Personality Disorders

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Personality Disorders Reported by: Palomado , John B.

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Personality Disorders Behaviors Characteristics Personality Disorders OVER View

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Personality Disorders Features of personality make some people more vulnerable to develop emotional disorder when experiencing stressful events. Thus when faced with difficulties, a person who has always worried about minor problems is more likely to develop an anxiety disorder than a person who is less prone to worry. With this degree of vulnerability in the personality, abnormal behavior occurs only in response to stressful events. In more abnormal personalities, unusual behavior occurs even in the absence of stressful events. At times, these anomalies of behavior may be so great that it is difficult to decide, solely on the patient’s state at the time, whether they are due to personality or to mental disorder .

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Personality Disorders Personality Disorders defines as patterns of experience and behavior that are drastically different from the norm. In order to warrant a diagnosis of a personality disorder, an individual must exhibit deviant patterns of behavior in at least two of the areas of thinking, mood, personal relations and impulse control.

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Types of Personality Disorders Paranoid Personality Disorder Schizoid Personality Disorder Schizotypal Personality Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Histrionic Personality Disorder Narcissistic Personality Disorder Dependent Personality Disorder Avoidant Personality Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder Explosive Personality Disorder

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Clusters of Personality Disorders A . Person that usually appear odd or eccentric Paranoid Personality Disorder Schizoid Personality Disorder Schizotypal Personality Disorder Pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent Pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts Pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior

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PARANOID PERSONALITY DISORDER The central features of this kind of abnormal personality are suspiciousness and sensitivity. As already mentioned, minor obsession and histrionic traits can add socially desirable qualities to a normal personality. There is no such positive side to paranoid traits. Even when these traits form only small part of the personality, they add a distrust that goes beyond ordinary caution and a sensitivity to rebuff that is a handicap to social relationships. In the paranoid personality disorder, this suspiciousness can be shown in several ways. The person may be constantly on the look out for attempts by others to get the better of him, to deceive him or play tricks on him. He may doubt the loyalty of other people and be unable to put his trust in them. As a result, he appears touchy and suspicious. He does not make friendships easily and may avoid involvement in groups. He may be perceived by other people as secretive, devious, and self-sufficient to a fault. He seems to have little sense of humor or capacity for enjoyment. Such personality traits are fertile for jealousy. People with paranoid personalities appear argumentative and stubborn. Presented with a new proposal, they are overcautious and look for ways in which in might be designed to harm their own interests. Some engage in litigation that is prolonged long after any non-paranoid person would have abandoned it.

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PARANOID PERSONALITY DISORDER Behaviors 1. Excessive sensitiveness to setbacks and rebuffs. 2. Tendency to bear grudges persistently, i.e. refusal to forgive insults and injuries or slights. 3. Suspiciousness and a pervasive tendency it distort experience by misconstruing the neutral or friendly actions of others as hostile and contemptuous. 4. A combative and tenacious sense of personal “right”, out of keeping with the actual situation. 5. Recurrent suspicious, without justification, regarding sexual fidelity of spouse or sexual partner. 6. Tendency to experience excessive self-importance, manifest in a persistent self-referential attitude. 7. Preoccupation with unsubstantiated “conspiratorial” explanations of events, both immediate to the patient and in the world at large.

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PARANOID PERSONALITY DISORDER Four or more of the following: 1. Suspects, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving him or her. 2. Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates 3. Is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against him or her . 4. Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events . 5. Persistently bears grudges. 6. Perceives attacks on his or her character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack . 7. Has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner

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Schizoid Personality Disorder In this disorder, the person is introspective and prone to engage in fantasy rather then take action. He is emotionally cold, self-sufficient, and detached from other people. The name schizoid was suggested by Kretchmer (1939), who held that there is an aetiological relationship between this kind of personality and schizophrenia. However, the two are not associated invariably, and the term should be used descriptively without implying any causal relationship with schizophrenia. The most striking feature is lack of emotional warmth and rapport. People with this disorder appear detached, aloof and humorless, and seem incapable of expressing affection or tenderness. As a result, they do not make intimate friendships and often remain unmarried. They show little concern for the opinions of other people and pursue a lonely course through life. Their hobbies and interests are solitary and are more often intellectual than practical. These people tend to be introspective. Their inner world of fantasy is often extensive but it lacks emotional content. They are more likely to be concerned with intellectual problems than with ideas about other people

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Schizoid Personality Disorder Behaviors 1. Few, if any, activities, provide pleasure. 2. Emotional coldness, detachment or flattened affectivity. 3. Limited capacity to express either warm, tender feelings or anger towards others. 4. Apparent indifference to either praise or criticism. 5 Little interest in having sexual experiences with another person (taking into account the person`s age). 6. Almost invariable preference for solitary activities. 7. Excessive preoccupation with fantasy and introspection. 8. Lack of close friends or confiding relationships (or having only one) and of desire for such relationships.

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Schizoid Personality Disorder Four or more of the following: 1. Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships, including being part of a family 2. Almost always chooses solitary activities . 3. Has little, if any, interest in having sexual experiences with another person. 4. Takes pleasure in few, if any, activities . 5. Lacks close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives . 6. Appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others. 7. Shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affect .

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Schizotypal Personality Disorder Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by someone who has great difficulty in establishing and maintaining close relationships with others. A person with schizotypal personality disorder may have extreme discomfort with such relationships, and therefore have less of a capacity for them. Someone with this disorder usually has cognitive or perceptual distortions as well as eccentricities in their everyday behavior. Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder often have ideas of reference (e.g., they have incorrect interpretations of casual incidents and external events as having a particular and unusual meaning specifically for the person). People with this disorder may be unusually superstitious or preoccupied with paranormal phenomena that are outside the norms of their subculture. Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder often seek treatment for the associated symptoms of anxiety, depression, or other dysphoric affects rather than for the personality disorder features per se.

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Schizotypal Personality Disorder Behaviors 1. Ideas of reference . 2. Odd beliefs or magical thinking that influences behavior and is inconsistent with subcultural norms 3. Unusual perceptual experiences including bodily illusions . 4. Odd thinking or speech (vague, metaphorical, etc.) . 5 Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation . 6. Inappropriate or constricted affect . 7. Behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric, or peculiar 8. Lack of close friends or confidants other than first degree relatives . 8. Lack of close friends or confidants other than first degree relatives .

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Schizotypal Personality Disorder Four or more of the following: 1. Ideas of reference . 2. Odd beliefs or magical thinking that influences behavior and is inconsistent with subcultural norms 3. Unusual perceptual experiences including bodily illusions . 4. Odd thinking or speech (vague, metaphorical, etc.) . 5 Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation . 6. Inappropriate or constricted affect . 7. Behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric, or peculiar 8. Lack of close friends or confidants other than first degree relatives . 9. Excessive social anxiety that does not diminish with familiarity and tends to be associated with paranoid fears rather than negative judgments about self

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B. Person that often appear theatrical with intense emotions or unstable at their interpersonal relationships. Antisocial Personality Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Narcissistic Personality Disorder Clusters of Personality Disorders Pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others Pervasion pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity Pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy

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Histrionic Personality Disorder Pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts B. Person that often appear theatrical with intense emotions or unstable at their interpersonal relationships. Clusters of Personality Disorders Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder Explosive Personality Disorder Pervasive pattern of gross verbal or physical aggressiveness and outburst of range. Pervasive pattern both passivity and aggression.

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Antisocial Personality Disorder People with this disorder show a bewildering variety of abnormal features. Several attempts have been made to identify an essential core to the disorder. The most useful of these recognizes four features: failure to make loving relationships, impulsive actions, lack of guilt, and failure to learn from adverse experiences. The failure to make loving relationships is accompanied by self- centredness and heartlessness. In its extreme form there is a degree of callousness that allows the person to inflict cruel, painful, or degrading acts on others. This lack of feeling is often in striking contrast to a superficial charm, which enables the person to make shallow and passing relationships. Sexual activity is carried on without evidence of tender feelings. Marriage is often marked by lack of concern for the partner, and sometimes by physical violence. Many marriages end in separation or divorce.

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Antisocial Personality Disorder Behaviors 1. Callous unconcern for the feelings of others. 2. Gross and persistent attitude of irresponsibility and disregard for social norms, rules and obligations. 3. Incapacity to maintain enduring relationships, though having no difficulty in establishing them. 4. Very low tolerance to frustration and low threshold for discharge of aggression, including violence. 5 Incapacity to experience guilt and to profit from experience, particularly punishment. 6. Marked proneness to blame others, or to offer plausible rationalizations, for the behaviour that has brought the patient in to conflict with society.

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Antisocial Personality Disorder Three or more of the following recurring since age 15: 1. Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest. 2. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure . 3. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead. 4. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults . 5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others . 6. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations . 7. Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.

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Borderline Personality Disorder The borderline type is characterized by emotional instability. In addition, patient`s own self-image, aims, and internal preferences (including sexual) are often unclear or disturbed. There are usually chronic feelings of emptiness. A liability to become involved in intense and unstable relationships may cause repeated emotional crises and may be associated with excessive efforts to avoid abandonment and a series of suicidal threats or acts of self-harm, (although these may occur without obvious precipitants). The main feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and emotions. People with borderline personality disorder are also usually very impulsive. This disorder occurs in most by early adulthood. The unstable pattern of interacting with others has persisted for years and is usually closely related to the person’s self-image and early social interactions. The pattern is present in a variety of settings (e.g., not just at work or home) and often is accompanied by a similar lability (fluctuating back and forth, sometimes in a quick manner) in a person’s emotions and feelings. Relationships and the person’s emotion may often be characterized as being shallow.

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Borderline Personality Disorder Behaviors 1. 1.Significant and persistent disturbance of identity of self, e.g. “who am I”. There is marked uncertainty about major issues in life. 2.Unstable and intense interpersonal relationship patterns. 3.Impulsivity. 4.Unstable emotional responses, with rapid shifts. Anger outbursts may occur. 5.Chronic feelings of boredom or emptiness with inability to stay alone. 6.Deliberate self harm is common in the form of self-mutilation, suicidal gestures, or accident-proneness.

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Borderline Personality Disorder Five or more of the following: : 1 Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment. 2. Pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation. 3. Identity disturbance: markedly and persistently unstable self-image or sense of self Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging. 4. Recurrent suicidal behavior or self-mutilating behavior . 5. Affective instability due to a marked reactivity of mood. 6. Chronic feelings of emptiness. 7. Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger 8. Transient, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms.

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Narcissistic Personality Disorder Narcissistic Personality Disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of grandiosity (either in fantasy or actual behavior), an overwhelming need for admiration, and usually a complete lack of empathy toward others. People with this disorder often believe they are of primary importance in everybody's life or to anyone they meet. While this pattern of behavior may be appropriate for a king in 16th Century England, it is generally considered inappropriate for most ordinary people today. People with narcissistic personality disorder often display snobbish, disdainful, or patronizing attitudes. For example, an individual with this disorder may complain about a clumsy waiter's "rudeness" or "stupidity" or conclude a medical evaluation with a condescending evaluation of the physician. In laypeople terms, someone with this disorder may be described simply as a "narcissist" or as someone with "narcissism." Both of these terms generally refer to someone with narcissistic personality disorder.

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Narcissistic Personality Disorder Behaviors 1. Callous unconcern for the feelings of others. 2. Gross and persistent attitude of irresponsibility and disregard for social norms, rules and obligations. 3. Incapacity to maintain enduring relationships, though having no difficulty in establishing them. 4. Very low tolerance to frustration and low threshold for discharge of aggression, including violence. 5 Incapacity to experience guilt and to profit from experience, particularly punishment. 6. Marked proneness to blame others, or to offer plausible rationalizations, for the behaviour that has brought the patient in to conflict with society.

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Narcissistic Personality Disorder FIVE or more of the following: 1. Has a grandiose sense of self-importance 2. Is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love. 3. Believes that he or she is "special" and unique . 4. Requires excessive admiration. 5. Has a very strong sense of entitlement. 6. Is exploitative of others. 7. Lacks empathy. 8. Is often envious of others. 9. Regularly shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes.

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Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder A person with passive aggressive personality disorder expresses negative feelings indirectly, rather than openly sharing them with others. The person expresses anger or resentment through actions, rather than verbally. This may result in a negative attitude toward rules and laws, and resistance to social and occupational demands. Persons with passive aggressive personality disorder may be argumentative and critical. They tend to be unhappy with their life and relationships. Symptoms of passive aggressive personality disorder include a resistance to performing social and occupational tasks, a tendency to argue, complaints of being misunderstood and unappreciated, unreasonably critical views, a lack of respect for authority, behavior that alternates between defiance and passivity, and complaints about personal misfortune.

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Symptoms 1. Resentment to the demands of others. 2. Resistant to performing social and occupational tasks 3. Argumentative 4. Complaints of being misunderstood and unappreciated . 5. Unreasonably critical 6. Disrespects authority. Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder 11. Memory lapses 7. Expresses envy and resentment toward those who are more fortunate. 8. Complains about personal misfortune. 9. Procrastination. 10. Stubbornness

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Explosive Personality Disorder Explosive personality disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by episodes of aggressive, destructive behavior resulting in damage to an individual or property. The outburst can occur with little or no provocation, and the individual feels unable to resist the aggressive impulses. The aggressive, destructive feelings and behavior appear very suddenly and subside almost as quickly, often followed by regret or embarrassment over lack of self-control and the resulting damage. Between episodes, the individual may or may not appear impulsive or aggressive. The aggressive episodes typically last about 20 minutes and generally occur from 1 to 25 times a month. The condition is not caused by schizophrenia; antisocial or borderline personality disorders; mania; attention deficit disorder; conduct disorder; medical causes such as Alzheimer's disease; or abuse of drugs, alcohol, or prescribed medication.

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Histrionic Personality Disorder The important features of this kind of personality are self-dramatization, a craving for novelty and excitement, and a self- centred approach to personal relationships. In a normal personality, minor histrionic traits can be socially advantageous. People with such traits make lively, engaging company, and are popular guests; they do well in amateur dramatics, and are entertaining public speakers. They tend to wear their emotions on their sleeves and are easily moved to joy or tears, but the feelings soon pass. When these qualities are exaggerated in histrionic personality disorder, they become less acceptable. The person dramatizes himself as a larger than life character; he seems to be playing a part, incapable of being himself. He often seems unaware that other people can see through his defences . Instead of enjoyment of novelty found in a person with histrionic personality traits, in histrionic personality disorder there is a restless search for new experiences, coupled with short-lived enthusiasms, readiness to boredom and craving for novelty. The tendency to be self- centred may be greatly exaggerated in histrionic personality disorder. The person lacks consideration for others, appearing to think only of his own interests and enjoyment.

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Histrionic Personality Disorder Behaviors 1. 1.Self-dramatization, theatrically, exaggerated expression of emotions (dramatic emotionality). 2.Suggestibility, easily influenced by others or by circumstances. 3.Shallow and labile affectivity. 4.Continual seeking for excitement, appreciation by others, and activity in which the person is the center of attention (attention-seeking attitude). 5.Inappropriate seductiveness in appearance or behavior. 6.Overconcern with physical attractiveness.

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Histrionic Personality Disorder FIVE or more of the following: 1. Is uncomfortable in situations in which he or she is not the center of attention . 2. Interaction with others is often characterized by inappropriate sexually seduction or provocative behavior. 3. Displays rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotions. 4. Consistently uses physical appearance to draw attention to self. 5. Has a style of speech that is excessively impressionistic and lacking in detail. 6. Shows self-dramatization, theatrically, and exaggerated expression of emotion Is suggestible . 7. Considers relationships to be more intimate than they actually are.

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C. Person usually stressed or frightened Dependent Personality Disorder Avoidant Personality Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Clusters of Personality Disorders Pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation Pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency Pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation

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Avoidant Personality Disorder These people are persistently anxious. They are ill at ease in company, fearing disapproval or criticism, and worrying that they will be embarrassed. They are cautious about new experiences and meeting people they do not know, and timid in the face of everyday hazards. As a result they have few close friends and avoid social demands such as taking new responsibilities at work. These people differ from schizoid personalities because they are not emotionally cold; indeed they crave the social relationships that they cannot attain. The major problems associated with this disorder occur in social and occupational functioning. The low self-esteem and hypersensitivity to rejection are associated with restricted interpersonal contacts. These individuals may become relatively isolated and usually do not have a large social support network that can help them weather crises. They desire affection and acceptance and may fantasize about idealized relationships with others. The avoidant behaviors can also adversely affect occupational functioning because these individuals try to avoid the types of social situations that may be important for meeting the basic demands of the job or for advancement.

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Avoidant Personality Disorder Behaviors 1.Persistent and pervasive feeling of tension and apprehension. 2.Belief that one is socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to others. 3.Excessive preoccupation with being criticized or rejected in social situations. 4.Unwillingness to become involved with people unless certain of being liked. 5.Restrictions in lifestyle because of need to have physical security. 6.Avoidance of social or occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact because of fear of criticism, disapproval, or rejection.

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Avoidant Personality Disorder Four or more of the following: 1. Avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact, because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejection Is unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being liked. 2. Shows restraint within intimate relationships because of the fear of being shamed or ridiculed. 3. Is preoccupied with being criticized or rejected in social situations Is inhibited in new interpersonal situations because of feelings of inadequacy . 4. Views self as socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to others . 5. Is unusually reluctant to take personal risks or to engage in any new activities because they may prove embarrassing.

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Dependent Personality Disorder People with this disorder appear weak-willed and unduly compliant, falling in passively with the wishes of others. They lack vigor and show little capacity for enjoyment. They avoid responsibility and lack self-reliance. Some dependent people are more determined, but achieve their aims by persuading other people to assist them, whilst protesting their own helplessness. In married, such people may be protected from the full effects of their personality by support from a more energetic and determined spouse who is willing to make decisions and arrange activities. Left to themselves, some drift down the social scale and others are found among the long-term unemployed and the homeless.

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Dependent Personality Disorder Behaviors 1.Encouraging or allowing others to make most of one`s important decisions. 2.Subordination of one`s own needs to those of others on whom one is dependent, and undue compliance with their wishes. 3.Unwillingness to make even reasonable demands on the people one depends on. 4.Feeling uncomfortable or helpless when alone, because of exaggerated fears of inability to care for oneself. 5.Preoccupation with fears of being abandoned by a person with whom one has a close relationship, and of being left to care for oneself. 6.Limited capacity to make everyday decisions without an excessive amount of advice and reassurance from others.

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Dependent Personality Disorder FIVE or more of the following: 1. Has difficulty making everyday decisions without an excessive amount of advice and reassurance from others . 2. Needs others to assume responsibility for most major areas of his or her life. 3. Has difficulty expressing disagreement with others because of fear of loss of support or approval . 4. Has difficulty initiating projects or doing things on his or her own (because of a lack of self-confidence rather than a lack of motivation or energy). 5. Goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others, to the point of volunteering to do things that are unpleasant. 6. Feels uncomfortable or helpless when alone because of exaggerated fears of being unable to care for himself or herself . 7. Urgently seeks another relationship as a source of care and support when a close relationship ends Is unrealistically preoccupied with fears of being left to take care of himself or herself.

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Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder is characterized by a preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency. When rules and established procedures do not dictate the correct answer, decision making may become a time-consuming, often painful process. Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder may have such difficulty deciding which tasks take priority or what is the best way of doing some particular task that they may never get started on anything. Individuals with this disorder usually express affection in a highly controlled or stilted fashion and may be very uncomfortable in the presence of others who are emotionally expressive. Their everyday relationships have a formal and serious quality, and they may be stiff in situations in which others would smile and be happy (e.g., greeting a lover at the airport). They carefully hold themselves back until they are sure that whatever they say will be perfect. They may be preoccupied with logic and intellect.

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Behaviors 1.Feelings of excessive doubt and caution. 2.Preoccuption with details, rules, lists, order, organization or schedule. 3.Perfectionism that interferes with task completion. 4.Excessive conscientiousness, scrupulousness, and undue preoccupation with productivity to the exclusion of pleasure and interpersonal relationships. 5.Excessive pedantry and adherence to social conventions. 6.Rigidity and stubbornness. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder 7.Unreasonable insistence by the patient that others submit to exactly his or her way of doing things, or unreasonable reluctance to allow others to do things. 8.Intrusion of insistent and unwelcome thoughts or impulses.

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Four or more of the following: 1. Is preoccupied with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost. 2. Shows perfectionism that interferes with task completion Is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships. 3. Is over conscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values. 4. Is unable to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value. 5. Is reluctant to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly his or her way of doing things. 6. Adopts a miserly spending style toward both self and others, money is viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophes Shows rigidity and stubornness . Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

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Behavioral Patter n shared by the personality disorder. Splitting Or the inability to evaluate and then to synthesize and accept the imperfection of significant other both past and present; instead, they to divide individuals into “all good” or “all bad” categories. projection Or the attribution of ones own feeling and experiences onto other; excessive fault findings, criticism and confrontation to reduce their own feeling of inadequacy.

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Behavioral Patter n shared by the personality disorder. Passive aggression Or the tendency to turn anger against the self in a provocative manner with the underlying motive of forcing other to comply with their wishes and needs; this tendency is behaviorally expressed in wrist-cutting, non lethal drug overdoses and eating disorder, including obesity, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Acting out Or the direct behavioral expression of wish or conflicts that allows the individual to avoid conscious experience of the thoughts and emotion accompanying it.

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Behavioral Patter n shared by the personality disorder. narcissism Or the tendency to perceive the self as all powerful and important and therefore entitled to criticize or belittle other; this individual often gives the impression of being vain and arrogant. dependency Or the expression of incessant, unreasonable wishes, wants and needs in a demanding manner while strenuously denying dependent behavior. Non win relationship style Or the tendency to seek out relationship that offers a promise of something for nothing; feels entitled to take without giving and usually find themselves in a relationship that is difficult to end.

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