transformer cooling

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PROTECTION OF TRANSFORMER BY EFFICIENT COOLING AND VOLTAGE CONTROL THROUGH ‘BESS’ arduinowireless animatronic hand :

PROTECTION OF TRANSFORMER BY EFFICIENT COOLING AND VOLTAGE CONTROL THROUGH ‘BESS ’ arduinowireless animatronic hand UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF: BY: ARNAV K B PROF. K SHINGH

Contents:

Contents Introduction Transformers & its energy losses Temperature rise in transformers Methods of cooling Description of BESS Block diagram representation Applications

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION This project is about transformer’s protection and cooling. As the heating of transformers have many unwanted effects regarding their functionality and efficiency. Continuous increasing temperature harms winding, insulation as well as decreases the efficiency of transformer. To keep the temperature maintained, different kind of cooling protections are used. Here in this project, a way of forced cooling by transformer’s oil is taken as objective. This not only helps in cooling also increases the insulation capacity of transformer.

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. Here a VSC (voltage source controller) is used for the protection of transformer’s secondary winding. As an induction motor needs a high starting torque & due to which it needs a high current from source, thus if it is connected or coupled with a transformer it harms its secondary winding as the over current or load fluctuation. As while operating a induction motor on continuous switching, problem regarding surge current occurs. As this is harmful to secondary of the transformer, to stabilize the system we use a BESS (battery energy storage system) and a capacitor bank based VSC. Which overcome the repetition of the surge of current which occurs during operation of the induction motor.

TRANSFORMER:

TRANSFORMER A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively conductors - the transformer's coils. A varying current in the primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying field through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) , or voltage , in the secondary winding. This effect is called inductive coupling

ENERGY Losses IN TRANSFORMER:

ENERGY Losses IN TRANSFORMER An ideal transformer would have no energy losses, and would be 100% efficient. In practical transformers energy is dissipated in the windings, core, and surrounding structures. Losses in transformers (excluding associated circuitry) vary with load current, and may be expressed as “No-load" or “Full-load" loss.

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. Winding resistance dominates load losses. Whereas Hysteresis and Eddy current losses contribute to over 99% of the no-load loss . Transformer losses are divided into losses in the windings, termed copper loss , and those in the magnetic circuit, termed iron loss .

Temperature rise in transformers :

Temperature rise in transformers When transformers are operated at their capacity limit, the key variable to monitor is the internal or oil temperature due to heat. This task is complicated by the problem that the temperature may not be uniform throughout the inside of the transformer & damage can be done by just a local hot spot. Under extreme heat, the oil can break down , sustain an electric arc, or even burn, and a transformer may explode.

Different Transformer Cooling methods are:

Different Transformer Cooling methods are As cooling is provided by the circulation of the oil. Air Cooling For Dry Type Transformers – This type of Transformer Cooling method applies to dry type transformer of small rating. Air natural Type (A.N.) Air Forced type (A.F.) Cooling For Oil Immersed Transformers – This type of cooling is used for oil filled transformers . Oil Natural Air Forced Type (O.N.A.F.) Oil Forced Air Natural Type (O.F.A.N.) Oil Forced Air Forced Type (O.F.A.F.) Oil immersed Water Cooling

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. In the fig. above – Hot oil from core and coils rises to the top of the tank above the inlet to the radiator. Cool oil from the radiator sinks to the bottom of the radiator through the outlet and into the bottom of the core and coils. This process is called T hermo-siphoning

BESS - Battery energy storage system :

BESS - Battery energy storage system Although electricity cannot be stored, the energy can be converted into and stored in different forms - electromagnetic, electrochemical, kinetic or as potential energy. Based on these energy forms various energy storage technologies have been developed or are under development: • Battery • Super Capacitor • Flywheel • Superconducting Magnetic Energy storage (SMES)

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. Energy storage is playing an increasingly important role in the electrical power system thanks to the development and advance in various energy storage and power electronics technologies in recent years. On the other hand, the increase in electrical load, the tendency to operate the power system closer to its limit and associated reliability issues are driving the development of energy storage technologies and their applications

PowerPoint Presentation:

BLOCK DIAGRAM REPRESENTATION OF THE PROJECT

Applications of bess. based vsc. :

Applications of bess . based vsc . It can be used as load balancer. Also as load leveler. VSC can also be used as Harmonic eliminator.

FACTS AND IMPORTANCE OF TRANSFORMER COOLING   :

FACTS AND IMPORTANCE OF TRANSFORMER COOLING • Needed to maintain and regulate the proper cooling for the core and coil assembly of the transformer. • Heat is directly related to moisture • Paper insulation is destroyed by heat and moisture • The life expectancy of a transformer is largely based on moisture and heat management.

APPLICATION OF THIS SYSTEM :

APPLICATION OF THIS SYSTEM This type of transformer cooling as well as protection system can be used in small scale industries , at captive power plants. Etc..

Thank you:

Thank you

PowerPoint Presentation:

ramp Ramp function, e.g. ramp(1#2#1#x) The first value is the start value, the second is the end value and the third is the height. ramp2 Reverse ramp function, e.g. ramp2(1#2#1#x) The first value is the start value, the second is the end value and the third is the height

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