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Decisions are initiated at the top and flow down ! Fast decision-making; slow implementation requiring compromise, often resulting in suboptimal decisionsJapanese Management: Japanese Management Planning : ! Long-term orientation ! Collective decision-making (ring) with consensus ! Involvement of many people in preparing and making the decision ! Decision flow from bottom-to-top and back ! Slow decision-making; fast implementation of the decisionChinese Management: Chinese Management PLANNING: ! Long-term and short-term orientation (5- year plan and annual plan) ! Decision-making by committees. At the top often individual ! Top-down-participation at lower levels. ! Top-down-initiated at the top ! Slow decision-making / slow implementation. (Now changing)United States Management: United States Management Organizing ! Individual responsibility and accountability ! Clarity and specificity of decision responsibility ! Formal bureaucratic organizational structure ! Lack of common organization culture; identification with profession rather than with companyJapanese Management: Japanese Management Organizing : Collective responsibility and accountability ! Ambiguity of decision responsibility ! Informal organization structure ! Well-known common organization culture and philosophy; competitive spirit toward other enterprisesChinese Management: Chinese Management Organizing: Collective and individual responsibility ! Attempts to introduce the “factory responsibility system” ! Formal bureaucratic organization structure ! Identification with the company but no competitive spiritUnited States Management: United States Management Staffing ! People hired out of schools and from other companies; frequent company changes ! Rapid advancement highly desired and demanded ! Loyalty to the profession ! Frequent performance evaluation for new employees ! Appraisal of short-term results ! Promotions based primarily on individual performance ! Training and development undertaken with hesitation (employee may go to another firm) ! Job insecurity prevailsJapanese Management : Japanese Management Staffing: ! Young people hired out of school; hardly any mobility of people among companies ! Slow promotion through the ranks ! Loyalty to the company ! Very infrequent formal performance evaluations for new (young) employees ! Appraisal of long-term performance ! Training and development considered a longterm investment ! Lifetime employment common in large companiesChinese Management : Chinese Management STAFFING: ! Most hired from school, fewer from other companies ! Slow promotion, but regular salary increase ! Lack of loyalty to both company and profession ! Infrequent performance review (usually once a year) ! 5-year plan, otherwise short-term targets ! Promotions are supposed to be based on performance, potential ability, and education. But family ties and good relations with top managers are important ! Training programs available. State exam administered for managersUnited States Management: United States Management Leading: ! Leader acts as decision-maker and head of group ! Directive style (strong, firm, determined) ! Often divergent values; individualism sometimes hinders cooperation ! Face-to-face confrontation common; emphasis on clarity ! Communication primarily top-downJapanese Management : Japanese Management Leading : ! Leader acting as social facilitator and group member ! Paternalistic style ! Common values facilitating cooperation ! Avoidance of confrontation, sometimes leading to ambiguities; emphasis on harmony ! Bottom-up communicationChinese Management : Chinese Management Leading Leader as the head of the group (committees) ! Directive. Parent-child relations (in TA terms) ! Common values. Emphasis on harmony ! Avoidance of confrontation ! Communication top-downUnited States Management: United States Management Controlling ! Control by superior ! Control focus on individual performance ! Fix blame ! Limited use of quality control circlesJapanese Management : Japanese Management Controlling ! Control focus on group performance ! Saving face ! Extensive use of quality control circlesChinese Management : Chinese Management Controlling ! Control by group leader (superior) ! Primary control by groups-but also by individuals ! Try to save face ! Limited use of quality controlThanks tp : Thanks tp Heinz Weihrich You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.