centralized Packaging - Hot processing - Phosphates - Meat Batters

Meat Quality Related Presentations at Reciprocal Meat Conferences (AMSA, 1983-1989):

Meat Quality Related Presentations at Reciprocal Meat Conferences (AMSA, 1983-1989) Meat Evaluation / Automation - Automated Grading - Objective measures of Quality and Composition - Universal Product Code Scanning - Robotics

Meat Quality Related Presentations at Reciprocal Meat Conferences (AMSA, 1983-1989):

Meat Quality Related Presentations at Reciprocal Meat Conferences (AMSA, 1983-1989) Food Safety - Meat Spoilage - Salmonella - Emerging Pathogens

Pre-Harvest Quality Continued Emphasis:

Pre-Harvest Quality Continued Emphasis Genetics Metabolic Modifiers Diet

Pre-Harvest Quality Emerging Emphasis:

Pre-Harvest Quality Emerging Emphasis Welfare/Handling/Transportation Microbial Interventions Traceability/ID/Source Verification Biosecurity

Post-Harvest Quality Continued Emphasis:

Post-Harvest Quality Continued Emphasis Evaluation (Muscle Profiling, Automation) Case Ready (Centralized Packaging) Packaging Systems Convenience Product Development

Post-Harvest Quality Emerging Emphasis:

Post-Harvest Quality Emerging Emphasis HACCP / Process Control Microbial Interventions Biosecurity

PowerPoint Presentation:

Genetics Production Harvest Evaluation Processing Marketing Quality Chain

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Genetics Production Harvest Evaluation Processing Production Targets Commodity High Quality Low Fat (Lean) Certified Process Verified “Natural” Organic

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Genetics Production Harvest Evaluation Processing Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs) for Beef Cattle Breeds 71 – 80’s (Performance) 87 – 90’s (Carcass); 95 – 00’s (Ultrasound) 04 - (Tenderness) Amer. Angus Assoc., 2006

PowerPoint Presentation:

Genetics Production Harvest Evaluation Processing DNA Marker-Assisted Selection Marbling Calpain Calpastatin Leptin

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Genetics Production Harvest Evaluation Processing Metabolic Modifiers Castation / Immunocastration Estrogenic and Androgenic Implants Somatotropin Beta-Agonists

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Genetics Production Harvest Evaluation Processing Diet Energy Density (Concentrate, Grass/Roughage) Dietary Fatty Acids (Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Omega-3) Minerals (Selenium, Magnesium, Chromium) Vitamins (E, D, A)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Genetics Production Harvest Evaluation Processing Stunning and Sticking Chill Rate/Glycolysis Blast Chilling (Pork), Electrical Stimulation (Beef) HACCP/Multi-Hurdle Interventions Steam Pasteurization, Steam-Vacuum, Lactoferrin, Hot water rinse, Acid rinse, Knife trimming

PowerPoint Presentation:

Genetics Production Harvest Evaluation Processing Grading/Classification Sorting and Product Designation Retail (Fresh, Ready-to-Eat, Heat and Eat, Meal Replacement); Food Service; Export

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Genetics Production Harvest Evaluation Processing Value Enhancement Aging Blade Tenderization Enhancement Injection Marinades Cutting and Portioning Cooking Grinding

PowerPoint Presentation:

Genetics Production Harvest Evaluation Processing Packaging Vacuum, Modified Atmosphere Packaging High Ox, Ultra-Low Ox, Ultra-Low Ox (CO) Cold Chain Management HACCP/Microbial Interventions Irradiation, Clean Room Technologies, Antioxidants, Antimicrobials, Flavor/Water-binding ingredients

PowerPoint Presentation:

Genetics Production Harvest Evaluation Processing Marketing Traceability Feedback Quality Chain Tracking

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Selected References: Acuff, G.R., A. Castillo and J.W. Savell. 1996. Hot water rinses. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. 49:125-131. Anderson, P.T., 2000. Metabolic by which metabolic modifiers alter growth rate and carcass composition of meat animals. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. 53:31-35. Belk, K.E., J.A. Scanga, A.M. Wyle, D.M. Wulf, J.D. Tatum, J.O. Reagan, and G.C. Smith. 2000. The use of video image analysis and instrumentation to predict beef palatability. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. 53:10-15. Berg, E.P. 2000. Instrumentation to measure pork quality. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. 53:16-20. Bertrand, J.K., R.D. Green, W.O. Herring, and D.W. Moser. 2001. Genetic evaluation of beef carcasses. J. Anim. Sci. 79(E. Suppl.):E190-E200. Brooks, S.W. 2002. Operational risk management. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. 55:11-14. Brown, H.G. 2003. Microbial problems, causes, and solutions in meat and poultry processing operations. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. 56:89-93. Bruning-Fann, C.S. 2002. Lessons learned from the foot and mouth disease outbreak in the United Kingdom and our national plan in the event of such an outbreak. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. 55:7-9. Caperna, T.J., I. Fernandez-Figares, N.C. Steele, and R.G. Campbell. Emerging metabolic modifiers. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. 53:57-62. Dikeman, M.E. 2000. Effects of metabolic modifiers used in animal production on meat quality. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. 53:36-56. Dikeman, M.E. E.J. Pollak, Z. Zang, D.W. Moser, C.A. Gill, and E.A. Dressler. 2005. Phenotypic ranges and relationships among carcass and meat palatability traits for fourteen cattle breeds, and heritabilities and expected progeny differences for Warner-Bratzler shear force in three beef cattle breeds. J.Anim. Sci. 83:2461-2467. Dorsa, W.J. 1996. decontamination of beef carcasses by commercial steam-vacuum. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. 49:114-120. Drouillard, J.S. 2004. Effects of Flaxseed andother dietary lipid sources on quality and sensory attributes of beef. Reciprocal Meat Conf., Amer. Meat Sci. Assn., Savoy, IL. Dunshea, F.R., D.N. D’Souza, D.W. Pethick, G.S. Harper, and R.D. Warner. 2005. Effects of dietary factors and other metabolic modifiers on quality and nutritional value of meat. Meat Sci. 71:8-38. Eilert, S.J. 2005. New packaging technologies for the 21 st century. Meat Sci. 71:122-127. Ellis, M., and F.K. McKeith. 1999. Non-ruminant nutrition and meat quality. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. 52:15-23. Koohmaraie, M., T.M. Arthur, J.M. Bosilevac, M. Guerini, S.D. Shackelford, and T.L. Wheeler. 2005. Post-harvest interventions to reduce/eliminate pathogens in beef. Meat Sci. 71:79-91. Haworth, J.E. 2003. Natural antioxidants review. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. 56:95-98. Hopkins, D.L. 2004. Tenderizing mechanisms:Mechanical. Pages 1355-1363 in Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences, Vol. 3. W.K. Jensen, C. Devine, and M. Dikeman, ed. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford, UK. Hopkins, D.L., and E. Huff-Lonergan. 2004. Tenderizing mechanisms:Chemical and enzymatic. Pages 11363-1369 in Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences, Vol. 3. W.K. Jensen, C. Devine, and M. Dikeman, ed. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford, UK. James, S.J., and C. James. 2004. Meat marketing:Cold chain. Pages 691-696 in Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences, Vol. 1. W.K. Jensen, C. Devine, and M. Dikeman, ed. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford, UK. James, S.J., and C. James. 2004. Meat marketing:Transport of meat and meat products. Pages 696-702 in Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences, Vol. 2. W.K. Jensen, C. Devine, and M. Dikeman, ed. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford, UK.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Laegreid, W.W., and N. Bauer. 2004. Probiotics for pathogen control. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf., Amer. Meat Sci. Assn., Savoy, IL. Loneragan, G.H., and M.M. Brashears. 2005. Pre-harvest interventions to reduce carriage of E. coli O157 by harvest-ready feedlot cattle. Meat Sci. 72-78. Mancini, R.A., and M.C. Hunt. 2005. Current research in meat color. Meat Sci. 71:100-121. Mongomery, J.L., and M.F. Miller. 2004. The impact of Vitamin D on meat quality and palatability. Reciprocal Meat Conf., Amer. Meat Sci. Assn., Savoy, IL. Morgan, J.B., J.C. Brooks, K.R. Payne, L.L. Locke, and F.K. Ray. 2002. Current research in case-ready. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. 55:69-72. Navajas, E.A., and G. Simm. 2004. Animal breeding and genetics:DNA markers and marker-assisted selection. Pages 19-27 in Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences, Vol. 1. W.K. Jensen, C. Devine, and M. Dikeman, ed. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford, UK. Olson, D. 1998. Meat Irradiation and meat safety. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. 51:149-152. Phebus, R.K., A.L. Nutsch, and D.E. Schafer. 1996. Laboratory and commercial evaluation of a steam pasteurization process for reduction of bacterial populations on beef carcass surfaces. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. 49:121-124. Pohlman, F.W., and K.S. McElyea. 2003. Postharvest pathogen interventions for meat and poultry. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. 56:39-47. Schwagele, F. 2005. Traceability from a European perspective. Meat Sci. 71:164-173. Smith, G.C., J.D. Tatum, K.E. Belk, J.A. Scanga, T. Grandin, and J.N. Sofos. 2005. Traceability from a US perspective. Meat Sci. 71:174-193. Sosnicki, A.A., E.R. Wilson, E.B. Sheiss, and A. deVries. 1998. Is there a cost effective way to produce high-quality pork? Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. 51:19-27. Tatum, J.D., K.E. Belk, and G.C. Smith. 1998. Beef Quality Systems: Application of TQM principles to produce tender beef. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. 51:28-34. Upmann, M., and P. Jakob. 2004. HACCP and self-regulation. Pages 413-423 in Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences, Vol. 2. W.K. Jensen, C. Devine, and M. Dikeman, ed. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford, UK. Van Donkersgoed, J. 2004. Current research and development for vaccination against E. coli O157:H7. Van Wijk, H.J., D.J.G. Arts, J.O. Matthew, and M. Webster. 2005. Genetic parameters for carcass composition and pork quality estimated in a commercial production chain. J. Anim.Sci. 83:324-333. Von Seggern, D.D., C.R. Calkins, D.D. Johnson, J.E. Brickler, B.L. Gwartney. 2005. Muscle profiling: Characterizing the muscles of the beef chuck and round. Meat Sci. 71:39-51. Wheeler, T.L., S.D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie. 1999. MARC beef classification. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. 52:53-55. Selected Web Sites: www.angus.org, How to read results-definitions, Amer. Angus Assoc.,St Joseph, MO. www.ams.usda.gov, Agriculture Marketing Service, USDA, Washington, DC. www.beef.org, National Cattlemen’s Association, Centennial, CO www.grandin.com, Livestock Behavior, Design of Facilities and Humane Slaughter, Dr. Temple Grandin’s Web Page, Ft. Collins, CO. www.porkboard.org, National Pork Board, Des Moines, IA.

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