introduction to psychology

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social and industrial psychology

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AMITY BUSINESS SCHOOL MBA HR SEMESTER II Dr Jaideep Kaur SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY :

1 AMITY BUSINESS SCHOOL MBA HR SEMESTER II Dr Jaideep Kaur SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY

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2 MODULE I Introduction to Industrial Psychology Definition Nature Background

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3 What is I/O Psychology? Definition: Scientific study of work place and Application of psychological theory and research methods (principles) to issues concerned with work

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4 The science and practice of I/O Psychology Primary work areas for I/O work: Selection Develop, validate, and administer psychological tests to assess (measure) skills, abilities and interests as aids in selection and placement and promotion. Training Analyze: First thing I/O dude does, is try to understand nature of job-- knowledge & task requirements Conduct training programs, and evaluate the effectiveness of training. Organizational Development Analyze organizations’ culture/climate, develop interventions --> increase in efficiency. E.g. user interface fucking productivity

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5 More functions of the I/O Psychologist Performance Appraisal Develop rating scales, and other measures of individuaL/organizational performance to improve employee performance. Quality of Work-life Previously, human workers were not viewed as human Develop surveys that assess employees’ satisfaction with their jobs and commitment to the organization. Satisfaction: one of most common surveys.

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6 History of I/O Psychology: ( 1900-1916 ) The nameless was crowned industrial psychology in 1910 (The “organizational” bit came in the 1970s).

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7 The 3 Founding Fathers 1. Walter Dill Scott (American Psychologist) 2. Hugo Munsterberg (German psychologist) 3. Frederick Taylor (American Engineer )

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8 Walter Dill Scott Walter Dill Scott (American Psychologist) First to apply the principles of psychology to motivation and productivity in the workplace. Would later become instrumental in the application of personnel procedures within the army during World War I . Boosted Industrial Psychology

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9 Hugo Munsterberg (German) Father of industrial psychology 1. Applied psychological method to practical industrial problems. 2. Psychology and Industrial Efficiency ( 1913 ) * View of I/O psychology: 1. People need to fit the organization ! .

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10 Frederick Taylor (American Engineer) Principles of Scientific Management (1911). The best workers should be selected and trained in the established “ one best method ” Management and workers should cooperatively share responsibility for the design and conduct of work. Motivation and monetary gain Motivation results from monetary gain . E.g.: Showed that workers who handle heavy iron ingots were more productive when allowed work rests . Training when to work and when to rest raised productivity from 12.5 to 47.0 tons moved per day. Company increase efficiency. Costs dropped from 9.2 to 3.9 cents per ton.

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11 A Look Into the Crystal Ball: The Future Changing nature of employees : 1. Fewer young people entering workforce (baby boom) 2. More women (2/3 of entry-level) 3. More minorities (1/3 of entry-level) 4. More temporary workers Changing nature of organizations : 1. Mergers and acquisitions; failures and downsizing --layoffs--more work, less manpower. 2. Smaller organizations, employing fewer people. Cynical workers/job security. 3. Greater focus on work teams (flatter management hierarchy)

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12 A Look Into the Crystal Ball: The Future Growing importance of technology: Technology-mediated communication 1. Workers can work anywhere (from home, etc) 2. Loss of direct human contact--impact on social relationships, mental health, etc. Human-technology interaction New jobs in maintenance of technology Replace manufacturing operatives as “worker elite” Greater focus on decision-making and coordination of activities by humans Because jobs are becoming more technologically complex

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13 A Look Into the Crystal Ball: The Future Redefinition of “job”: less emphasis on job as a fixed bundle of tasks emphasis on constantly changing tasks 1. Requires constant learning 2. More higher-order thinking 3. Less “9 to 5” Changing nature of pay: 1. *Tied less to position or tenure in organization 2. Tied more to market value of person’s KSAOs ( Knowledge, Skills, Abilities and Other characteristics).

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