10-Circuit-Packet (3)

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William Stallings Data and Computer Communications 7th Edition:

William Stallings Data and Computer Communications 7 th Edition Chapter 10 Circuit Switching and Packet Switching

Switching Networks:

Switching Networks Long distance transmission is typically done over a network of switched nodes Nodes not concerned with content of data End devices are stations Computer, terminal, phone, etc. A collection of nodes and connections is a communications network Data routed by being switched from node to node

Nodes:

Nodes Nodes may connect to other nodes only, or to stations and other nodes Node to node links usually multiplexed Network is usually partially connected Some redundant connections are desirable for reliability Two different switching technologies Circuit switching Packet switching

Simple Switched Network:

Simple Switched Network

Circuit Switching:

Circuit Switching Dedicated communication path between two stations Three phases Establish Transfer Disconnect Must have switching capacity and channel capacity to establish connection Must have intelligence to work out routing

Circuit Switching - Applications:

Circuit Switching - Applications Inefficient Channel capacity dedicated for duration of connection If no data, capacity wasted Set up (connection) takes time Once connected, transfer is transparent Developed for voice traffic (phone)

Public Circuit Switched Network:

Public Circuit Switched Network

Telecomms Components:

Telecomms Components Subscriber Devices attached to network Subscriber line Local Loop Subscriber loop Connection to network Few km up to few tens of km Exchange Switching centers End office - supports subscribers Trunks Branches between exchanges Multiplexed

Circuit Establishment:

Circuit Establishment

Circuit Switch Elements:

Circuit Switch Elements

Circuit Switching Concepts:

Circuit Switching Concepts Digital Switch Provide transparent signal path between devices Network Interface Control Unit Establish connections Generally on demand Handle and acknowledge requests Determine if destination is free construct path Maintain connection Disconnect

Blocking or Non-blocking:

Blocking or Non-blocking Blocking A network is unable to connect stations because all paths are in use A blocking network allows this Used on voice systems Short duration calls Non-blocking Permits all stations to connect (in pairs) at once Used for some data connections

Space Division Switching:

Space Division Switching Developed for analog environment Separate physical paths Crossbar switch Number of crosspoints grows as square of number of stations Loss of crosspoint prevents connection Inefficient use of crosspoints All stations connected, only a few crosspoints in use Non-blocking

Space Division Switch:

Space Division Switch

Multistage Switch:

Multistage Switch Reduced number of crosspoints More than one path through network Increased reliability More complex control May be blocking

Three Stage Space Division Switch:

Three Stage Space Division Switch

Time Division Switching:

Time Division Switching Modern digital systems rely on intelligent control of space and time division elements Use digital time division techniques to set up and maintain virtual circuits Partition low speed bit stream into pieces that share higher speed stream

Control Signaling Functions:

Control Signaling Functions Audible communication with subscriber Transmission of dialed number Call can not be completed indication Call ended indication Signal to ring phone Billing info Equipment and trunk status info Diagnostic info Control of specialist equipment

Control Signal Sequence:

Control Signal Sequence Both phones on hook Subscriber lifts receiver (off hook) End office switch signaled Switch responds with dial tone Caller dials number If target not busy, send ringer signal to target subscriber Feedback to caller Ringing tone, engaged tone, unobtainable Target accepts call by lifting receiver Switch terminates ringing signal and ringing tone Switch establishes connection Connection release when Source subscriber hangs up

Switch to Switch Signaling:

Switch to Switch Signaling Subscribers connected to different switches Originating switch seizes interswitch trunk Send off hook signal on trunk, requesting digit register at target switch (for address) Terminating switch sends off hook followed by on hook (wink) to show register ready Originating switch sends address

Location of Signaling:

Location of Signaling Subscriber to network Depends on subscriber device and switch Within network Management of subscriber calls and network ore complex

In Channel Signaling:

In Channel Signaling Use same channel for signaling and call Requires no additional transmission facilities Inband Uses same frequencies as voice signal Can go anywhere a voice signal can Impossible to set up a call on a faulty speech path Out of band Voice signals do not use full 4kHz bandwidth Narrow signal band within 4kHz used for control Can be sent whether or not voice signals are present Need extra electronics Slower signal rate (narrow bandwidth)

Drawbacks of In Channel Signaling:

Drawbacks of In Channel Signaling Limited transfer rate Delay between entering address (dialing) and connection Overcome by use of common channel signaling

Common Channel Signaling:

Common Channel Signaling Control signals carried over paths independent of voice channel One control signal channel can carry signals for a number of subscriber channels Common control channel for these subscriber lines Associated Mode Common channel closely tracks interswitch trunks Disassociated Mode Additional nodes (signal transfer points) Effectively two separate networks

Common v. In Channel Signaling:

Common v. In Channel Signaling

Common Channel Signaling Modes:

Common Channel Signaling Modes

Signaling System Number 7:

Signaling System Number 7 SS7 Common channel signaling scheme ISDN Optimized for 64k digital channel network Call control, remote control, management and maintenance Reliable means of transfer of info in sequence Will operate over analog and below 64k Point to point terrestrial and satellite links

SS7 Signaling Network Elements:

SS7 Signaling Network Elements Signaling point (SP) Any point in the network capable of handling SS7 control message Signal transfer point (STP) A signaling point capable of routing control messages Control plane Responsible for establishing and managing connections Information plane Once a connection is set up, info is transferred in the information plane

Transfer Points:

Transfer Points

Signaling Network Structures:

Signaling Network Structures STP capacities Number of signaling links that can be handled Message transfer time Throughput capacity Network performance Number of SPs Signaling delays Availability and reliability Ability of network to provide services in the face of STP failures

Softswitch Architecture:

Softswitch Architecture General purpose computer running software to make it a smart phone switch Lower costs Greater functionality Packetizing of digitized voice data Allowing voice over IP Most complex part of telephone network switch is software controlling call process Call routing Call processing logic Typically running on proprietary processor Separate call processing from hardware function of switch Physical switching done by media gateway Call processing done by media gateway controller

Traditional Circuit Switching:

Traditional Circuit Switching

Softswitch:

Softswitch

Packet Switching Principles:

Packet Switching Principles Circuit switching designed for voice Resources dedicated to a particular call Much of the time a data connection is idle Data rate is fixed Both ends must operate at the same rate

Basic Operation:

Basic Operation Data transmitted in small packets Typically 1000 octets Longer messages split into series of packets Each packet contains a portion of user data plus some control info Control info Routing (addressing) info Packets are received, stored briefly (buffered) and past on to the next node Store and forward

Use of Packets:

Use of Packets

Advantages:

Advantages Line efficiency Single node to node link can be shared by many packets over time Packets queued and transmitted as fast as possible Data rate conversion Each station connects to the local node at its own speed Nodes buffer data if required to equalize rates Packets are accepted even when network is busy Delivery may slow down Priorities can be used

Switching Technique:

Switching Technique Station breaks long message into packets Packets sent one at a time to the network Packets handled in two ways Datagram Virtual circuit

Datagram:

Datagram Each packet treated independently Packets can take any practical route Packets may arrive out of order Packets may go missing Up to receiver to re-order packets and recover from missing packets

Datagram Diagram:

Datagram Diagram

Virtual Circuit:

Virtual Circuit Preplanned route established before any packets sent Call request and call accept packets establish connection (handshake) Each packet contains a virtual circuit identifier instead of destination address No routing decisions required for each packet Clear request to drop circuit Not a dedicated path

Virtual Circuit Diagram:

Virtual Circuit Diagram

Virtual Circuits v Datagram:

Virtual Circuits v Datagram Virtual circuits Network can provide sequencing and error control Packets are forwarded more quickly No routing decisions to make Less reliable Loss of a node looses all circuits through that node Datagram No call setup phase Better if few packets More flexible Routing can be used to avoid congested parts of the network

Packet Size:

Packet Size

Circuit v Packet Switching:

Circuit v Packet Switching Performance Propagation delay Transmission time Node delay

Event Timing:

Event Timing

X.25:

X.25 1976 Interface between host and packet switched network Almost universal on packet switched networks and packet switching in ISDN Defines three layers Physical Link Packet

X.25 - Physical:

X.25 - Physical Interface between attached station and link to node Data terminal equipment DTE (user equipment) Data circuit terminating equipment DCE (node) Uses physical layer specification X.21 Reliable transfer across physical link Sequence of frames

X.25 - Link:

X.25 - Link Link Access Protocol Balanced (LAPB) Subset of HDLC see chapter 7

X.25 - Packet:

X.25 - Packet External virtual circuits Logical connections (virtual circuits) between subscribers

X.25 Use of Virtual Circuits:

X.25 Use of Virtual Circuits

Virtual Circuit Service:

Virtual Circuit Service Logical connection between two stations External virtual circuit Specific preplanned route through network Internal virtual circuit Typically one to one relationship between external and internal virtual circuits Can employ X.25 with datagram style network External virtual circuits require logical channel All data considered part of stream

X.25 Levels:

X.25 Levels User data passes to X.25 level 3 X.25 appends control information Header Identifies virtual circuit Provides sequence numbers for flow and error control X.25 packet passed down to LAPB entity LAPB appends further control information

User Data and X.25 Protocol Control Information:

User Data and X.25 Protocol Control Information

Frame Relay:

Frame Relay Designed to be more efficient than X.25 Developed before ATM Larger installed base than ATM ATM now of more interest on high speed networks

Frame Relay Background - X.25:

Frame Relay Background - X.25 Call control packets, in band signaling Multiplexing of virtual circuits at layer 3 Layer 2 and 3 include flow and error control Considerable overhead Not appropriate for modern digital systems with high reliability

Frame Relay - Differences:

Frame Relay - Differences Call control carried in separate logical connection Multiplexing and switching at layer 2 Eliminates one layer of processing No hop by hop error or flow control End to end flow and error control (if used) are done by higher layer Single user data frame sent from source to destination and ACK (from higher layer) sent back

Advantages and Disadvantages:

Advantages and Disadvantages Lost link by link error and flow control Increased reliability makes this less of a problem Streamlined communications process Lower delay Higher throughput ITU-T recommend frame relay above 2Mbps

Protocol Architecture:

Protocol Architecture

Control Plane:

Control Plane Between subscriber and network Separate logical channel used Similar to common channel signaling for circuit switching services Data link layer LAPD (Q.921) Reliable data link control Error and flow control Between user (TE) and network (NT) Used for exchange of Q.933 control signal messages

User Plane:

User Plane End to end functionality Transfer of info between ends LAPF (Link Access Procedure for Frame Mode Bearer Services) Q.922 Frame delimiting, alignment and transparency Frame mux and demux using addressing field Ensure frame is integral number of octets (zero bit insertion/extraction) Ensure frame is neither too long nor short Detection of transmission errors Congestion control functions

User Data Transfer:

User Data Transfer One frame type User data No control frame No inband signaling No sequence numbers No flow nor error control

Required Reading:

Required Reading Stallings Chapter 1 0 ITU-T web site Telephone company web sites (not much technical info - mostly marketing) X.25 info from ITU-T web site Frame Relay forum

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