Female Reproductive System

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Female Reproductive System:

Female Reproductive System

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The human female reproductive system is a series of organs primarily located inside of the body and around the pelvic region of a female that contribute towards the reproductive process.


Functions To produce egg ( oogenesis ) To receive sperm and provide a place where fertilization of the egg by the sperm can take place To provide for the development of embryo To produce hormones to control the development of secondary sex characteristics, such as pubic hair, breasts and the feminine form.


Organs Ovaries Fallopian Tube Uterus (womb) Vagina Vulva

Other Organs & Parts:

Other Organs & Parts Uterus wall Uterus cavity Cervix Pubic bone Urethra


Ovaries Are about 3.25-cm long, located on each side of the pelvic cavity. These glands are designed for germinating the reproductive cells and producing the female hormones. At birth, they contain around 200,000 – 400,000 unripe, immature eggs, which are also called primary oocytes .

Fallopian Tube:

Fallopian Tube Also known as oviducts , uterine tubes , and salpinges are two very fine tubes lined with ciliated epithelia, leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus, via the utero -tubal junction. In non-mammalian vertebrates, the equivalent structures are the oviducts.


Uterus It is a pear-shaped mass of solid muscle with a small flat, central cavity lined with a soft, moist membrane. The uterus consists of a body and a cervix. The cervix protrudes into the vagina. The uterus is held in position within the pelvis by condensations of endopelvic fascia, which are called ligaments.


Vagina Is the channel leading from the uterus to the external opening of the genital canal. Functions: To admit the male penis into the female body to let the semen enter. To serve as an important factor in the development and birth of an infant as the sperm in the semen enters the egg and fertilizes it. To serve as canal through which the baby passes during birth.


Vulva External parts of the female genitalia. Parts: Labia majora Mons pubis Labia minora Clitoris Vaginal Opening Perineum Urethra Vestibule Introitus Anus

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Labia Majora - are two prominent longitudinal cutaneous folds that extend downward and backward from the mons pubis to the perineum. Labia Minora -  also known as the inner labia , inner lips , or nymphae , are two flaps of skin on either side of the human vaginal opening, situated between the labia majora . Mons Pubis -  also known as the mons veneris or simply the mons , is the adipose tissue lying above the pubic bone of adult females, anterior to the pubic symphysis . Clitoris -  the visible button-like portion is located near the anterior junction of the labia minora , above the opening of the urethra and vagina. Perineum -  It is a diamond-shaped area on the inferior surface of the trunk which includes the anus and, in females, the vagina. Vestibule -  is a part of the vulva between the labia minora into which the urethral opening and the vaginal opening open. Introitus - is an entrance that goes into a canal or hollow organ. The vaginal orifice is an introitus .

Accessory Organs:

Accessory Organs The Breasts , or mammary glands, are the principal accessory structure in women. It is the part w hich in a female contains the mammary gland that secretes milk used to feed infants.

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Each breast is composed of 25 or more lobes of glands, each lobe with its duct leading to the nipple . The nipple is an erectile structure having 25 small openings and surrounded by a darkened are, the areola .

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Both men and women develop breasts from the same embryological tissues. However, at puberty, female sex hormones, mainly estrogen , promote breast development, which does not occur in men, due to the higher amount of testosterone. As a result, women's breasts become far more prominent than those of men.

Parts of Breast:

Parts of Breast Chest wall Pectoralis muscles Lobules Nipple Areola Milk duct Fatty tissue Skin

Ovarian and Uterine Cycles:

Ovarian and Uterine Cycles The human ovaries usually produce only one egg during a regular 28-day cycle of activity. The mass of ovarian cells, producing an ovum or egg, forms a follicle. The cycle is controlled by FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), a hormone produced in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.

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As the cycle continues and after the ovum has been discharged, the follicle turns yellow and forms the corpus luteum . This yellow body formation is controlled by an other hormone of the pituitary gland – LH or luteinizing hormone. The corpus luteum produces another hormone, progesterone . This hormone brings about effects on secondary sex characteristics primarily on breasts. During pregnancy, progesterone causes breast enlargement and growth of mucus lining of uterus.

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If an ovum is not fertilized in the Fallopian tube, the corpus luteum degenerates, progesterone productions stops, and the inside membrane of the uterus breaks down. The breakdown and discharge of the soft uterine tissues and the unfertilized egg is called menstruation .


Menstruation Menstruation is a woman's monthly bleeding, also called a period. When you menstruate, your body is shedding the lining of the uterus (womb). Menstrual blood flows from the uterus through the small opening in the cervix , and passes out of the body through the vagina . Most menstrual periods last from three to five days.


Menarche The first menstrual discharge of blood from the vagina. Menarche also signals the beginning of cyclic changes in the ovary. Oocytes that were unripe or untouched are now brought up to become active.

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Endometriosis A condition involving colonization of the abdominal/pelvic cavity with islands of endometrial tissue. Endometrium is the lining layer of the uterus which sloughs off with each menstruation. If endometrial tissue flushes up the uterine tube and spills into the abdomen, the clots of endometrial tissue can attach to abdominal organs such as the bladder, rectum, intestinal loops and then cycle along with the uterus in response to monthly changes in ovarian hormones.

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID):

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) although males have a closed abdominal cavity, the female abdominal cavity has a direct anatomical path from the outside world via the female reproductive tract. Bacteria can make their way up the vagina, through the uterus, and traverse the uterine tubes which open into the abdominal cavity. Inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity, the peritoneum, causes abdominal pain. Chronic Inflammation of the uterine tubes can occlude them resulting in infertility.

Prolapsed uterus :

Prolapsed uterus The uterus is almost directly above the vagina. In fact, the cervix, the neck region, of the uterus extends into the upper vagina. Ligaments hold the uterus in proper position so that it does not prolapse or herniate into the vagina. Severe prolapse can result in the uterine cervix protruding from the vaginal opening. Surgical repair is typically required to restore the uterus to its proper anatomical position.

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