Management Information System-Building information system_lesson5

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Management Information System:

Management Information System Building information system

IS and business plan:

IS and business plan Deciding what new systems to build should be an essential component of the orga­nizational planning process. Organizations need to develop an information systems plan that supports their overall business plan. Once specific projects have been se­lected within the overall context of a strategic plan for the business and the systems area, an information systems plan can be developed. The plan serves as a road map in­dicating the direction of systems development, the rationale, the current situation, the management strategy, the implementation plan, and the budget

Information Systems Plan :

Information Systems Plan Purpose of the Plan Overview of plan contents Changes in firm's current situation Firm's strategic plan Current business organization Management strategy Strategic Business Plan Current situation Current business organization Changing environments Major goals of the business plan

Information Systems Plan:

Information Systems Plan Current Systems Major systems supporting business functions Major current capabilities Hardware Software Database Telecommunications Difficulties meeting business requirements Anticipated future demands

Information Systems Plan:

Information Systems Plan New Developments New system projects Project descriptions Business rationale New capabilities required Hardware Software Database Telecommunications

Information Systems Plan:

Information Systems Plan Management Strategy Acquisition plans Milestones and timing Organizational realignment Internal reorganization Management controls Major training initiatives Personnel strategy

Information Systems Plan:

Information Systems Plan Implementation Plan Detailed implementation plan A nticipated difficulties in implementation Progress reports Budget Requirements Requirements Potential savings Financing Acquisition cycle

PowerPoint Presentation:

In order to develop an effective information systems plan, the organization must have a clear understanding of both its long- and short-term information requirements. Two principal methodologies for establishing the essential information requirements of the organization as a whole are : enterprise analysis and critical success factors.

System development and organizational change:

System development and organizational change Risk Return Low Low High High Atomation Rationalization Reengineering Paradigm shift

System development and organizational change:

System development and organizational change The most common form of IT-enabled organizational change is automation . The first applications of information technology involved assisting employees perform their tasks more efficiently and effectively. Calculating paychecks and payroll regis­ters, giving bank tellers instant access to customer deposit records, and developing a nationwide network of airline reservation terminals for airline reservation agents are all examples of early automation. Automation is like putting a larger motor in an existing automobile.

System development and organizational change:

System development and organizational change A deeper form of organizational change-one that follows quickly from early automation is rationalization of procedures. Automation frequently reveals new bot­tlenecks in production, and makes the existing arrangement of procedures and struc­tures painfully cumbersome. Rationalization of procedures is the streamlining of standard operating procedures, eliminating obvious bottlenecks, so that automation can make operating procedures more efficient.

System development and organizational change:

System development and organizational change A more powerful type of organizational change is business re-engineering, in which business processes are analyzed, simplified, and redesigned. Reengineering in­volves radically rethinking the flow of work, the business procedures used to pro­duce products and services with a mind to radically reduce the costs of business. A business process is a set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined busi­ness outcome. Some examples of business processes are developing a new product, ordering goods from a supplier, or processing and paying an insurance claim.

System development and organizational change:

System development and organizational change Rationalizing procedures and redesigning business processes are limited to spe­cific parts of a business. New information systems can ultimately affect the design of the entire organization by actually transforming how the organization carries out its business or ever the nature of the business itself.

System development and organizational change:

System development and organizational change Capability Organizational impact / benefit Tr ansac t io n a l IT can tr ansfo rm u ns t ructured proces s es into routinized tr a n s ­ac t io n s Geographical IT can transfer information with rapidity and ease across large distances, making processes independent of geography Automational IT can replace or reduce human labor in a process Analytical IT can bring complex analytical methods to bear on a process Informational IT can bring vast amounts of detailed information into a process Sequential IT can enable changes in the sequence of tasks in a process, often allowing multiple tasks to be worked on simultaneously

System development and organizational change:

System development and organizational change Capability Organizational impact / benefit Knowledge management IT allows the capture and dissemination of knowledge and expertise to improve the process Tracking IT allows the detailed tracking of task status, inputs, and outputs Disintermediation IT can be used to connect two parties within a process that would otherwise communicate through an intermediary (inter­nal or external)

System development :

System development The activi­ties that go into producing an information systems solution to an organizational problem or opportunity.

system development process:

system development process System analysis System design programming Testing Conversion Production and maintenance Organization

System analysis:

System analysis Addition to suggesting a solution, systems analysis involves a feasibility study to de­termine whether that solution is feasible, or achievable, given the organization's re­sources and constraints. Three major areas of feasibility must be addressed: Technical feasibility: whether the proposed solution can be implemented with the available hardware, software, and technical resources. Economic feasibility: whether the benefits of the proposed solution outweigh the costs. We explore this topic in greater detail in Section 11.4, Understanding the Business Value of Information Systems.

System analysis:

System analysis Operational feasibility: whether the proposed solution is desirable within the ex­isting managerial and organizational framework. Normally the systems analysis process will identify several alternative solutions that can be pursued by the organization. The process will then assess the feasibility of each. Three basic solution alternatives exist for every systems problem: To do nothing, leaving the existing situation unchanged To modify or enhance existing systems To develop a new system

System analysis:

System analysis There may be several solution design options within the second and third solu­tion alternatives. A written systems proposal report will describe the costs and ben­efits, advantages and disadvantages of each alternative. It is then up to management to determine which mix of costs, benefits, technical features, and organizational im­pacts represents the most desirable alternative.

Establishing information requirements:

Establishing information requirements Perhaps the most difficult task of the systems analyst is to define the specific informa­tion requirements that must be met by the system solution selected. This is the area where many large system efforts go wrong and the one that poses the greatest diffi­culty for the analyst. At the most basic level, the information requirements of a new sys­tem involve identifying who needs what information, where, when, and how.

Establishing information requirements:

Establishing information requirements Requirements analysis carefully defines the objectives of the new or modified system and develops a detailed description of the functions that the new system must perform. Requirements must consider economic, technical, and time constraints, as well as the goals, procedures, and decision processes of the organization. Faulty requirements analysis is a leading cause of systems failure and high systems development costs A system designed around the wrong set of requirements either will have to be discarded because of poor performance or will need to be heavily revised.

Establishing information requirements:

Establishing information requirements Developing requirements specifications may involve considerable research and revision. A business function may be very complex or poorly defined. A manual system or routine set of inputs and outputs may not exist. Procedures may vary from in­dividual to individual. Such situations will be more difficult to analyze, especially if the users are unsure of what they want or need (this problem is extremely common). To derive information systems requirements, analysts may be forced to work and re­work requirements statements in cooperation with users. Although this process is la­borious, it is far superior to and less costly than redoing and undoing an entire sys­tem.

System Design:

System Design While systems analysis describes what a system should do to meet information re­quirements, systems design shows how the system will fulfill this objective. The de­sign of an information system is the overall plan or model for that system. Like the blueprint of a building or house, it consists of all the specifications that give the sys­tem its form and structure. Information systems design is an exacting and creative task demanding imagination, sensitivity to detail, and expert skills.

System Design:

System Design Three objectives: First, the systems designer is responsible for considering alternative technology configurations for carrying out and developing the system as described by the analyst. This may involve analyses of the performance of different pieces of hardware and software, security capabilities of systems, network alternatives, and the portability or changeability of systems hardware.

System Design:

System Design Second, designers are responsible for the management and control of the techni­cal realization of systems. Detailed programming specifications, coding of data, doc­umentation, testing, and training are all the responsibility of the design staff. In ad­dition, designers are responsible for the actual procurement of the hardware, consultants, and software needed by the system. Third, the systems designer details the system specifications that will deliver functions identified during systems analysis. These specifications should address all of the managerial, organizational, and technological components of the system solution.

Logical and physical design:

Logical and physical design The design for an information system can be broken down into logical and physical design specifications. Logical design lays out the components of the system and relationship to each other as they would appear to users. It shows what the system solution will do as opposed to how it is actually implemented physically. It describes inputs and outputs, processing functions to be performed, business procedures, models, and controls. ( Controls specify standards for acceptable performance methods for measuring actual performance in relation to these standards .)

Logical and physical design:

Logical and physical design Physical design is the process of translating the abstract logical model into the specific technical design for the new system. It produces the actual specifications for hardware , software, physical databases, input/output media, manual procedures, and specific controls. Physical design provides the remaining specifications that transform abstract logical design plan into a functioning system of people and machines.

Role of end user:

Role of end user Information systems design cannot be directed by technical specialists alone. I demands a very high level of participation and control by end users. User information requirements drive the entire systems-building effort. Users must have sufficient control over the design process to ensure that the system reflects their business priorities and information needs, not the biases of the technical staff. Working on design increases users' understanding and acceptance of the system reducing problems caused by power transfers, intergroup conflict, and unfamiliarity with new system functions and procedures.

Programming :

Programming The process of translating design specifications into software for the computer constitutes a smaller portion of the systems development cycle than design and testing. But it is here, in providing the actual instructions for the ma­chine, that the heart of the system takes shape. During the programming stage, sys­tem specifications that were prepared during the design stage are translated into pro­gram code. On the basis of detailed design documents for files, transaction and report layouts, and other design details, specifications for each program in the sys­tem are prepared.

Programming:

Programming Some systems development projects assign programming tasks to specialists whose work consists exclusively of coding programs. Other projects prefer pro­grammer/analysts who both design and program functions. Since large systems en­tail many programs with thousands-even hundreds of thousands-of lines of code, programming teams are frequently used. Moreover, even if an entire system can be , programmed by a single individual, the quality of the software will be higher if it is subject to group review.

Testing:

Testing Exhaustive and thorough testing must be conducted to ascertain whether the system produces the right results. Testing answers the question, "Will the system produce the desired results under known conditions?" As much as 50 percent of the entire software development budget can be expended in testing. Testing is also time ­consuming: Test data must be carefully prepared, results reviewed, and corrections made in the system. In some instances, parts of the system may have to be redesigned.

Testing:

Testing Testing an information system can be broken down into three types of activities: Unit testing, or program testing, consists of testing each program separately in the system. While it is widely believed that the purpose of such testing is to guar­antee that programs are error free, this goal is realistically impossible. Testing should be viewed instead as a means of locating errors in programs, focusing on finding all the ways to make a program fail. Once pinpointed, problems can be corrected.

Testing :

Testing System testing tests the functioning of the information system as a whole. It tries to determine if discrete modules will function together as planned and whether dis­crepancies exist between the way the system actually works and the way it was con­ceived. Among the areas examined are performance time, capacity for file storage and handling peak loads, recovery and restart capabilities, and manual procedures. Acceptance testing provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting. Systems tests are evaluated by users and reviewed by management. When all parties are satisfied that the new system meets their stan­dards, the system is formally accepted for installation.

Conversion :

Conversion Conversion is the process of changing from the old system to the new system. It an­swers the question, "Will the new system work under real conditions?" Four main conversion strategies can be employed: I n a parallel strategy, both the old system and its potential replacement are run together for a time until everyone is assured that the new one functions correctly. This is the safest conversion approach because, in the event of errors or processing disruptions, the old system can still be used as a backup. However, this approach is very expensive, and additional staff or resources may be required to run the extra system.

Conversion:

Conversion The direct cutover strategy replaces the old system entirely with the new system on an appointed day. At first glance, this strategy seems less costly than parallel con­version strategy. However, it is a very risky approach that can potentially be more costly than parallel activities if serious problems with the new system are found. There is no other system to fall back on. Dislocations, disruptions, and the cost of corrections may be enormous.

Conversion:

Conversion The pilot study strategy introduces the new system only to a limited area of the organization, such as a single department or operating unit. When this pilot version is complete and working smoothly, it is installed throughout the rest of the organi­zation, either simultaneously or in stages.

Conversion :

Conversion The phased approach strategy introduces the new system in stages, either by functions or by organizational units. If, for example, the system is introduced by functions, a new payroll system might begin with hourly workers who are paid weekly, followed six months later by adding salaried employees who are paid monthly to the system. If the system is introduced by organizational units, corporate headquarters might be converted first, followed by outlying operating units four months later. A formal conversion plan provides a schedule of all the activities required to in­stall the new system. The most time-consuming activity is usually the conversion

Maintenance :

Maintenance After the new system is installed and conversion is complete, the system is said to be in production. During this stage, the system will be reviewed by both users and tech­nical specialists to determine how well it has met its original objectives and to decide whether any revisions or modifications are in order. Changes in hardware, software, documentation or procedures to a production system to correct errors, meet new re­quirements, or improve processing efficiency are termed maintenance.

Maintenance:

Maintenance Studies of maintenance have examined the amount of time required for various maintenance tasks (Lientz and Swanson, 1980). Approximately 20 percent of the time is devoted to debugging or correcting emergency production problems; another 20 percent is concerned with changes in data, files, reports, hardware, or system soft­ware. But 60 percent of all maintenance work consists of making user enhancements, improving documentation, and recoding system components for greater processing efficiency. The amount of work in the third category of maintenance problems could be reduced significantly through better system analysis and design practices.

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