Slide 1: GHULAM MUJTABA
TABBA HEART INSTITUTE KARACHI First aid Training Dr ABCH : First aid Training Dr ABCH MUJTABA By Modules : Modules What is First Aid
Aim of First Aid
What do the letters DR ABCH stand for WHAT IS FIRST AID ? : WHAT IS FIRST AID ? First Aid Awareness : First Aid Awareness First Aid is the assistance or treatment given to a casualty for any injury or sudden illness before the arrival of an ambulance or qualified medical expert. It may involve improvising with facilities and materials available at the time. Aim Of First Aid : Aim Of First Aid Aims of a first aider: : Aims of a first aider: 3 Ps:
3Ps Preserve life Prevent injuries/condition
from worsening Promote recovery Slide 8: What do the letters DR ABCH stand for
D stands for____________________;
R stands for ____________________;
A stands for ____________________;
B stands for_____________________;
C stands for _____________________;
H stands for _hemorrhage ___; danger response airway breathing circulation Slide 9: D is for Danger Safety
Protect yourself and the injured person.
Avoid another accident by eliminating the cause.
Protect your self against blood borne pathogens (AIDS, Hepatitis).
Keep bystanders away from the scene of the
Have someone control Traffic Slide 10: Responsiveness
Is the victim conscious?
Touch their shoulder, ask if they are
Ask if they need help.
If they say no, then proceed no further
If yes, or no response, then proceed to A R is for Response Response (Cont..) : Response (Cont..) Activate 16 Slide 12: Response (Cont.)
How to use the 16 System Your name
The location of the emergency
Condition of the victim What are the four things you need to remember
when making a 16 call? (Response Cont..)How to use the 16 System : (Response Cont..)How to use the 16 System Exact location or address of the accident or incident
Telephone number where you can be called
How many people are involved
Nature of injuries (fractures, burns, etc.)
Incident of the seriousness of the injuries (breathing or not, etc)
What first aid has been given Call for assistance or have someone alert the emergency medical service rapidly. Always provide: Head-tilt, Chin-lift maneuver : Head-tilt, Chin-lift maneuver BEFORE (airway closed) AFTER (airway open) Tongue Airway A is for airway
Check to see if the airway is blocked.
Use your finger to sweep the mouth to remove any seen object. Slide 15: Look, Listen and feel by watching the chest and placing your cheek a few inches above the mouth of the victim to sense any movement of air, If the victim is not breathing, they may need their head repositioned. B is for breathing Look Listen Feel Slide 16: C is for circulation
If there is not a pulse, then this Person needs
The best place to check for a pulse is th carotide artery along the side of the neck along the windpipe.
If you are not trained in CPR, then find someone
who is. CPR : CPR Artificial Ventilation +
External Chest Compression =
Cardio pulmonary Resuscitation or CPR Place in the Recovery Position
Keep under Observation CPR : CPR CPR is required when there is: No breathing + No consciousness + No reactivity
Once started, CPR must be continued until emergency medical services arrive or until the victim starts breathing, coughing or reacting.
If spontaneous breathing has restarted = keep under observation
If spontaneous breathing has NOT restarted = continue Artificial Ventilation CPR : CPR CPR (External Chest Compressions + Artificial Ventilation) can be done by one or two first aiders: Push the chest down (1.5 – 2 inches) in an average of 2
compressions per second (100 times)
- Give 2 breaths after each 30 compressions. CPR : CPR NOTES ON C.P.R. FOR CHILDREN
For children 1-8 years we start C.P.R. before calling 16
for 5 cycles (2minutes)
We use one hand only for chest compressions.
Rate of chest compressions to breathing is the same as adults 30/2. CPR : CPR NOTES ON C.P.R. FOR INFANTS LESS THAN 1 YEAR.
Start C.P.R. 5 cycles (2minutes) before calling 16
No need for deep breath.
Use 2 fingers of one hand for chest compressions
Compressions should compress the chest from 1/3 – ½ its depth. CPR : CPR If two first aiders: 30 ECC for 2 Artificial ventilations
If one first aider: 30 ECC for 2 Artificial ventilations
In a small child: 30 ECC for 1 Artificial ventilation Slide 23: If the victim is bleeding, then provide the necessary care.
If not, then begin a secondary assessment. H is for Hemorrhaging Control Blood loss : Control Blood loss For important but non-complicated external bleeding:
Apply direct pressure on the wound.
Avoid direct contact with blood (gloves, gauze,
handkerchief, etc.) Control Blood Loss : Control Blood Loss Control Blood Loss : Control Blood Loss For important and complicated external bleeding (associated with a fracture or foreign body):
use indirect pressure.
This requires applying pressure to the appropriate pressure point. Pressure Points : Pressure Points Brachial pressure point = Inner part of the upper arm
(Used to stop bleeding in hand, forearm and arm) Brachial Femoral Femoral pressure point = Groin (Used to stop bleeding in thigh, leg, foot) Control Blood Loss : Control Blood Loss Use pressure point closest to wound, between wound and heart
Superficial arteries: use flat surface of several fingers
Femoral artery, use heel of one hand Control Blood Loss : Control Blood Loss TOURNIQUET
Place a Tourniquet ONLY if:
Bleeding is profuse and the pressure point is ineffective or impossible to achieve.
You are alone and cannot apply a pressure point and perform CPR at the same time.
There is no other choice as in the case of an amputated limb. Methods / Techniques of Arresting Hemorrhages : Methods / Techniques of Arresting Hemorrhages Lay the injured person down. Note the time at which the tourniquet was placed,
and write it on his forehead.
NEVER REMOVE A TOURNIQUET ONCE IT HAS BEEN PLACED. Place two inches above wound Methods / Techniques of Arresting Hemorrhages : Methods / Techniques of Arresting Hemorrhages Methods / Techniques of Arresting Hemorrhages : Types of tourniquet Methods / Techniques of Arresting Hemorrhages Slide 33: Methods / Techniques of Arresting Haemorrhages Slide 34: Types of tourniquet Methods / Techniques of Arresting Haemorrhages The Recovery Position : The Recovery Position For the unconscious casualty who is breathing and is reactive. Prevents obstruction of the airway by saliva or the tongue. The Recovery Position : The Recovery Position The Recovery Position : The Recovery Position The Recovery Position : The Recovery Position The Recovery Position : The Recovery Position The flexed leg is used as a control lever to facilitate body rotation. 4 5 6 7 Recovery Position for Unresponsive Breathing Infant : Recovery Position for Unresponsive Breathing Infant Hold infant facedown over your arm with head slightly lower than body
Support the head and neck with your hand, and keep nose and mouth clear Keep under observation : Keep under observation Check breathing, consciousness and reactivity every few minutes
Cover the victim with a blanket to keep him warm and avoid shock
Stay with the victim until emergency services arrive Slide 43: GHULAM MUJTABA
TABBA HEART INSTITUTE KARACHI