Body Systems

Category: Education

Presentation Description

Body Systems. Muscles and Bones


Presentation Transcript

Body Systems:

Body Systems




MUSCULAR SYSTEM The human body contains more than 650 individual muscles which are attached to the skeleton, which provides the pulling power for us to move around. The main job of the muscular system is to provide movement for the body. The muscular system consist of three different types of muscle tissues Cardiac skeletal smooth There are two types of muscles in the system involuntary muscles – we can’t control voluntary muscles – we control The heart, or the cardiac muscle, is an example of an involuntary muscle.


CARDIAC MUSCLE The cardiac muscle is the muscle of the brain & heart.


SKELETAL MUSCLE Voluntary The skeletal muscle makes up about 40 % of an adults body weight.


SMOOTH MUSCLE Involuntary (they work even if you are not trying) Much of our internal organs is made up of smooth muscles. They are found in the urinary bladder, gallbladder, arteries, and veins. Throwing up is a good example.

Muscular System :

Muscular System


TRAPEZIUS Flat, triangular muscle that covers the back of the neck and shoulders. Elevates the shoulder.


PECTORALIS Chest muscle Large, Fan-shaped muscle that covers the chest from sternum to the collarbone to the humerus (upper arm). Moves arm across your body.


LATISSIMUS Back muscle. Pelvic bone to upper arm to vertebrae column. Muscle used in swimming or rowing motions.


DELTOID The deltoid is the triangular muscle of the shoulder that forms the rounded flesh of the outer part of the upper arm. It passes up and over the shoulder joint. Its strongest point is the central section, which raises the arm sideways. The front and back parts of the muscle twist the arm.


BICEPS The bicepsin the upper arm, for example, has two origins. This is shown in its name, "biceps," which means "two heads." It is attached to the scapula (shoulderblade) in two places and extends along the front surface of the humerus (upper arm bone).


TRICEPS The triceps brachii has three heads and is the only muscle on the back of the upper arm. It connects the humerus (upper arm bone) and the scapula (shoulder blade) to the ulna (longest of the forearm bones) and is the primary extensor of the elbow.


ABDOMINALS The rectus abdominis is a long, flat muscle that extends vertically the entire length of the abdomen. It is enclosed in a sheath that holds it in position but does not restrict its movements during its contractions.


OBLIQUES The "external abdominal oblique muscle" lies on the sides and front of the abdomen. Both of the abdominal oblique muscles work to compress abdominal contents, assist in the digestive process and in forced expiration.


GLUTEUS The "gluteus maximus" is the strongest muscle in the body and covers a large part of the buttock. The gluteus maximus causes the leg to straighten at the hip when a person walks, runs, or climbs. It is also used to raise the body from a sitting position.


QUADRICEPS A large, fleshy group called the "quadriceps femoris" occupies the front and sides of the thigh and is primary extensor of the knee. They are crucial in walking, running, jumping and squatting.


HAMSTRINGS The four muscles of the posterior thigh flex(bend) the knee, while three of the four extend(straighten) the hip. The hamstrings cross and act upon two joints - the hip and the knee. The hamstrings play a crucial role in many daily activities, such as, walking, running, jumping, and controlling some movement in the trunk.


SARTORIUS The Sartorius muscle is a long thin muscle that runs down the length of the thigh. It is the longest muscle in the human body. Looking at the bottom of one's foot, as if one were checking to see if one had stepped in gum, demonstrates all 4 actions of Sartorius.


GASTROCNEMIUS the gastrocnemius muscle is a very powerful muscle that is in the back part of the lower leg and also called the calf. Along with the soleus muscle it forms the calf muscle.


ACHILLES TENDON The achilles tendon passes behind the ankle. It is the thickest and strongest tendon in the body. It is about 15 cm long, and begins near the middle of the calf, but receives fleshy fibers on its anterior surface, almost to its lower end.


FRONTALIS The Frontalis muscle is thin, of a quadrilateral form, and is located on the front of the head. It has no bony attachments. In the eyebrows, its primary function is to lift them, especially when looking up.






SKULL In humans, the adult skull is normally made up of 22 bones. The skull supports the structures of the faceand protects the head against injury. Functions of the skull include protection of the brain.


CLAVICLE The”collarbone” or clavicle,is a doubly curved short bone that connects the armto the body, located directly above the first rib. The collarboneis the bone over the top of your chest, between your sternum and scapula. Clavicle fractures are extremely common.


SCAPULA The Scapula or shoulder blade , is the bone that connects the humerus with the clavicle.


STERNUM The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone shaped like a capital 'T' located in the center of the chest. It helps to protect the lungs, heartand major blood vessels from physical trauma. The sternum is sometimes cut open to gain access to the thoracic contents when performing surgery.


RIBS The ribs are the long curved bones which form the ribcage. Humans have 24 ribs (12 pairs). The ribcage is separated from the lower abdomen by the diaphragm which controls breathing.


VERTEBRAE The vertebraeis an individual bone in the flexible column that encases and protects the spinal cord, which runs from the base of the cranium down the dorsal side until reaching the pelvis.


COXAE Hip bone. The hip boneis a large, flattened, irregularly shaped bone. It has one of the few ball and socket joints in the body – the so called hip joint. Together with the sacrum and coccyx, it comprises the pelvis.


HUMERUS The humerus is a long bone in the arm that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. Funny bone.


ULNA The ulna is a long bone, prismatic in form. In anatomical position the ulna is placed at the medial side of the forearm closest to the body, parallel with the radius on both arms.


RADIUS The radius is the bone of the forearm that extends from the lateral side of the elbowto the thumbside of the wrist. The radius is a long bone, prism-shaped and slightly curved longitudinally.


CARPALS The carpals is the sole cluster of the bones in the wrist between the radius and ulna and the metacarpals. The bones of the carpalsdo not belong to individual fingers, whereas those of the metacarpus do. The main role of the carpus is to facilitate effective positioning of the hand.


METACARPALS The metacarpus is the intermediate part of the hand skeletonthat is located between the phalanges (bones of the fingers) and the carpals.


PHALANGES The phalanges of the hand are commonly known as the finger bones. There are fourteen in number, three for each finger, and two for the thumb.


FEMUR The femur , or thigh bone , is the most proximal (closest to the body) bone of theleg and is the longest and largest bone in the body. Along with the skull, it is one of the two strongest bones in the body. The average adult male femur is 18.9 length and can support up to 30 times the weight of an adult.


PATELLA The patella , also known as the knee cap , is a thick, circular-triangular bone which articulates with the femur and covers and protects the knee joint.


TIBIA The tibia ,or shinbone, is the larger and stronger of the two bones in the leg below the knee and connects the knee with the ankle bones. In males, its direction is vertical, and parallel with the bone of the opposite side. In females, it has a slightly oblique direction downward and laterally, to compensate for the greater obliqueness of the femur.


FIBULA The fibula or calf bone is a bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below. It is the smaller of the two bones, and, in proportion to its length, the most slender of all the long bones.


TARSALS There are seven tarsal bones in the human body. The talus bone,or ankle bone,is connected to the two bones of the lower leg, the tibia and fibula, to form the ankle joint Together, the talus and calcaneus form the hindfoot.


METATARSALS The metatarsal bones are a group of five long bones in the footlocated between the tarsal bones of the hind- and mid-foot and the phalanges of the toes. Lacking individual names, the metatarsal bones are numbered from the medial side (side of big toe) to the lateral side.


PHALANGES The phalanges of the foot correspond, in number and general arrangement, with those of the hand. There are two in the big toe, and three in each of the other toes.

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