SKELETAL SYSTEM=jarrel & sam 2-james

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SKELETAL SYSTEM:

SKELETAL SYSTEM

Introduction to Human Skeletal System: :

Skeletal system is the system of bones, associated cartilages and joints of human body. Together these structures form the human skeleton. Skeleton can be defined as the hard framework of human body around which the entire body is built. Joints are very important because they make the hard and rigid skeleton allow different types of movements at different locations. If the skeleton were without joints, no movement would have taken place and the significance of human body; no more than a stone. Introduction to Human Skeletal System:

Components of Human Skeleton::

Components of Human Skeleton: Three main components: Bones Cartilages Joints

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Bones: is a tough and rigid form of connective tissue . Cartilages: is also a form of connective tissue but is not as tough and rigid as bone. The main difference in the cartilage and bone is the mineralization factor . Bones are highly mineralized with calcium salts while cartilages are not. Joints: Joint is a junction between two or more bones or cartilages. It is a device to permit movements in a hard and rigid skeleton.

Bones::

Bones: An infant may have from 300-350 bones at birth . Some of these fuse together as the infant grows(most obvious examples are in the skull, sacrum and hip bones) the number of overall bones drops to the 206 bones that most adults have.

Two Division of Human Skeleton:

Axial Skeleton - Axis of the body 80 bones skull, ribs, breastbone & the vertebral column(backbone) Appendicular Skeleton skeleton of appendages of human body . 126 bones All the bones attached to the Axial skeleton Two Division of Human Skeleton

Axial Skeleton:

Skull: Skull is that part of human skeleton that forms the bony framework of the head . It consists of 22 different bones that are divided into two groups the cranium and bones of face . Vertebral Column: - It is a flexible column of vertebrae, connecting the trunk of human body to the skull and appendages. 33 vertebrae which are divided into 5 regions : Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, and Coccygeal . 7 cervical vertebrae in the neck. 12 thoracic vertebrae in the upper back corresponding to each pair of ribs. 5 lumbar vertebrae in the lower back. 5 sacral vertebrae which are fused together to form 1 bone called the sacrum. 4 coccygeal vertebrae that are fused together to form the coccyx or tailbone. Axial Skeleton

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Rib Cage: bony cage enclosing vital human organs formed by the sternum and ribs. 12 pairs of ribs that are divided into three groups: True ribs, False ribs, and Floating ribs .

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Cranial and Facial Bones: 22 bones The cranial bones consist of the bones in the top of the skull. the facial bones consist of the bones that make up your face.

Appendicular Skeleton:

Shoulder Girdle: It attaches the upper limb to body trunk and is formed by two bones: clavicle and scapula. Skeleton of Upper limb: The skeleton of each upper limb consists of 30 bones. Pelvic Girdle: There are two pelvic girdles (one for each lower limb) but unlike the pectoral girdles, they are jointed with each other at symphysis pubis. Skeleton of Lower limb: - The skeleton of each lower limb consists of 30 bones. These bones are; Femur, Tibia, Patella, Tarsals (7), Metatarsals (5), Phalanges (14). Appendicular Skeleton

Types of Bones::

Long Bones Flat Bones Irregular Bones Sesamoid Bones Types of Bones:

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Long Bones: Found on the logs and arms Hollow Their length exceeds our width Thickest toward the middle Slightly curved at the shaft area

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Flat Bones: ribs, breastbone, pelvis, bones of the skull & shoulder bones (scapula) Thon in appearance Protects the lungs and heart

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Short Bones: -hands and feet - Supports the weight and allows for many small movements

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Irregular Bones: Irregular in shape wrist(carpals), ankle( tarsals ) & the vertebrae

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Sesamoid Bones Small and rounded in appearance Assist in the proper functioning of the muscles Patella & knee cap are the largest sesamoid bone

Bone Structure:

Ligaments: Bands of special tissue connects bones to bones Bones: have their own nerves and blood vessels,and they do various jobs such as storing body minerals. The holes allow blood vessels and nerves to enter and exit the bone. Bone Structure

3 bone Diseases:

…………………………………………………………………………….. 3 bone Diseases

Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva:

Fibrodysplasia O ssificans Progressiva

Melorheostosis:

…. Melorheostosis

Fibrous Dysplasia:

Fibrous Dysplasia