comparative management

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COMPARATIVE MANAGEMENT

United States Management: 

United States Management Planning ! Primarily short-term orientation ! Individual decision-making ! Involvement of a few people in making and “selling: the decision to people with divergent values ! Decisions are initiated at the top and flow down ! Fast decision-making; slow implementation requiring compromise, often resulting in suboptimal decisions

Japanese Management: 

Japanese Management Planning : ! Long-term orientation ! Collective decision-making (ring) with consensus ! Involvement of many people in preparing and making the decision ! Decision flow from bottom-to-top and back ! Slow decision-making; fast implementation of the decision

Chinese Management: 

Chinese Management PLANNING: ! Long-term and short-term orientation (5- year plan and annual plan) ! Decision-making by committees. At the top often individual ! Top-down-participation at lower levels. ! Top-down-initiated at the top ! Slow decision-making / slow implementation. (Now changing)

United States Management: 

United States Management Organizing ! Individual responsibility and accountability ! Clarity and specificity of decision responsibility ! Formal bureaucratic organizational structure ! Lack of common organization culture; identification with profession rather than with company

Japanese Management: 

Japanese Management Organizing : Collective responsibility and accountability ! Ambiguity of decision responsibility ! Informal organization structure ! Well-known common organization culture and philosophy; competitive spirit toward other enterprises

Chinese Management: 

Chinese Management Organizing: Collective and individual responsibility ! Attempts to introduce the “factory responsibility system” ! Formal bureaucratic organization structure ! Identification with the company but no competitive spirit

United States Management: 

United States Management Staffing ! People hired out of schools and from other companies; frequent company changes ! Rapid advancement highly desired and demanded ! Loyalty to the profession ! Frequent performance evaluation for new employees ! Appraisal of short-term results ! Promotions based primarily on individual performance ! Training and development undertaken with hesitation (employee may go to another firm) ! Job insecurity prevails

Japanese Management : 

Japanese Management Staffing: ! Young people hired out of school; hardly any mobility of people among companies ! Slow promotion through the ranks ! Loyalty to the company ! Very infrequent formal performance evaluations for new (young) employees ! Appraisal of long-term performance ! Training and development considered a longterm investment ! Lifetime employment common in large companies

Chinese Management : 

Chinese Management STAFFING: ! Most hired from school, fewer from other companies ! Slow promotion, but regular salary increase ! Lack of loyalty to both company and profession ! Infrequent performance review (usually once a year) ! 5-year plan, otherwise short-term targets ! Promotions are supposed to be based on performance, potential ability, and education. But family ties and good relations with top managers are important ! Training programs available. State exam administered for managers

United States Management: 

United States Management Leading: ! Leader acts as decision-maker and head of group ! Directive style (strong, firm, determined) ! Often divergent values; individualism sometimes hinders cooperation ! Face-to-face confrontation common; emphasis on clarity ! Communication primarily top-down

Japanese Management : 

Japanese Management Leading : ! Leader acting as social facilitator and group member ! Paternalistic style ! Common values facilitating cooperation ! Avoidance of confrontation, sometimes leading to ambiguities; emphasis on harmony ! Bottom-up communication

Chinese Management : 

Chinese Management Leading Leader as the head of the group (committees) ! Directive. Parent-child relations (in TA terms) ! Common values. Emphasis on harmony ! Avoidance of confrontation ! Communication top-down

United States Management: 

United States Management Controlling ! Control by superior ! Control focus on individual performance ! Fix blame ! Limited use of quality control circles

Japanese Management : 

Japanese Management Controlling ! Control focus on group performance ! Saving face ! Extensive use of quality control circles

Chinese Management : 

Chinese Management Controlling ! Control by group leader (superior) ! Primary control by groups-but also by individuals ! Try to save face ! Limited use of quality control

Thanks tp : 

Thanks tp Heinz Weihrich