Biology Pregnancy

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PREGNANCY & FETAL DEVELOPMENT

Fertilization:

Fertilization

One Seed + One Egg:

One Seed + One Egg The next stage of development, from month 2 until birth, is the fetal period of development. Life begins when an egg, previously released from one of the two ovaries, merges with just one of the hundreds of millions of sperm cells supplied through the vagina by the male reproductive system. The fertilized egg then descends to the wall of the uterus, where it implants itself to begin gestation . Attachment of the zygote to the wall of the uterus

Fetal life support systems:

Fetal life support systems Placenta Membranes Umbilical Cord

Placenta:

Placenta The placenta is where the blood vessels of the mother and the embryo intertwine but do not join, to facilitate the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste materials between the mother and the embryo. In the placenta, embryonic/fetal blood flows into thousands of tiny projections ( villi ), where exchanges occur between the mother and embryo/fetus. By the 18th to 20th week of pregnancy, the placenta is fully formed.

Amnion:

Amnion Membranous sac which surrounds & protects the embryo . umbilical cord Lifeline between the fetus and the placenta in the uterus Later stage in the development of the umbilical cord Fetus of about eight weeks, enclosed in the amnion.

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Formation and structure of the umbilical cord – By the end of the third week of development the embryo is attached to placenta via a connecting stalk Beginning of the umbilical cord Development of the umbilical cord Development of the yolk sac & the duct

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Cross section of normal umbilical cord Fetus at ~53 days Umbilical cord protects the fetal vessels that connect the placenta & fetus Fetus and placenta from a 17 week gestation

Zygote:

Zygote the initial cell formed when two gamete cells are joined by means of sexual reproduction.

Embryo :

Embryo Embryonic period of development (2 to 8 weeks post-conception), where the zygote is now referred to as the embryo . As the zygote implants and becomes the embryo, the blastocyst begins to form 2 layers:

Layers of the Blastocyst:

Layers of the Blastocyst The inner layer of cells is called the endoderm and eventually develops into the digestive and respiratory systems. The outer layer is divided into 2 parts: ectoderm (outermost layer of cells) mesoderm (middle layer). The ectoderm will develop into the nervous system, sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, etc.) and skin (including nails and hair), while the mesoderm will become the bones, muscles, excretory, circulatory and reproductive systems.

Embryo to Fetus :

Embryo to Fetus At about six or seven days after conception the new organism embeds itself in the lining of the uterus. At this stage it is called an embryo until the seventh week. After that the organism is called a fetus until the time of its birth . fifteen days twenty-one days thirty days thirty-four days six wks eight wks

FETAL DEVELOPMENT:

FETAL DEVELOPMENT Week 1: Getting ready Conception typically occurs about two weeks after the period begins. To calculate the due date, health care provider will count ahead 40 weeks from the start of last period. This means period is counted as part of the pregnancy. FIRST TRIMESTER

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Week 2: Fertilization The sperm and egg unite in the fallopian tube to form a one-celled entity called a zygote . The zygote has 46 chromosomes — 23 from female and 23 from male.

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Soon after fertilization, the zygote will travel down one of the fallopian tubes toward the uterus. At the same time, it will begin dividing rapidly to form a cluster of cells. The inner group of cells will become the embryo. The outer group of cells will become the membranes that nourish and protect it .

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Week 3: Implantation The zygote — by this time made up of about 500 cells — is now known as a blastocyst . When it reaches the uterus, the blastocyst will burrow into the uterine wall for nourishment. The placenta, which will nourish the baby throughout the pregnancy, also begins to form. Pregnancy test will be positive by the end of this week.

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Week 4: The embryonic period begins The fourth week marks the beginning of the embryonic period, when the baby's brain, spinal cord, heart and other organs begin to form. The baby is now 1/25 of an inch long. The embryo is now made of three layers discussed earlier.

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Week 5: Baby's heart begins to beat At week five (three weeks from conception), the baby is 1/17 of an inch long — about the size of the tip of a pen. This week, baby's heart and circulatory system are taking shape. The baby's blood vessels will complete a circuit, and his or her heart will begin to beat. The motion of baby's beating heart is detected with an ultrasound exam. With these changes, circulation begins — making the circulatory system the first functioning organ system.

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5 weeks - Heart begins to beat

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Week 6: The neural tube closes Baby at week 6, growth is rapid this week. Just four weeks after conception, the baby is about 1/8 of an inch long. The neural tube along the baby's back is now closed, and baby's heart is beating with a regular rhythm.

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Basic facial features will begin to appear, including an opening for the mouth and passageways that will make up the inner ear. The digestive and respiratory systems begin to form as well. Small blocks of tissue that will form baby's connective tissue, ribs and muscles are developing along baby's midline. Small buds will soon grow into arms and legs.

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6 weeks - Neutral tube closes

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Week 7: The umbilical cord appears Baby at week 7 (five weeks from conception) Baby is 1/3 of an inch long — a little bigger than the top of a pencil eraser. He or she weighs less than an aspirin tablet. The umbilical cord — the link between the baby and the placenta — is now clearly visible. The cavities and passages needed to circulate spinal fluid in baby's brain have formed, but baby's skull is still transparent.

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The arm bud that sprouted last week now resembles a tiny paddle. Baby's face takes on more definition this week, as a mouth perforation, tiny nostrils and ear indentations become visible. The umbilical cord links the fetus with the placenta.

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7 weeks - Umbilical cord appears

Umbilical Cord:

Umbilical Cord Structure : The basic structure of the cord is simple; it consists of 2 arteries and a vein embedded in Wharton’s jelly covered by 1 or more layers of amniotic epithelium. Length of the cord : Average length of the cord is between 54-61 cm Site of the cord insertion : There is a widespread impression that the cord should insert into the central portion of the placental disc.

Umbilical Cord:

Umbilical Cord

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Week 8: Baby's fingers and toes form Eight weeks into pregnancy, baby is just over 1/2 of an inch long. Baby will develop webbed fingers and toes this week. Wrists, elbows and ankles are clearly visible, and baby's eyelids are beginning to form. The ears, upper lip and tip of the nose also become recognizable. As baby's heart becomes more fully developed, it will pump at 150 beats a minute — about twice the usual adult rate.

Placenta and Embryo at 8 weeks:

Placenta and Embryo at 8 weeks

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Week 9: Movement begins Baby at week 9 (seven weeks from conception) Baby is now nearly 1 inch long and weighs a bit less than 1/8 of an ounce. The embryonic tail at the bottom of baby's spinal cord is shrinking, helping him or her look less like a tadpole and more like a developing person.

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Baby's head — which is nearly half the size of his or her entire body — is now tucked down onto the chest. Nipples and hair follicles begin to form. Baby's pancreas, bile ducts, gallbladder and anus are in place. The internal reproductive organs, such as testes or ovaries, start to develop. Baby may begin moving this week.

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9 weeks - movement begins

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Week 10: Neurons multiply Baby at week 10 (eight weeks from conception) By now, baby's vital organs have a solid foundation. The embryonic tail has disappeared completely, and baby has fully separated fingers and toes. The bones of the baby's skeleton begin to form. This week, baby's brain will produce almost 250,000 new neurons every minute.

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Baby's eyelids are no longer transparent. The outer ears are starting to assume their final form, and tooth buds are forming as well. If baby is a boy, his testes will start producing the male hormone testosterone.

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10 weeks - neurons multiply

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Week 11: Baby's sex may be apparent Baby at week 11 (nine weeks from conception) From now until 20th week of pregnancy — the halfway mark — the baby will increase his or her weight 30 times and will about triple in length. To make sure baby gets enough nutrients, the blood vessels in placenta are growing larger and multiplying. Baby is now officially described as a fetus. Baby's ears are moving up and to the side of the head this week. By the end of the week, baby's external genitalia will develop into a recognizable penis or clitoris and labia majora.

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11 weeks - sex apparent

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Week 12: Baby's fingernails and toenails appear Twelve weeks into pregnancy, baby is nearly 3 inches long and weighs about 4/5 of an ounce. This week marks the arrival of fingernails and toenails. Baby's chin and nose will become more refined as well. Taking care of the baby Healthy lifestyle choices — beginning even before conception — can support baby's development.

SYMPTOMS AND EMOTIONS IN THE FIRST TRIMESTER:

SYMPTOMS AND EMOTIONS IN THE FIRST TRIMESTER The first few months of pregnancy are marked by an invisible – yet amazing – transformation. Body Tender breasts. Bouts of nausea. Unusual fatigue. Dizziness. Increased urination.

FETAL DEVELOPMENT:

As pregnancy progresses, the baby begins to seem more real. Growing abdomen. Can hear the heartbeat at prenatal appointments. Baby is quickly maturing. Two months ago, the baby was simply a cluster of cells. Now, he or she has functioning organs, nerves and muscles. FETAL DEVELOPMENT SECOND TRIMESTER

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Week 13: Baby flexes and kicks Baby can move in a jerky fashion — flexing the arms and kicking the legs. This week, baby might even be able to put a thumb in his or her mouth. Baby's eyelids are fused together to protect his or her developing eyes. Tissue that will become bone is developing around baby's head and within the arms and legs. Tiny ribs may soon appear.

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Week 14: Hormones gear up The effect of hormones becomes apparent this week. For boys, the prostate gland is developing. For girls, the ovaries move from the abdomen into the pelvis. Meconium — which will become baby's first bowel movement after birth — is made in the baby's intestinal tract. By the end of the week, the roof of the baby's mouth will be completely formed.

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Week 15: Skin begins to form Baby at week 15 (13 weeks from conception) Baby's skin starts out nearly transparent. Eyebrows and scalp hair may make an appearance. For babies destined to have dark hair, the hair follicles will begin producing pigment. The bone and marrow that make up the baby's skeletal system are continuing to develop this week. Baby's eyes and ears now have a baby-like appearance, and the ears have almost reached their final position.

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15 weeks - skin begins to form

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Week 16: Facial expressions are possible Baby at week 16 (14 weeks from conception) Baby is between 4 and 5 inches long and weighs a bit less than 3 ounces. He or she can now make a fist. Baby's eyes are becoming sensitive to light. More developed facial muscles may lead to various expressions, such as squinting and frowning. Baby may have frequent bouts of hiccups as well. For girls, millions of eggs are forming in the ovaries.

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16 weeks - facial expressions are possible

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Week 17: Fat accumulates Fat stores begin to develop under baby's skin this week. The fat will provide energy and help keep the baby warm after birth. Week 18: Baby begins to hear As the nerve endings from baby's brain "hook up" to the ears, baby may hear mother’s heart beating, stomach rumbling or blood moving through the umbilical cord. He or she may even be startled by loud noises. Baby can swallow this week, too.

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Week 19: Lanugo covers baby's skin Baby's delicate skin is now protected with a pasty white coating called vernix. Under the vernix, a fine, down-like hair called lanugo covers the baby's body. Baby's kidneys are already producing urine. The urine is excreted into the amniotic sac, which surrounds and protects the baby.

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As the baby's hearing continues to improve, he or she may pick up mother’s voice in conversations — although it's probably hard to hear clearly through the amniotic fluid and protective paste covering the baby's ears. Baby can make reflexive muscle movements.

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Week 20: The halfway point Halfway into pregnancy, the baby is about 6 inches long and weighs about 9 ounces — a little over half a pound. Probably begun to feel the baby's movements. Under the protection of the vernix, baby's skin is thickening and developing layers. Baby now has thin eyebrows, hair on the scalp and well-developed limbs.

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Week 21: Nourishment evolves Although the placenta provides nearly all of the baby's nourishment, and begins to absorb small amounts of sugar from swallowed amniotic fluid. This week, baby's bone marrow starts making blood cells — a job done by the liver and spleen until this point.

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Week 22: Taste buds develop This week, baby weighs in at about 1 pound. Taste buds are starting to form on baby's tongue, and brain and nerve endings can process the sensation of touch. Baby may experiment by feeling his or her face or anything else within reach. For boys, the testes begin to descend from the abdomen this week. For girls, the uterus and ovaries are in place — complete with a lifetime supply of eggs.

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Week 23: Lungs prepare for life outside the womb Baby's lungs are beginning to produce surfactant, the substance that allows the air sacs in the lungs to inflate — and keeps them from collapsing and sticking together when they deflate. "Practice" breathing moves amniotic fluid in and out of the baby's lungs.

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Baby will begin to look more like a newborn as the skin becomes less transparent and fat production kicks into high gear. With intensive medical care, some babies born at 23 weeks can survive. There are serious risks, however, such as bleeding in the brain and impaired vision. Advances in fetal medicine are steadily improving the odds for the tiniest preemies.

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23 weeks - lungs prepare for life outside the womb

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Week 24: Sense of balance develops By now, baby weighs about 1-1/2 pounds. Footprints and fingerprints are forming. Fully developed inner ear, which controls balance. Baby may have a sense of whether he or she is upside-down or right side up in the womb. Notices a regular sleeping and waking cycle. Babies born at 24 weeks have more than a 50 percent chance of survival. The odds get better with every passing week. Still, complications are frequent and serious.

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Week 25: Exploration continues Baby's hands are now fully developed, although the nerve connections to the hands have a long way to go. Exploring the structures inside the uterus may become baby's prime entertainment.

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Week 26: Eyes remain closed Baby weighs between 1-1/2 and 2 pounds. The eyebrows and eyelashes are well formed, and the hair on the baby's head is longer and more plentiful. Baby's eyes are fully developed, they may not open for another two weeks.

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Week 27: Second trimester ends This week marks the end of the second trimester. Baby's lungs, liver and immune system are continuing to mature — and he or she has been growing like a weed. At 27 weeks, baby's length will have tripled or even quadrupled from the 12-week mark. If baby is born this week, the chance of survival is at least 85 percent. Serious complications are still possible.

Use of fetal ultrasound :

Use of fetal ultrasound Confirm the pregnancy and its location. Determine the baby's gestational age. Confirm the number of babies. Evaluate the baby's growth. Study the placenta. Identify possible fetal abnormalities. Investigate bleeding and other worrisome signs or symptoms. Perform other prenatal tests. Ultrasounds aren't recommended simply to determine a baby's sex.

How does ultrasound work? :

How does ultrasound work? During a fetal ultrasound, high-frequency sound waves are directed at the tissues in the abdominal area. These sound waves bounce off the curves and variations in the body. The sound waves are visually translated into a pattern of light and dark areas — creating images of the baby on a monitor and on film.

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Ultrasound scan

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Doppler scan

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Doppler Waves

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Body Larger breasts. Growing belly. Braxton Hicks contractions. Skin changes. Nasal and gum problems. Dizziness. Leg cramps. Heartburn and constipation. Shortness of breath. Vaginal discharge. Bladder and kidney infections.

Normal Vaginal Delivery:

Normal Vaginal Delivery

Consider prenatal testing - Second trimester:

Consider prenatal testing - Second trimester Blood tests. Blood tests may be done to screen for developmental or chromosomal disorders, such as spina bifida or Down syndrome. Ultrasound . Helps to evaluate the baby's growth and development. It also gives an exciting glimpse of the baby. Diagnostic tests . If the results of a blood test or ultrasound are worrisome, recommend a more invasive diagnostic test, such as amniocentesis.

FETAL DEVELOPMENT:

FETAL DEVELOPMENT THIRD TRIMESTER

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Week 28: Baby's eyes open Baby is about 15 inches long and weighs about 2 to 3 pounds. Baby's eyes are beginning to open and close. The color has been established. Eye color may change within the first six months of life — especially if the baby's eyes are blue or gray-blue at birth. Baby is now sleeping for about 20 to 30 minutes at a time. Fetal movement will be most obvious when sitting or lying down.

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Week 29: Movement is more forceful Baby's bones are fully developed, but they're still soft and pliable. This week, baby begins storing iron, calcium and phosphorus. As the baby continues to grow, his or her movements will become more frequent and vigorous. Some of the baby's jabs and punches may even take breath away.

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Week 30: Baby packs on pounds Baby weighs about 3 pounds — but not for long. He or she will gain about 1/2 pound a week until week 37. Baby may practice breathing by moving his or her diaphragm in a repeating rhythm. If baby gets the hiccups, mother feel slight twitches or spasms in the uterus.

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Week 31: Reproductive development continues If the baby is a boy, his testicles are moving from their location near the kidneys through the groin on their way into the scrotum. If the baby is a girl, her clitoris is now relatively prominent. Baby's lungs are more developed, but they're not fully mature. If baby is born this week, he or she will probably need a ventilator to breathe. Complications such as bleeding in the brain are less likely than they were even a few weeks ago.

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Week 32: Downy hair falls off Baby is between 15 and 17 inches long and weighs about 4 to 4-1/2 pounds. Nearly all babies born at this age survive the challenges of premature birth. The layer of soft, downy hair that has covered baby's skin for the past few months — known as lanugo — starts to fall off this week. As space in the uterus becomes more cramped, baby's kicks and other movements may seem less forceful. Check baby's movements from time to time.

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Week 33: Baby detects light Baby's pupils now constrict, dilate and detect light. Baby continues to gain about 1/2 pound a week, and his or her lungs are more completely developed. Babies born this week need extra attention, but almost all will be healthy.

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Week 34: Protective coating gets thicker The pasty white coating that protects the baby's skin — called vernix — gets thicker this week. When baby is born – may see traces of vernix firsthand, especially under the arms, behind the ears and in the groin area. The soft, downy hair that covered the baby under the vernix for the past few months is now almost completely gone.

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Week 35: Rapid growth continues Baby continues to pack on the pounds and store fat all over his or her body. The crowded conditions inside the uterus may make it harder for the baby to give a punch, but probably feel lots of stretches, rolls and wiggles.

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Week 36: Baby can suck Baby is between 16 and 19 inches long and weighs about 6 to 6-1/2 pounds. Recent fat deposits have rounded out the baby's face, and the baby's powerful sucking muscles are ready for action. To prepare for birth, baby may descend into the head down position.

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Week 37: Baby is full-term By the end of this week, baby will be considered full-term. As fat continues to accumulate, baby's body will slowly become rounder. Week 38: Organ function continues to improve Baby weighs nearly 7 pounds. His or her brain and nervous system are working better every day. This developmental process will continue through childhood and adolescence.

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Week 39: Placenta provides antibodies Baby has enough fat under the skin to hold his or her body temperature. The placenta continues to supply the baby with antibodies that will help fight infection the first six months after birth. Breast-feed provides additional antibodies. Week 40: Due date arrives Baby may be 19 to 21 inches long and weigh 7 to 8 pounds.

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Taking care of the baby Pregnancy is nearly over, healthy lifestyle choices remain important. Remember these simple do's and don'ts: Do: Take a prenatal vitamin. Maintain a healthy weight. Exercise regularly. Eat healthfully. Manage stress and any chronic health conditions. Regular prenatal checkups — probably once a week for the last month of pregnancy.

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Don't: Smoke. Drink alcohol. Take over-the-counter medications. Enjoy the final days of pregnancy.

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Body. Backaches. Swelling. Shortness of breath. Heartburn. Spider veins, varicose veins and hemorrhoids. Stretch marks. Continued breast growth. Frequent urination. Braxton Hicks contractions. Weight gain.

Occurrence of Twins:

Occurrence of Twins

Twins:

Twins

IVF (In Vitro Fertilization):

IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) The process involves hormonally controlling the ovulatory process, removing ova (eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a fluid medium. The fertilised egg (zygote) is then transferred to the patient's uterus with the intent to establish a successful pregnancy.

Surrogacy:

S urrogacy an arrangement in which a woman carries and delivers a child for another couple or person. This woman, the surrogate mother, may be the child's genetic mother (called traditional surrogacy), or she may be biologically unrelated to the child (called gestational surrogacy).

Hysterical Pregnancy:

Hysterical Pregnancy the appearance of clinical and/or subclinical signs and symptoms associated with pregnancy when the person or animal is not pregnant.

Caesarean:

Caesarean is a surgical procedure in which one or more incisions are made through a mother's abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies, or, rarely, to remove a dead fetus.

Diseases:

Diseases

Ectopic pregnancy:

Ectopic pregnancy is a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo implants outside the uterine cavity.

Parasitic Twin:

Parasitic Twin the result of the processes that produce vanishing twins and conjoined twins, and may represent a continuum between the two.

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